This study examined whether there is the difference of subjective age, according to sex and age and whether there is difference of self-esteem, subjective health, death fear and depression according to sex and subjective age with 341 older adults(man: 145, woman: 196). Results revealed that man had a tendency to perceive younger than their cholonogical age and women in younger group perceived younger than their cholonological age and women in older group perceived as same as their one. Two way ANOVA revealed that older adults with low subjective age had high self-esteem, good subjective helath, and low death fear. In relation with depression, older adults with high subjective age tended to have more serious depression than ones with low subjective age.
The current research examined whether Korean adults and children use a locative case marker to learn the meaning of novel nouns. During familiarization, participants watched the videos of spatial relations between 2 objects(ex: a teddy bear in a basket) and heard sentences including a novel noun following a locative case marker ‘ey’(ex: wubby-ey issta). During test, participants saw either a scene about a novel spatial relation between the same objects(object match: the teddy bear in front of the basket) or a scene about the same spatial relation between new objects(location match: a puppy in a bag). They were asked to choose an event including the referent of the novel noun. In Experiment 1, adults chose the location match, suggesting that they interpreted the novel nouns followed by ‘ey’ as locative terms. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds but not 3-year-olds, showed the same pattern as the adults in Experiment 1. These results add to the evidence on the development of ability to use morphological cues when learning the meaning of spatial terms.
In this study, the authors examined whether and how children's self-control changed during early adolescence. They also investigated the extent to which this change was related to children's parental attachment, teacher attachment, and self-esteem. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to analyze 4-year longitudinal data (N = 2,844) originally collected from the Korean Youth Panel Study. A significant decrease in self-control was observed from the ages of 9 to l1, and self-control started to get stabilized at age 11. Self-esteem was negatively predictive of self-control at age 10, whereas parental attachment and teacher attachment were positively predictive of it. Also, self-esteem was positively related to the rate of change in self-control, whereas parental attachment was negatively related to it. Finally, only parental attachment was positively related to the rate of acceleration in self-control. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
This study aimed to investigated the effect of preschooler's temperament on emotion regulation strategies of mothers and behavior problems of preschoolers. The participants included 260 male and female preschoolers in Seoul. We measured the preschooler's temperament using JTCI 3~6 and behavior problems using K-CBCL. And we measured maternal emotion regulation strategies using ERSQ. The result showed that maladaptive strategies of mothers mediated the relation between temperament and behavior problems of preschoolers. Maternal maladaptive strategies completely mediated the relation 'novelty seeking' of preschoolers and internal behavior problems, 'reward dependence' of girls and internal behavior problems, 'persistence' of boys and external behavior problems. And Maternal maladaptive strategies partially mediated the relation 'novelty seeking' of preschoolers and external behavior problems, 'harm avoidance' of boys and internal behavior problems. It appears that the development of behavior problems was affected by the maladaptive strategies of mothers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selective attention and inhibition on social-emotional evaluation toward unfamiliar face. The subjects were total 90 of each 30 from elementary school second-grade, fifth-grade, and university students. A pair of unfamiliar face were shown to the subjects and then asked to remember one of them. After that, they were asked to refrain from pressing any button and then rated one face chosen at random on social-emotional scale ranged from 1 to 5. Data was analyzed with 3(age) × 2(selective attention) × 2(inhibition) mixed ANOVA in terms of success or failure on face-recognition task respectively. Results showed that in the cases of success on face-recognition task, both (b) the faces of receiving selective attention and simultaneously requiring non-inhibition and (c) the faces of not receiving selective attention and simultaneously requiring inhibition were rated more positively than other conditional faces. The result suggests that if children can remain attention and inhibition in working memory, these factors can positively affect social-emotional evaluation toward unfamiliar-faces.
This study examined the structual relationships among depression of children, emotional identification and expression abilities and social ability. Participants were 545 students(4th through 6th grades at elementary schools) who completed a packet of questionnaires measuring the Children Depression Inventory, the Emotion Expression Scale of Children and the Peer-Relational Skill Scale. Hypothetical model for the paths and role among constructs of interest was presented drawing on previous theoretical background and analyses were performed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results of this study are as follows: First, There were not signigicant sex differences on the Children Depression Inventory and Emotion Expression Scale of Children. But, There was significant sex differences on the Peer-Relational Skill Scale. Second, the emotional identification and expression abilities meditate between depression and social ability partially. The mediation model of the emotional identification and expression abilities between depression and social ability indicates reasonable fit. Implications of the current study and suggestions for future studies were presented.
The present study is designed to investigate retrospected mother's emotional expressiveness as a developmental correlate of their off-springs' emotional expressiveness and ambivalence over emotional expression. For these ends, 547 College students completed questionaries including EEQ, AEQ, and retrospected SEFQ of their mother. The results of this study revealed that college students' emotional expressiveness and their conflict over emotional expression are highly correlated to their retrospection of their mother's emotional expressiveness. When they retrospect that their mother's expression of positive emotion was high, their positive and intimate emotional expression are high and their ambivalence over emotional expression was low. When they report that their mother' expression is low both in negative and positive emotion, they were also low in their emotional expression and most high in their Ambivalence over Emotional expression.
According to Baron-Cohen (2003), differences between male and female could be explained by two psychological dimensions: empathizing and systemizing. Systemizing is the drive to analyze systems or construct systems, and empathizing is the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion. Sex and peer status differences of mindreading abilities, empathizing and systemizing were tested with Korean 6th graders. Students were given TOM tasks and self-report questionnaires assessing the systemizing, empathizing and autistic tendencies: SQ-C, EQ-C and AQ-C. More females and popular students were categorized as the “empathizer” in whom empathizing is stronger than systemizing, but more males and rejected students were as the “systemizer” in whom systemizing is stronger than empathizing. In addition, the systemizers scored significantly higher than the empatizer on the AQ-C, suggesting that people with high systemizing have higher levels of autistic features.
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the reliability of the locus of control scales depending on two response scale formats(ipsative and normative) and 2) to investigate the relationship between locus of control, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation, creativity and academic achievement. The Locus of Control scale items from qualitative study and several Locus of Control scales in Korea and abroad were reconstructed into ipsative items of fifty two pairs and one hundred four normative items and administered to two hundred fifty seven elementary students (male 140, female 117) with a creativity test and I/E motivation test. Through the process of the item analysis, internal and external items of 35 pairs were selected. As the result of the item analysis and the analysis of internal consistency reliability, the reliability of normative scale and its correlation with total was higher than those of internal-external ipsative scale. As the result of the correlation analysis between internal-external locus of control and intrinsic-extrinsic motivation, internal-external control had significantly positive correlation with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation respectively. The subfactors of creativity had moderately high positive correlation with the internal locus of control but they had moderately low negative correlations with the external locus of control. As the result of the correlation analysis between internal-external control and academic achievement (Korean literature, mathematics, sociology, science), in normative scale internal control score had positive correlation with all subjects while external control scale had negative correlations with all subjects without math. As the correlation between internal and external control was -.42. In summary, on the occasion of interpersonal comparison using the locus of control score, it is recommended that the scale should be constructed in normative measure and interpreted internal-external score in separate dimensions. Directions of further research and limitations of this study was discussed.