This study examined how intentions interacted with desires to predict the emotional consequences, and lead to the conventional judgments of protagonists' behaviors. Forty five children (5-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) and 15 undergraduate students were presented with situations in which desires were satisfied with intentions or without intentions, and desires were not satisfied with intentions or without intentions. The results showed that the subjects attributed positive emotions to the protagonists whose desires were satisfied, and negative emotions to them whose desires were not satisfied. The emotional predictions were influenced by intentions as well. They more frequently attributed positive emotions to the protagonists who intended to fulfill their desires than the protagonists who do not have such intentions, and attributed negative emotions to the protagonists who could not satisfy their desires even though they intended to fulfill them. The conventional judgments were also influenced by intentions. The subjects more negatively evaluated the protagonists' acts that violated the rules with intentions than without intentions. They evaluated negatively the intended violation even though the protagonists did not end up with violating the rules. The results were discussed in terms of the relation between theory of mind and deontic reasoning.
This study examined the relationship of the achievement of developmental tasks, discrepancies and happiness with 612 adults of thirties. For this purpose seven developmental tasks identified by Jang(2008) and Developmental Task Questionnaire were used. Results revealed the proportion of achieved status was higher than that of not achieved status in all tasks and women's proportion of achieved status was higher than men‘s proportion of that. While women had higher subjective importance in one task than men, men had higher subjective importance in two tasks than women. Generally the achiever of developmental tasks were disposed to pereive more importantly developmental tasks. Two-way ANOVA revealed both of achieved status of developmental task and discrepancies were effective variables for predicting happiness, life satisfaction and self-esteem.
This study aims at examining the effect of juveniles' experience of being abused and locus of control, empathic ability on their school adjustment, and verifying the agential effect of locus of control and empathic ability in the process that abuse is affecting school adjustment. For this purpose, the researcher measured abused experience using a measurement tool for experience of being abused and neglected for 198 male and 184 female students in middle schools in Seoul. And measured peer relationship and school attachment using the measurement for school adjustment, and the empathic ability using Interpersonal Reactivity Index(IRI), and the level of locus of internal-external control using the Locus of Control Scale. Analysis of collected data revealed that abused experience, locus of control, and empathic ability had significant effects on peer relationship and school attachment. With regard to the mediation effect in the relationship between abused experience and school adjustment, locus of control and empathic ability completely mediated abused experience and peer relationship, and a locus of control and empathic ability partially mediated abused experience and school attachment.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics(occurrence, error, error causation) of Korean verbal endings between the ten 5-6year 'Korean-English' simultaneous bilinguals children and ten Korean monolingual children. Mostly, results showed that there were significant difference between two groups in the occurrence, error, error causation of verbal endings. 1) Bilingual children showed not significantly a lower frequency based on the occurrence rates of verbal endings per utterance. But Bilingual children showed significantly a lower occurrence rates in verbal ending`s variety per utterance(p<.05). 2) Bilingual children showed significantly a higher error rates(p<.05). 3) In terms of error causation, bilingual children appeared significantly higher score in phonological, semantic causes and monolingual children in syntactic one. Therefore bilingual children's verbal ending proficiency are not just a sum of two monolingual children one.
The purpose of this study was to produce a preliminary Korean version of the Receptive Communication Scale of the Bayley-III and to obtain the base data on the standardization of Korean Bayley-III. The original Receptive Communication Scale was translated English to Korean, and than inappropriate items for Korean children's were removed or modified, and new items were added. Participants were 246 infants and toddlers between 1-42months in Seoul and the suburbs. The Results of the study are as follows: First, As a result of analysing the degree of item difficulty, it was shown that the item arrangement was nearly similar to the original scale's except for a few cases. And it was identified that additional new items could assess accurately Korean children's receptive language development. Second, As a result of the analysis of reliability, Cronbach's α coefficient(.984), test-retest reliability(.977) and inter-scorer reliability(.999) was showed a strong correlation. Third, the content validity was checked for adequateness of original items and modified or added items in this study. The 2 domestic language scales had high correlations with Bayley-III receptive language scale respectively.
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of ASSQ and the relationship among ASSQ, theory
of mind, executive function, and social skills for age of 6-9 children. The participants of this study are 54
normal children and 57 children with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. The data of ASSQ,
theory of mind, executive function and social skills are analyzed and compared to validate the ASSQ as a
screening assessment instrument. One way ANCOVAs with age and IQ as covariates to compare the
differences between normal and high functioning autism spectrum group, Pearson Correlation(partial
correlation) and Multiple Regressions are conducted. The results showed the high functioning autism
spectrum disorder group is higher in ASSQ, and lower in secondary false belief task and advanced
theory of mind and executive function than the normal control group. They also showed that the autistic
group is higher in problem behaviors and lower in social skills than the control group.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the pragmatic contexts in which nouns and verbs are used in speech to young children with analyzed the distribution of nouns and verbs in maternal and child speech and maternal speech acts. Participants were 24 mother-infant dyads. Their interactions in two contexts(toy-play and book-reading) were videotaped in their home and videotaped interactions were transcribed. The results of this study are as follows. First, mother's speech data show that mother focused verbs in toy-play contexts and nouns in book-reading contexts. But, infants speak significantly more noun types and noun tokens than verb types and tokens in both contexts. Therefore, present study support early predominance of nouns pattern. Second, When mothers elicit and reinforce children's verbal responses, they are far more likely to encourage the production of nouns than verbs. On the other hand, when mothers elicit and reinforce children's behavioral responses, they request children to perform actions more often than to identify objects. Moreover, mothers more often prompt children to produce an action than to produce a verb. This patterns appear regardless of ages and contexts. Speech acts analysis from the viewpoints of pragmatics indicate that expressive vocabulary analysis can not explain infant's overall language development. After all, this study's findings suggested that mother-infant's function-specific interaction play an important role in infant's language development.