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2010, Vol.23, No.1

  • 1.

    Relationships of Poverty, Subjective Health and Life Satisfaction in Elderly Women

    Hwee-Sook Jang | 2010, 23(1) | pp.1~15 | number of Cited : 18
    This study examined when and how the poverty of elderly women was impoverished with 30 poor elderly women through interview. Also whether there was a difference in subjective health and life satisfaction between poor elderly women(n=30) and comparative ones(n=30), whether economic status, subjective health and life satisfaction were related each other, and whether the relationship of economic status and life satisfaction was mediated by subjective health. Results revealed most of the poor women were already impoverished before old age and only one woman impoverished after bereavement of partner in seventies. Poor group had lower level of subjective health and life satisfaction than comparative group. Elderly women with higher economic status experienced higher subjective health and life satisfaction and ones with higher subjective health experienced higher life satisfaction than women with lower ones. Also The relationship between economic status and life satisfaction was mediated by subjective health.
  • 2.

    Moderating Effects of Ego-Resilience and Social Support in Relations among Academic Achievement Pressure, Perceived Academic Stress and Internalization Problems in Boys and Girls

    박서연 | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2010, 23(1) | pp.17~32 | number of Cited : 74
    This study was to investigate the moderating effects of ego-resilience and social support on the perceived academic stress and internalization problems resulting from academic achievement pressure. 379 elementary school boys and girls of the fifth and sixth grades were asked to complete a variety of questionnaires. On the regression analyses, it showed differential patterns of moderating effects depending on sex. The moderating effects of ego-resilience and social support on the perceived academic stress was found in boys, but not in girls. Also sex difference was found on the internalization problem caused by perceived academic stress, the moderating effect of social support on internalization problem was found in boys, while the moderating effect of ego-resilience on internalization problem was found in girls. The result suggests that both ego-resilience and social support may play protective factors in boys but only ego-resilience in girls.
  • 3.

    The Change in the Ratio of Gesture Utilization in 2-3 Years Old Children - Focusing on Iconic Gestures -

    안소정 | BangHeeJeong | Lee, Soon-Hang | 2010, 23(1) | pp.33~50 | number of Cited : 6
    The object of this research is to observe the change in the ratio of gesture utilization by categorizing children by age regarding 24 to 27 months old children through accurate detailed categorization of gestures. The results of this study are as follows. First, instrumental gestures and conventional gestures decreased as the age of children increased, and such gestures were used the most frequently among group 1 group. Pointing did not show any significant changes regarding age, but it was the most frequent gestures. The utilization of iconic gestures increased significantly according to children's age, and they were the most frequently used among group 4. Second, the change of the frequency of utilization of iconic gestures according to language development was significant, and language development explains the frequency of iconic gestures better than the sole factor of age. This research significantly explains the change in gesture utilization of children by accurate detailed categorization of gestures and strongly supports the relationship between iconic gestures and language development.
  • 4.

    Parental Control of Adolescents' Personal Domain and Psychological Symptoms

    박영신 | 2010, 23(1) | pp.51~65 | number of Cited : 13
    The relationships between parental control over the problems in personal, conventional and overlapping domains and adolescents' psychological symptoms were examined. Third graders in middle school and first and second graders in high school completed a parental authority index and Korean Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. In the parental authority index, students evaluated two types of control, ideal and perceived control. Ideal control indicates who (they or parents) should control the problems in personal, conventional and overlapping domains whereas perceived control indicates who would control the problems in real world. In Korean Symptom Checklist, they reported nine psychological symptoms. Adolescents indicated that they should and would control over problems from personal domain and that their parents should and would control over problems from conventional domain. Perceived parental controls for personal domain only showed significant positive correlations with adolescents' internalizing symptoms in high school students. However, there were no associations between parental control of conventional issues and psychological symptoms.
  • 5.

