The purpose of this study was to examine whether harm avoidance temperament mother's reactions to child's negative emotions were related to the child's ambivalence emotional expressiveness and depression. In addition, I verified the mediating effect of ambivalence emotional expressiveness in terms of the effect of harm avoidance and mother's supportive reactions to child's negative emotions on depression. The results were as follows Structural equation modeling analysis showed that harm avoidance temperament had both direct and indirect effects on depression. However, a mother’s supportive reactions to child's negative emotions had indirect effect on depression. It was that the temperament of harm avoidance and supportive reactions were, the ambivalence emotional expressiveness and depression.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relations among gratitude disposition, deliberate rumination, positive reframing and posttraumatic growth following a relational loss among middle-aged adults. The data consisted of the survey results of 335 adults between 40 and 60. The results of structuring equation modeling(SEM) analysis indicated that deliberate rumination or positive reframing mediated the relation between gratitude disposition and posttraumatic growth. The dual-mediating effect of deliberate rumination and positive reframing was also significant for the relationship between gratitude disposition and posttraumatic growth. Based on these findings, we discuss effective intervention strategies for middle-aged adults who have experienced a relational loss.
This study purposed to determine the relationships between parents’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in parenting and their self-efficacy with regarding to nurturance, instrumental care, discipline, play, and teaching. Also, the two types of motivation can be activated in a complex way according to their levels. Cluster analysis revealed types of patents’ motivation based on the nature of motivation, and the study investigated the differences in parenting self-efficacy. Mothers (N=437) completed questionnaires along with a parenting motivation scale and the Korean version of the Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Competence Parentals (K-EGSCP), a scale for domain-specific self-efficacy in parenting. The results revealed that the relationships among intrinsic motivation and all the domains of self-efficacy were positive. However, extrinsically motivated mothers were likely to show low parenting self-efficacy in instrumental care, discipline, and teaching. The four distinct motivational groups were as follows: high intrinsic/high extrinsic motivation, high intrinsic/low extrinsic motivation, low intrinsic/high extrinsic motivation, and low intrinsic/low extrinsic motivation. A multiple analysis of variance revealed that the groups differed significantly on all the domains of self-efficacy with regard to parenting.
Much of knowledge about the world comes from indirect experience such as, obtaining information/knowledge from others, rather than direct experience. Growing up in an environment, filled with information and claims made by the media and on the internet, it is essential to understand how children come to develop skills of evaluating various sources of information. Recent years have seen much increase in the amount of research related to this topic, regarding the development of critical thinking. The aim of the present paper is to provide an in-depth review of this growing field, involving the development of selective trust, a bias in trust in testimony, and evidential reasoning. Based on the extensive literature review, encompassing papers published internationally as well as domestically, the paper aims to provide a comprehensive and thorough introduction to the major discoveries made in this field and to suggest future studies that can help further illuminate the development of critical thinking.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among multidimensional perfectionism, adult attachment, and abnormal eating behaviors in female university students. The participants were 600 female university students in Seoul. The results of the study were as follows: (1) there was a significant, positive relationship between abnormal eating behaviors and self-oriented perfectionism, between abnormal eating behaviors and other-oriented perfectionism, between abnormal eating behaviors and socially-prescribed perfectionism, between abnormal eating behaviors and dependence dimensions, and between abnormal eating behaviors and anxiety dimensions, but there was a negative relationship between abnormal eating behaviors and closeness; (2) socially-prescribed perfectionism and anxiety dimensions were significantly predictive of abnormal eating behaviors; and (3) with regard to mediating effects, anxiety dimensions partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and abnormal eating behaviors. Further, dependence dimensions partially mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and abnormal eating behaviors.
The current study investigated the social comparison of 5- to 6-year-old Korean children. Children chose one of two options in which distributions had already been made between participating children and anonymous children. In the disadvantageous inequality condition, the children had to choose the disadvantageous inequality option (2:3) or the equality option (1:1). In the advantageous inequality condition, the children had to choose the advantageous inequality option (1:0) or the equality option (2:2). We also measured the mothers’ face culture orientation, social comparison, Machiavellianism, and empathy. In the disadvantageous inequality condition, the children were more likely to choose the equality option when the magnitude of the difference between the distributions was large, than when the magnitude of the difference was small. In the advantageous inequality condition, the children were more likely to choose the advantageous inequality option than they were in the control condition. These results demonstrate that 5- to 6-year-old Korean children have social comparison concern. The social comparison orientation of the children was related to the psychological factors pertaining to their mother; a high level of face culture orientation, high desire for status and low level of personal distress. The current study provides experimental evidence with regard to the social comparison of Korean children as well as useful information about the caregiver as an influential factor in this process.