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2012, Vol.25, No.2

  • 1.

    Mediation Effect of Self-Soothing between Perceived Maternal Attitudes and Psychological Well-being among College Students

    박지현 | Lee, Myung-Jo | 2012, 25(2) | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 21
    This paper shows a mediation effect of self-soothing between perceived maternal attitudes and psychological well-being among college students. The participants of this survey study 553 From three colleges in Korea. The EMBU, Self-Report of Soothing Receptivity, and PWBS were used for ratings, and; Pearson’s Correlation coefficients and hierarchical multiple regression were employed for analysis; the logic of Baron and Kenny(1986) was applied to prove mediation, and the Sobel test wans used to prove significance. In the relationship between college students’ perceived maternal attitudes (PMA), self-soothing (SS), and psychological well-being (PW), SS and PW showed an increasingly significant positive correlation when PMA was more affectionate. When PMA was either rejecting or over-protective, PMA was negatively correlated with both SS and PW while SS and PW were highly positively correlated with each other. In additions, when PMA was either rejecting or overprotective, SS was a complete mediator between PMA and PW, but when PMA was affectionate, it was a partial mediator. Further questions and limitations are also discussed.
  • 2.

    Development of Value Structure with Age

    서지영 | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2012, 25(2) | pp.21~44 | number of Cited : 15
    Research on adults subjects has provided evidence for the validity of Schwartz's theory(1992) on the structure of values. However, information about the application of this theory to children and adolescents is very scarce. We employed Portrait Value Questionnaire(PVQ) to test the applicability of Schwartz's value theory to children and adolescent using two samples of elementary school students(N=325) and high school students(N=443). Schwartz's Value Survey(SVS) was employed in order to test Schwartz's value theory in college students(N=295). The results broadly confirmed validity of Schwartz's value theory. Specifically, construction of human values was found to consist of four higher order value types: self-transcendence value, self-enhancement value, openness to change value, and conservation value. The number of value types differentiated by subjects increased with age. The number of value types was 7 for elementary school students, 8 for high school students, and 9 for college students. There were no differences in importance of value types on the basis of gender, except in the case of a few value types. The meaning of the trend in the number of value types with age; the value importance of children, adolescents, adult; the necessity of a valid measurement tool for value; and the necessity of value intervention are discussed.
  • 3.

    The intergenerational transmission of paternal attachment: Mediation Effect of paternal exploratory sensitivity

    Ok Jeung | BangHeeJeong | 2012, 25(2) | pp.45~65 | number of Cited : 9
    This study aimed to investigate intergenerational transmission of paternal attachment and mediation effect of paternal exploratory sensitivity in intergenerational transmission. The subjects in this study were 57 pairs of fathers and 24-month toddlers from dual-earner families in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Stranger Situation Procedure (SSP) were administrated to classify paternal attachment representation and toddlers' attachment security. Also, ten-minute play session was included to assess paternal exploratory sensitivity to their children. The results of this study were as follows: First, examining paternal attachment representations through AAI, autonomous type(F) occupied the largest portion by 63.2%, followed by 19.3% with dismissing type(D), 12.2% with preoccupied type(E), and 5.3% with unresolved type(U/d). Conducting SSP to find toddlers' attachment security to their father, results showed that 64.9% were classified as secure type(B), 15.8% as anxious-avoidant type(A), 15.8% as anxious-resistant type(C), and 3.5% as disorganized type(D). Second, the concordance of paternal attachment representation and toddlers' attachment security of four-way classification was 58%, not significant in χ2test. But the concordance of three-way classification and two-way classification were both statistically significant in χ2test (64.9%, 66.7% respectively). Third, the direct effect of paternal attachment representation on toddlers' attachment security was not significant when paternal exploratory sensitivity was controlled. This proved that paternal exploratory sensitivity fully mediated between paternal attachment representation and toddlers' attachment security.
  • 4.

    An exploratory study of forgiveness-seeking and its correlates in Korean college students

    Park Jong-Hyo | 2012, 25(2) | pp.67~83 | number of Cited : 6
    This study aims to explore the levels and characteristics of forgiveness-seeking and its related variables among college students in Korea. Forgiveness-seeking is defined as the psychological process of an offender(s) who regrets his/her wrongdoing and seeks forgiveness from his/her victim(s). It encourages victims to forgive the offender, which helps recover the broken relationship and trust. A total of 240 college students in the current study were administered with three psychological instruments that each measure forgiveness-seeking, empathy, and moral judgment. The results showed that Korean college students have a medium level of forgiveness-seeking, and the mean score of this behavior in male students is greater than that in female students. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that college students are more likely to seek forgiveness if they are male, have a high level of empathy, believe in the victim’s forgiveness, or have done moral (prosocial) deeds for the victim (i.e. apologizing, providing explanations, or making reparations) after the offense. Based on the research findings, the educational implications of forgiveness-seeking were discussed.
  • 5.

