Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between self-regulation and psychosocial adjustment (i.e., externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, addiction, and social competence) in preschool and elementary school children using 62 studies published in Korean journals. Results revealed significant associations between children’s self-regulation and all indicators of psychosocial outcomes. Additionally, subtypes of self-regulation, child’s sex and age, and informants of rating emerged as moderators of the relationship between self-regulation and psychosocial adjustment in exploratory analyses. This study represents an initial attempt to integrate previous studies on children’s self-regulation and psychosocial outcomes. Based on these findings, specifically targeting self-regulatory abilities were discussed as a way of promoting children’s adjustment across multiple domains.
This study investigated the relationships among perceived opportunity, coping strategies, regret-related emotions, and subjective well-being in 158 middle-aged women living in Busan, South Korea. Middle-aged women regret most frequently the areas of marriage, education, and self-development. The more regret-related emotions they felt, the less subjective well-being they had. Rumination as a coping strategy for regret was related to higher regret-related emotion and lower subjective well-being, while the use of engagement of new goals as a coping strategy was related to higher subjective well-being. The lower the perceived opportunity of modification experiences involving regret, the higher the regret-related emotions and the lower the happiness. Out of the two contrasting principles regarding regret-future opportunity principle and lost opportunity principle-this supported the lost opportunity principle. Finally, the path analysis result showed that perceived opportunity and rumination had effects on subjective well-being both directly and indirectly. Engagement of a new goal had a direct effect on subjective well-being.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural relationships among college students's adaptation to college, adult attachment, self-esteem, and interpersonal relationships. Participants were 372 college students randomly selected from four colleges. The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Amos 19.0. The results showed that 1) adult attachment affected self-esteem and interpersonal relationships; 2) self-esteem and interpersonal relationships affected adaptation to college; and 3) adult attachment had an indirect effect on adaptation to college, which was mediated by self-esteem and interpersonal relationships.
The present study examined the effect of a mother’s responsive interactions on toddlers’ pivotal behavior, their later intelligence, and multiple intelligence. There were 162 participants in the study which consisted of 18 month old toddlers and their mothers. Responsiveness and toddlers’ pivotal behavior was assessed by behavioral observation and a follow-up assessment of toddlers’ intelligence was conducted at 42 months of age. In addition, an assessment of toddlers’ multiple intelligence was conducted at 48 months of age. Results showed that maternal responsiveness was positively correlated with toddlers’ pivotal behavior, intelligence at 42 months, and multiple intelligence at 48 months of age. Structural equation modeling was conducted for examining relationships among across mother’s responsive interaction, toddlers’ pivotal behavior, intelligence, and multiple intelligence. The SEM analysis revealed that mother’s responsive interaction affected toddlers’ pivotal behavior and had a significant effect on toddlers’ later intelligence and multiple intelligence. In addition, toddlers’ with higher maternal responsiveness had a greater score in toddlers’ pivotal behavior, intelligence and multiple intelligence than toddlers with lower maternal responsiveness. Therefore, this study suggests that maternal responsiveness affects toddlers’ intellectual ability development.
This study examined the different patterns of resource allocation behaviors based on the types of resources in the dictator game. Specifically, we tested whether children distributed more resources that were gained free of charge compared to those gained via effort. Additionally, we looked at whether the amount of distributed resources in the dictator game had correlations with the children’s prosocial behaviors in everyday life. A total of 88 Korean children in the 2nd and 5th grades participated. Children were randomly assigned to either the free-of-charge resource or the effort resource condition; in the free-of-charge resource condition, resources were given to the children without any effort, but in the effort resource condition, the children received resources as a reward for winning a card game. Children’s prosocial behaviors in everyday life were measured by teachers using the Modified Prosocial Behavior Questionnaire (Doscher, 1985). The results showed that, first, children distributed more resources in the free-of-charge resource condition compared to those in the effort resource condition with marginal significance. In addition, the amount of the distributed resources differed according to sex and age. That is, girls and 5th graders distributed more resources compared to boys and 2nd graders. Second, the Modified Prosocial Behavior Questionnaire scores were not correlated with the amount of resources distributed to other children in the dictator games. This suggests that the resource allocation in the dictator game may not reflect children’s everyday prosocial behaviors.
In this study, we investigated the influence of infants’ (1-3 years) visual media overindulgence on their general, emotional and social development. An infants’ visual media overindulgence scale was created, and its content and construct validity proved sound. Participants comprised 795 mothers with infants across 5 provinces. There were three key findings. First, infant visual media overindulgence was positively correlated with mothers’ Internet addiction, not fathers’ Internet addiction. Second, infant visual media overindulgence was positively correlated with social development problems indicated in the Korean Ages and Stages Questionnaires. Third, visual media overindulgence negatively influenced personal-social, communication, and gross and fine motor skills in the Korean Ages and Stages Questionnaires, and aggression/defiance, activity/impulsivity (externalizing problem), depression/withdrawal, and general anxiety (internalizing problem). Limitations and future tasks were discussed.