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2010, Vol.23, No.2

  • 1.

    The Effects of Achievement of Developmental Tasks in Adolescence on 5-factor Personality Characteristics, Self-esteem and Happiness

    Hwee-Sook Jang | 2010, 23(2) | pp.1~17 | number of Cited : 26
    This study examined how many developmental tasks based on Havighurst's ones in adolescence were achieved and whether there was sex difference in the levels of achievement of developmental tasks with 515 male and female adolescents. Also it was examined whether there were differences in 5-factor personality characteristics, self-esteem and happiness according to the achievement level of developmental tasks. As 6 tasks among 17 developmental tasks had highest proportion in 'already achieved,' 8 tasks in 'just starting' and 3 tasks in 'not yet'. High school period was the beginning time for achievement of typical developmental tasks of adolescence. Interestingly male adolescents tended to be maturer than female counterparts in 4 tasks among 17 developmental tasks. Also it was found higher group in achievement levels of developmental tasks had higher extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem and happiness than lower group in achievement levels.
  • 2.

    The Investigation on the School Adjustment of the Children in the First Grade: Short-term and Longitudinal Approach

    Kim Sucheung | Keumjoo Kwak | 2010, 23(2) | pp.19~37 | number of Cited : 41
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that may affect early school adjustment and their direct and indirect causal relationships. The subjects were 54 triplets of 6 year old children, their mothers, and classroom teachers. During children's age at 6, the problem behaviors and parenting attitudes were measured using mothers' reports. The 7 year old children's social competence was measured using direct interviews and school adjustment was measured via teachers' reports. Correlation, simple and stepwise regression, and path analyses were conducted based on these reports. The results showed that preschoolers' problem behaviors predicted school adjustment of the first graders the most. The mother's negative parenting attitudes explained most well the children's problem behaviors best predicted children's social competence. The internalizing behaviors were negatively related with social competence and its lower-order dimensions of sociability and interpersonal adjustment. Externalizing behaviors showed negative relationships with school adjustment and its lower-order school life adjustment, academic performance, and peer adjustment. The direct and indirect paths analyses of these factors showed that the indirect negative effects of parenting attitudes on school adjustment was mediated by problem behaviors.
  • 3.

    Perceived Home Economic Status Change, Mesosystem Patterns, and Emotional Profile among Korean Adolescents

    Kyoung-Suk Moon | Jong Baeg Kim | 2010, 23(2) | pp.39~56 | number of Cited : 5
    The aim of this study was to investigate the emotional profile among adolescents experiencing home economic status change. Total of 388 junior high and high school students were participated in this study. The questionnaire used in this study included items asking the experience of home economic status change over the past one year, the degree of emotional support from microsystems(family, peers, and teachers), and mood state. Three mesosystem patterns have been identified from the cluster analysis based on the support from microsystems: secure, uninvolving, and insecure. Adolescents of secure mesosystem have relatively healthy mood state under economic hardship. On the other hand, adolescents of uninvolving and insecure mesosystem showed similar mood state suggesting that not having strong emotional bond with at least one of microsystems or extremely weak emotional bond with teachers lead to negative mood profile under the condition of home economic status change. The importance of emotional bond with microsystems were discussed based on research results.
  • 4.

    The Effect of Mother's Reactions to Child's Negative Emotion on Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness and Belief about Emotional Expression

    노지영 | 정윤경 | 2010, 23(2) | pp.57~71 | number of Cited : 41
    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of mother's reactions to child's negative emotional expression on child's Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness, and Belief about Emotional expression. For the ends, children aged from 13 to 15 were asked to complete Questionnaire including AEQ(King & Emmons, 1990), BEE(Haeyoun Choi & Kyunghwan Min, 2005), CCNES(Fabes, Eisenberg & Bernzwing, 1990). The results of the study are as follows. First, mother's reactions to child's negative emotions are significantly related to child's ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and to their belief on emotional expression. Second, all three types of mothers' nonsupportive reaciton(Distress reactions, Punitive responses, Minimization responses) have effect on children's Ambivalence and negative belief about emotional expression. Finally, mothers who were highly perceived in all three nonsupportive reaction type have children who are most high in Ambivalence and in negative belief about emotional expression.
  • 5.