    Relationship between Emotion, Individualism-Collectivism Cultural Disposition and Prosocial Behavior among Adolescents

    박서영 | PARKSEONGYEON | 2012, 25(2) | pp.85~106 | number of Cited : 21
    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relations between adolescents' sympathy-distress emotion and prosocial behaviors on the adolescents’ cultural dispositions toward individualism and collectivism. The participants of the study were 699 adolescents(mean age= 16.7; 357 males, 312 females) from high schools in Seoul. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. The major results of the study were as follow: First, adolescent's sex and distress emotion were significant variables in predicting adolescents' prosocial behaviors toward familiar persons, whereas cultural dispositions and distress emotion were significantly related to adolescents' prosocial behaviors toward strangers. A moderating effect of self-focused distress in the links between adolescents' cultural disposition and prosocial behavior was also found. Specifically, when adolescents' self-focused distress is low, Collectivism-oriented adolescents showed more prosocial behavior toward strangers than did Individualism-oriented adolescents. Second, Adolescents' emotion acted as a mediator between adolescents' cultural disposition and prosocial behaviors. That is, adolescents' cultural disposition directly and indirectly influenced (through experienced emotions) their prosocial behavior toward both familiar persons and strangers. This study underscores the importance of adolescents' sympathy-distress emotion and Individualism-collectivism cultural disposition in predicting adolescents' prosocial behaviors.
  • 6.

    Korean Parent's Belief about Children's Emotion and Emotion related Parenting

    Jeong, Yoonkyung | 박혜진 | 2012, 25(2) | pp.107~128 | number of Cited : 18
    The present study is designed to investigate Korean Parents’ beliefs about children’s emotions and their relationship to parents’ emotion-related parenting behavior. To these ends, both parents completed questionnaires regarding parental beliefs about feelings, parents’ own emotional expression, coping strategies for children’s negative emotion expression, and emotion talk. Our results showed that Korean parents’ beliefs about children’s emotions include beliefs about emotional language, developmental readiness, emotional bonding, and emotion expression. Beliefs about emotional bonding are the highest, and gender (mother vs. father) differences are the largest in terms of beliefs about emotion expression. Our results also revealed gender differences in the expression of positive and intimate emotions and the frequency of emotion talk with their children. Finally, we found a significant relationship between Korean parents’ beliefs about children’s emotions and their parenting behavior in both parents.
  • 7.

    Developmental pattern of evidential markers and related verbs: analyses of natural production & input language

    Youngon Choi | 이화인 | 2012, 25(2) | pp.129~150 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the developmental pattern of evidential markers and related verbs by examining the child’s natural production and mother’s input language. First, two audio-recorded corpora of Korean mother-child dyad’s natural production were analyzed for frequency, age of emergence and productive use of evidential markers and related verbs. Also, the result of the corpora analyses was directly compared to one Japanese mother-child dyad’s recorded speech corpus. The analyses of natural production revealed that children begin using direct experience marker/verb before hearsay or inference markers/verbs. Furthermore, mother’s input pattern appeared to be aligned with the child’s use of these markers/verbs. These findings suggest that the acquisition of evidential markers and related verbs proceed from those that describe direct experience to hearsay or indirect inference or conjecture, implying that such order of acquisition might play a role in the later development of information certainty judgments on the basis of evidentiality.
  • 8.

    Three-year-old Korean Children’s Visual Perspective Taking Ability and Word Learning

    전영미 | Song, Hyun-joo | 2012, 25(2) | pp.151~163 | number of Cited : 3
    This study examined whether 3-year-old Korean children are sensitive to speakers' visual perspectives when learning new words. Two novel objects were placed on the apparatus floor. Only one object was visible to the experimenter because one object was behind an opaque occluder, whereas the child could see both. The experimenter uttered a sentence including a novel word(e.g., modi) - “Where’s the OO?”(‘where’ trials) or “Here’s the OO!”(‘here’ trials). Then she asked child to give her the referent of the novel word, by asking “Can you give me the OO?" Children chose the object which was hidden from the experimenter in the 'where' trials but they did not do so in the 'here' trials. The results suggest that 3-year-old children can take other people’s visual perspectives and linguistic context appropriately when learning new words.
  • 9.

    Development of Deception, False belief and Executive Function in Children

    권은영 | Hyeonjin Lee | 2012, 25(2) | pp.165~184 | number of Cited : 9
    This study examined the relationship among deceptive behavior, false belief and execution function in children at 3, 4, and 5 years of age. The major findings were as follows: first, the results show that the understanding of deceptive behavior and false belief begins at 4 years of age. In particular, the results indicated that the 3-year-old and 4-year-old children had a better understanding of self-belief than they had of the beliefs of others; this could be construed as evidence to support the simulation theory. Second, inhibitory control and switching in execution function showed developmental changes between 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds. However, in terms of working memory, there were no significant developmental changes between these groups. Third, at the age of three, predictor of deceptive behavior include not only false beliefs but also switching of execution function. This result implies that children who fail at the act of deceiving at age three are unable to understand the concept of false beliefs. Our results also shows that the higher the score of switching of execution function, the better the deceptive behavior.