    The Effect of the Income and Residential District on the Children's Creativity

    EunHyun Sung | kim noo ree | 2010, 23(1) | pp.67~84 | number of Cited : 18
    This study aims to study the effect of the income and residential district on the children's creative personality, product and family environment. 310 elementary school students who live in the urban(151) and rural (159) areas participated in this study. They took tests of creative environment, personality and product. Also their parent responded to the questionnaire on socio-economic environment. We analysed the data through Pearson correlation, one way ANOVA, t-test, and Barron & Kenny's mediation model by using SPSS 14.0 and verified the adequacy of mediation model by using Amos 5.0. The results are as follows. First, there are significant correlations between creative personality, creative product and creative environment. Second, the higher children's scores on creative personality, product and family environment are, the higher the family income is. Third, the scores of children living in the urban area on creative personality, product and family environment are higher than those living in the rural area. Finally income and residential district separately influence creative personality through creative family environment. This result suggests that efforts to form creative family environment can overcome negative effects on creativity development due to income level or residential district.
  • 6.

    The Predictors of Children's Emotional Regulation and Empathy at Age 5: A Longitudinal Approach

    이지연 | Keumjoo Kwak | 2010, 23(1) | pp.85~102 | number of Cited : 27
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the variables that mothers and children contribute to children's emotional regulation and empathy in early childhood. A total of 166 mothers and their children participated in this study. Mother's parenting attitude(PARQ) and child's development (K-CDI) at age 3, and mother's parenting attitude(PARQ) and child's emotional regulation(ERC) and empathy(EQ-C) at age 5 were measured. Results are as follows: First, mother's attitude had different short- or long-term effects on children's emotional development. It was mother's indifference at age 3 and mother's warmth and control at age 5 that predicted child's emotional regulation and empathy at age 5. Second, child's language ability at age 3 predicted child's emotional regulation at age 5, and child's self-help ability at age 3 predicted child's empathy at age 5. The study explored the interrelatedness of developmental domains and the effects of parenting on children's emotional regulation and empathy.
  • 7.

    Korean Children Use Case Markers to Learn the Meanings of Novel Nouns

    Yoon-ha Lee | Song, Hyun-joo | 2010, 23(1) | pp.103~117 | number of Cited : 8
    In Korean, some spatial terms, including wui [on], an [in] are lexicalized as nouns which are typically marked with locative case markers such as “-ey.” We examined whether Korean 3- and 4-year-olds interpret novel nouns followed by “-ey” as referring to spatial relations. During familiarization, the children watched the videos of spatial relations between 2 objects and heard sentences including novel nouns following either a locative case marker ‘ey’ or a nominative case marker ‘ka.’ During test, children saw either a scene about novel spatial relations between the same objects(object match) or a scene about the same spatial relations between a new object and the same background object(location match). They were asked to choose an event including the referent of the novel nouns. Four-year-olds more often chose the location match when the novel word was followed by the locative case marker. Three-year-olds showed the same pattern only when there was an additional phase in which positive and negative examples of the novel word referent were contrasted.. These results suggest that Korean 3- and 4-year-olds use morphological cues when figuring out the meaning of nouns.
  • 8.

    Sex and Major Differences in Mindreading Abilities, Empathizing, and Systemizing Traits: Data from Korean College Students

    CHOI HYEON OK | Ghim, Hei-rhee | 2010, 23(1) | pp.119~139 | number of Cited : 17
    According to Baron-Cohen(2003), differences between male and female, and between science and humanities students could be explained by two psychological dimensions: empathizing and systemizing. Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems, and held to be our most powerful way of understanding and predicting the law-governed inanimate universe. Empathizing is the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion, and held to be our most powerful way of understanding and predicting social world. In this study, sex and major differences of mindreading abilities, empathizing and systemizing were tested with Korean college students. 244 college students in the sciences major and the humanities major were given TOM tasks and self-report questionnaires assessing the systemizing and empathizing tendencies: SQ and EQ. There were significant sex and major differences on the mindreading scores but not on the empathizing quotient, and significant sex differences on the systemizing quotient. On TOM task, females and humanities students scored significantly higher than males and science students, but on the SQ, male students scored significantly higher than female students. In addition, more females and humanities students were categorized as the “empathizer” in whom empathizing is stronger than systemizing, but more males and science students were as the “systemizer” in whom systemizing is stronger than empathizing. there The results indicated that males and the individuals in the sciences were more systemizing-driven than emapthizing-driven, whereas females and the individuals in humanities were emapthizing-driven than systemizing-driven. In addition, the systemizers scored significantly higher than the empatizer on the AQ, suggesting that people with high systemizing have higher levels of autistic features.