    The Differential Influences of Coping Styles of Life Regrets on the Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Kyung Ryu | 2010, 23(2) | pp.73~92 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to examine the differential influences of various coping styles of life regrets on the SWB(subjective well-being) in old age. 300 older adults were participated in this study. The relationships among the frequency of life regrets experiences, the intensity of life regrets-related negative emotions experiences, SWB, geriatric depression were analysed. In results, the frequency of life regrets experiences and intensity of negative emotion experiences were negatively related with SWB but positively related with geriatric depression. The scale of measuring coping styles(adaptive goal disengagement, engagement of new goals, rumination of regrets) was developed in this study. Then, to examine differential influences of coping styles, the frequency of life regrets, the intensity of negative emotional experiences on the SWB in old age, hierarchical regression analysis was performed. Consequently, the frequency of life regrets, regret-related intrusive thoughts coping style had negative effects but engagement of new goal coping style had positive effects on the SWB of older men. In older women's case, the frequency of life regrets, intensity of negative emotion, regret-related intrusive thoughts coping style had negative effects but engagement of new goal coping style had positive effects on the SWB. However, adaptive goal disengagement coping style had no significant effect on the SWB although older adults used it very often. The important meanings of effective and coping styles and the psychological adaptation in old age were discussed.
  • 6.

    A Longitudinal Study of Continuities and Changes in Emotional Expressiveness, and Mothers' Influence on Children's Expressiveness

    SONG, HANA | Choi,Kyoung-Sook | 2010, 23(2) | pp.93~107 | number of Cited : 9
    This study examined continuities and changes in children's and mothers' emotional expressiveness. Maternal influence on children's expressiveness, and mediation effect of mothers' overcontorolling behaviors were also examined. Sixty two children and their mothers were observed in a free play, a mother-child interaction, and a task settings at their age 5(time1) and 6(time2). Children's and mothers' behaviors were videotaped and rated by two coders in terms of positive and negative expressiveness. Results showed that children's negative expressivness at time 1 was significantly related to those at time 2. Mother expressiveness at time 1 and time 2 was also correlated with each of emotions. In addition, mothers' positive expressiveness directly affected children's positive expressiveness, but mothers' negative expressiveness was not directly associated with children's negative expressiveness. Rather, mothers' overcontrolling behavior mediated the relations between mothers and children's negative expressiveness. Discussion included continuities in emotional temperament and the paths of socialization of emotion by mothers through modeling and direct reactions.
  • 7.

    Development of Understanding the Relationship between Information Source and Certainty

    Youngon Choi | 이화인 | 장나영 | 2010, 23(2) | pp.109~124 | number of Cited : 13
    Evidentials refer to a set of expressions that mark the source of information or knowledge (e.g., direct observation, hearsay or inference), and inform about certainty of the conveyed information or knowledge. The present study examined when Korean children begin to understand the relationship between information source marking and its related information certainty. In a detective game task, 3-6-year-old Korean-speaking children and adults were asked to determine whose information is more reliable between the two statements reported about a theft that occurred in a store. The results showed that it is not until 6 years of age that children begin to grasp the relationship between information source marking and information certainty. However, Korean children showed superior performance when the sources were marked by lexical items (e.g., hear vs. see) than the grammaticalized items (e.g., sentence-ending morphemes). These results were in striking contrast with 5-year-old English-learning children who completely failed to do so in a similar task. Furthermore, the child's performance was correlated with their source monitoring ability as well as working memory span, indicating that these cognitive abilities may underlie the development of evidentials.
  • 8.

    The Development of Implicit and Explicit Race Attitudes in Korean in the Multi-cultural Age

    BangHeeJeong | 노경란 | 정수진 | 2010, 23(2) | pp.125~140 | number of Cited : 18
    This study examined how the explicit and implicit race attitudes differ according to age and sex from the developmental perspective in Koreans. Elementary school students(first grade:117, fourth grade:117), middle school students(138), high school students(138), and college school students(122) completed Implicit Association Tests (Korean-White/Korean-Black/ Korean-Southeast Asian IATs), and Explicit Preference Test. The effects of age and sex on and implicit and explicit attitudes toward Korean/White/Black/Southeast Asian were examined with 5(age)× 2(sex)× 3(race) three-way MANOVA. using mixed model. The results demonstrated that as age increases, in-group preference continued throughout the age, without sex effect. In contrast, out-group preference/bias presented different developmental aspects according to the level of implicit or explicit, age and race. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.
  • 9.

    Development and Validation of Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children

    노혜숙 | Mi-Jeong Kim | 2010, 23(2) | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 4
    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for children. Therapeutic alliance scale for children consisted of four constructs, namely, Sympathetic Understanding and Acceptance, Emotional Affirmative Experience, Cooperation for Solution of Problem, Cooperation for Communication. The questionnaire for the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for children consisted of 16items. Cronbach-α of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for children was .90 and each Cronbach-α of four constructs was .76~.85. The therapeutic alliance scale for counselor consisted of 4 contructs that was the same of Therapeutic Alliance Scale for children. Cronbach-α of the Therapeutic Alliance Scale for counselor was .89 and each Cronbach-α of four constructs was .73~.79. To validate the scale, I examined the correlation between the Therapeutic Alliance Scale and Therapeutic Relationship Scale, counseling product. Incremental validity with Therapeutic Relationship Scale was verified.