This study reviewed the research applying attachment theory to older populations and suggested the tasks for future research. Research themes being addressed in this review are as follows: (1) changes of attachment figures; (2) attachment to god; (3) changes of attachment style; (4) relationships of giver-receiver in caregiving; (5) relationships of attachment to wellbeing and bereavement. For future research of themes reviewed in this study, 5 problems to need to be solved were suggested. Although Bowlby asserted attachment representations were likely to exert influence 'from the cradle to the grave', early attachment studies were based heavily on observations of infants and children and in later romantic relationships or marital relationships of adults. As the potential for distressing separation and loss experiences increases with old age, attachment study would contribute to improve the well-being in old age.
Due to a growing interest in the role of self-regulation in children's mental health, there has been a dramatic increase in research on child effortful control, a temperamental basis of self-regulation. The aims of this article were to review recent developments in the study of child effortful control and to suggest directions for future research. First the construct of effortful control was defined within the framework of Rothbart's temperament theory. Early development and commonly used measures of effortful control were also described. Further, recent studies on the relations between child effortful control and psychological adjustment, and the effects of parenting on the development of effortful control were reviewed. Finally, future directions for the study of child effortful control were suggested.
The purpose of this study is to examine cultural differences and similarities in mothers' involvement in children's task performance. The cultural differences in the influence of mothers's involvement on children's emotion expression and self-regulation were also examined. Sixty five Korean children and seventy eight Japanese children at age 6 participated in this study. Interactive behaviors of mothers and children were videotaped and analyzed by coders. Results showed that Japanese mothers showed helping behaviors and encouragement more frequently than did Korean mothers. In addition, Japanese children expressed more smiles than did Korean children. About mother-child relationship, helping behaviors of Korean mothers were significantly correlated with children's negative emotions, but this relation was not significant for Japanese mother-child dyads. Mothers' encouragement was significantly associated with children's positive emotion in the Japanese group, but not in the Korean group. The results were discussed in terms of cultural characteristics of Korea and Japan.
Seventy-two retired men less than three years from their retirement participated this study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations of retirer's self-esteem, optimism, conditions of workforce exit and socio-demographic variables with their retirement satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results of multiple regression analysis show differential effects of predicted variables. Self-esteem, perceived economic status, and age in retirement were associated with retirement satisfaction, but optimism, perceived economic status, perceived health condition, education level, and voluntary choice of retirement were associated with subjective well-being. A noticeable finding was that self-esteem predicted retirement satisfaction but optimism predicted subjective well-being. The limitation and its implication of this study were discussed.
The present study investigated three- and four-year-old children's ability to infer true information based on others' lies. In Study 1, children were asked to guess the true location of a candy after listening to a liar puppet's statement about the candy's location. Three-year old children merely trusted the statement of the liar puppet, and four-year old children did not show any systematic pattern. In Study 2, several changes were made. First, the experimenter showed the children the true location of the candy after the first trial and thus children witnessed that the liar puppet's statement about the candy’s location was false. Second, the puppet's motivation to deceive the child was clarified. In study 2, children's overall performance improved. Especially, both three- and four- year-old children performed better at the second trial. This research adds to the evidence on Korean children's understanding of lying and their ability to infer truth based on others' lies. This research has implications for further cross-cultural research on the development of children's ability to understand the relationship between others' traits and behaviors.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among emotional expressiveness, emotional awareness and acceptance, and parenting attitude of mothers who have children aged 3 to 5 from low and middle income families. For this study, surveys were conducted with the mothers who have children aged 3 to 5 from total 40 families, which consisted of 20 low income families and 20 middle income families in Seoul and mother-child interactions using a teaching task that lasted about 15 minutes was observed. The results are as follows. First, it showed that the mothers from low income families express relatively lower positive emotion, less warm/affectionate parenting attitudes and more negative parenting attitudes, such as hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect, undifferentiated rejection and control compared to the mothers from middle income families. Low income mothers also showed lower emotional awareness and acceptance with their child's emotions. Second, there were significant correlations between the positive emotional expressiveness and warm and affectionate parenting attitudes, as well as between the negative emotional expressiveness and indifferent/negligent parenting attitudes from the low income mothers. Third, the results revealed that the negative emotional expressiveness of low income mothers can predict the indifferent and negligent parenting attitudes.
The purpose of this study was to investigate what makes differences between proactive bullies and defenders even though they have similar theory of mind (ToM) skills. Thus, moral disengagement and moral emotions(guilt, shame, affective empathy) were selected as mediating variables that would contribute to group differences. For this research, the self-report data of 582 middle school students in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do were analyzed. Results indicate that proactive bullies and defenders were similar in their ToM skills. However, proactive bullies reported the higher level of moral disengagement than defenders. Compared to proactive bullies, defenders reported more guilt and affective empathy. In addition, the interaction was significant between gender and participating roles in terms of moral disengagement. Female proactive bullies reported the highest level of moral disengagement. On path analysis, it was found that guilt fully mediated between ToM and bullying behaviors in both gender. The mediating effect of guilt was also apparent between ToM and defending behaviors in both gender. However, affective empathy fully mediated between ToM and defending behaviors only among boys. The implications of these findings and the suggestions for intervention were discussed.
Serial verb constructions (SVC) contain more than two verbs in the same clause. Korean SVCs that particularly express motion events show a distributional regularity. Within SVC, manner verbs precede path verbs, and only rarely can path verbs appear before manner verbs. The present study examined whether 5-year-old Korean learners can detect this regularity and utilize such cues in inferring the verb meanings of SVC. In a dialogue, participants first heard a novel verb either appearing in the manner position or the path position, and then were presented with an event that showed a novel manner and a novel path event combined. Then, the manner and path events appeared separately, and participants were asked to choose the meaning of the novel verb between the two events while their eye-gazes were recorded. Pointing and eye-gaze responses showed some sensitivity to verb's positional regularity within SVC and it's related meaning.