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2014, Vol.27, No.3

  • 1.

    The Effects of Childhood Trauma and Temperament on Prisoners’ Aggression and Impulsivity: Mediational Role of Moral Judgement and Moral Emotion

    장지윤 | 이경순 | JANG, EUNYOUNG | 2014, 27(3) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 7
    In this study, the effects of childhood trauma, temperamental trait(Behavioral Activation System), moral judgment, and moral emotion on prisoners’ aggression and impulsivity were examined. Of 210 prisoners also examined the mediation effects of moral judgment and moral emotion by using structural equation modeling. It was confirmed that the model had a good level of fit with our data. The results of the mediation effects analysis were as follows: Contrary to our hypothesis, moral judgment did not significantly predict aggression and impulsivity of prisoners. However, reward responsiveness of BAS was associated with moral judgment, and moral judgment was a significant predictor of guiltiness. Therefore, moral judgment mediated the effect of reward responsiveness(BAS) on guiltiness. Moral emotion(guiltiness and shamefulness) showed significant associations with aggression and impulsivity. Also, the higher the level of emotional abuse in childhood, the lower the level of guiltiness, which was negatively associated with both aggression and impulsivity. Additionally, as the level of neglect in childhood was higher, shamefulness was increased, and it was positively associated with impulsivity. Therefore, we concluded that guiltiness mediated the effect of emotional abuse on both aggression and impulsivity. Further, shamefulness mediated the effect of neglect during childhood on impulsivity. Specific results and the implications of this study are discussed.
  • 2.

    The factors affecting highschool runaway adolescents' returning home: Individual, home environment, and school factors

    HyeOnKim | 정정숙 | 2014, 27(3) | pp.21~38 | number of Cited : 4
    The purpose of this study was to analyze runaway adolescent’ intention to return home. A total of 438 runaway adolescents from 42 shelters and 12 high schools were included in the study sample. Among them, 211 participants had returned home and 227 participants remained in shelters. Data were collected using a questionnaire that covered individual factors, home environment, and school factors. Data analysis was carried out using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square (χ2) test, and hierarchical logistic regression. The two-way ANOVA and χ2 test showed significant differences between returnees and shelter adolescents in terms of aggression, family structure, economic status, some parenting attitudes (father’s and mother’s affection, negligence, father’s abuse), and peer relationships. We also found significant differences between junior and senior high school runaway adolescents in relation to self-esteem. The hierarchical logistic regression showed that home environment factors were the most significant predictors of runaway adolescents’ returning home. In particular, broken homes had the strongest negative effect, while economic status had positive effect. Whereas for junior high school returnees, parenting attitudes, such as father’s affection, negligence, and mother’s negligence were significant predictors, for senior highschool returnees individual factors like aggression and impulsiveness were significant.
  • 3.

    The Role of Children’s Trait Anxiety and negative affect in Children’s Memories for Pain

    Seungjin Lee | Keumjoo Kwak | 2014, 27(3) | pp.39~60 | number of Cited : 1
    This study examined the effects of children’s temperament and anxiety on the accuracy of children’s memory for pain. Children (N = 72) aged from 4 to 9 years who had undergone a minor operative dental treatment were asked to use a visual analogue scale to report their anxiety and pain about their dental experience. The children were then asked to complete different types of scales during the delayed interview to indicate how much anxiety and pain they experienced during the dental procedure. In addition, children’s temperament and dentists assessed children’s anxiety status. Overall, the results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in the related literature, providing further evidence that most children can accurately recall the level of pain they experienced a week ago. We find it interesting that negative affect, as one of the assessed temperament dimensions, had a significant influence on the accuracy of children’s memory for pain. In addition to reporting higher negative affect, trait-anxious children exhibited a greater likelihood of recalling higher level of pain than they initially reported, indicating that those particular children may have negatively distorted recollections of the level of the pain that they experienced. Thus, when trait-anxious children are being clinically treated, clinicians should consider looking into the children’s sensitivity and perhaps deliver pain management interventions to ease the pain, help build pleasant memories related to the event, and increase the effectiveness of treatment experienced by children.
  • 4.

    Longitudinal mediated effects of self-esteem and depression on the relation between parent-child attachment and suicidal ideation

    윤태희 | Cho, Young Il | 2014, 27(3) | pp.61~87 | number of Cited : 29
    The current study examined whether the longitudinal relation between parent-child and suicidal ideation was mediated through self-esteem and depression during childhood. To test the hypothesis, cross-lagged auto-regressive models were applied to the data which were the part of the national representative survey (i.e., Korean Child-Youth Panel Survey(KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute). Specifically, the data in use were consisted of 2,844 early adolescents' responses to the scales measuring four variables of interest for three times at every year. The result showed that the levels of parent-child attachment negatively associated with the levels of suicidal ideation. Moreover, self-esteem and depression showed significant mediating effects on the relation between parent-child attachment and suicidal ideation. Implications for counseling practice (e.g., consideration in designing the preventive program regarding suicidal ideation) and suggestions for future research are discussed.
  • 5.

    The Roles of Empathy, Social Self-efficacy, and Perceived Norms on Defending Behaviors to Bullying among Middle School Students

    Seung-yeon Lee | 2014, 27(3) | pp.89~109 | number of Cited : 33
    The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effect of social self-efficacy in the relations between cognitive, affective empathy and defending behaviors. Another goal was to examine the moderating effects of different types of perceived norms (classmates, close friends) and parental expectation in the relations between intrapersonal variables (empathy, social self-efficacy) and defending behaviors. The sample consisted of 336 middle school students in South Korea. The results indicated that when girls did not have sufficient social self-efficacy, their cognitive empathy lowered the level of defending behaviors. In addition, when boys did not perceive classroom norms for defending, their social self-efficacy did not lead to defending behaviors. Among girls, when their perception of close friends’ norms for defending was limited, their cognitive empathy also reduced defending behaviors. Finally, when boys believed their parents valued helping victims and expected them to do so, their affective empathy increased defending behaviors. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for developing more effective bystander intervention strategies.
  • 6.

    The Development of Implicit and Explicit Understanding of Second-order Theory of Mind: Focused on Task Simplification and Specification of Deception

    김윤지 | SONG, HANA | 2014, 27(3) | pp.111~125 | number of Cited : 1
    In this study, examined the development of second-order theory of mind with regard to implicit and explicit responses. Differences in implicit and explicit responses according to age and task type were also examined. Seventy-nine children between the ages of 3 to 5 years participated in this study. Implicit responses were measured by the eye gaze direction of the children. Children’s verbal answers and pointing behavior were counted as explicit responses. The results showed that age and task type differences were significant in terms of implicit and explicit responses. In relation to task type, simplification and specification of deception raised children’s performance. These results suggest that implicit responses and task type had an important effect on children’s second-order theory of mind.
  • 7.

    Impairment of Empathy in adolescents with conduct problems: Is it due to the deficit in affective empathy or cognitive empathy

    문은옥 | Ghim, Hei-rhee | 천영운 and 2other persons | 2014, 27(3) | pp.127~146 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    Many studies have reported lower empathic ability in children and adolescents with conduct problems, including aggression, than children with normal behavior patterns. However, as empathy has been defined differently among researchers, it is unclear which empathic ability is impaired in those with conduct problems. Therefore, this study examined whether adolescents with conduct problems showed impairment in affective or cognitive empathy. Affective empathy was measured using emotional contagion, a facial mimicry reaction that occurs in response to the facial expression of a target individual. Cognitive empathy was measured using an emotional reading task. Fourteen adolescents with conduct problems and 23 adolescents without such problems participated in this study. The two groups showed differences in facial mimicry but not in the emotional reading task. Adolescents with conduct problems showed a smaller magnitude of facial mimicry to dynamic happy and sad expressions. In particular, when viewing sad expressions, the zygomaticus muscle activity in those with conduct problems was relatively high; this is the muscle reaction that typically occurs when expressing happiness. These results suggest that adolescents with conduct problems have a normal ability to recognize other people’s feelings, but are impaired in affective empathy, i.e., the ability to feel other's emotions in a congruent way.
  • 8.

    Effects of Psychological Control and Affective Parenting on Internalized and Externalized Behaviors in Junior Middle Schoolers

    남정민 | Hyunran Sung | 권선영 | 2014, 27(3) | pp.147~167 | number of Cited : 39
    This study investigated the effect of perceived psychological control and affective parenting on internalized and externalized behaviors in junior midddle schoolers. The subjects were 463 boys and girls in junior middle school in Deagu and Gyeongbuk area. Two way analysis of variance by psychological control and affective parenting was used for internalized and externalized behaviors. psychological control had negative effect on internalized and externalized behaviors, but the effect of affective parenting was not significant on both behaviors. There was significant interaction effect by father's psychological control and affective parenting on boy's physical symptom and delinquency and girl's depression/anxiety. In low affective parenting condition, high psychological control has negative effect on boy's physical symptom and delinquency and girl's depression/anxiety. However, In high affective parenting condition, negative effect of psychological control was released. Moreover there was not interaction effect of psychological control and affective parenting on any internalized and externalized behaviors.
  • 9.

    The influence of reading aloud and serial position effects on children’s story recall

    SONG, HANA | 2014, 27(3) | pp.169~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Two studies were conducted, which aimed to investigate the influence of reading aloud on children’s story recall. Forty-four children of six years of age participated in study 1. In this study, each child was assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, the child read a story aloud, whereas in the other group the child’s mother read a story to her. The results showed that children’s reading aloud increased subsequent recall of the story as compared with when mothers read the story to their children. In study 2, eighty-four children of four, six, and eight years of age participated in the experiment. This study examined the differences in repeated story recalls according to child age, serial position effects (primacy, middle, recency), and reading condition (reading aloud vs. mothers reading to their children). Results showed that older children, and children who read aloud, showed superior recall. Recall also improved over repeated trials, and primacy and recency effects were revealed in all of three trials. Findings are discussed in terms of attention and consolidation processes in the formation of memory traces. Suggestions for future studies are presented.