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2016, Vol.29, No.3

  • 1.

    The influence of maternal utterance-facilitation behaviors on infants’ nonverbal expression, onomatopoeia and lexical development

    SONG, HANA | 2016, 29(3) | pp.1~16 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This study examined the relationship between infants’ nonverbal expression, onomatopoeia, and lexical development, and mothers’ utterance-facilitation behaviors. Seventy infants aged 15-17 months and their mothers participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires to evaluate both their infants’ language development and the mothers’ play interaction behaviors and language expression. Mothers’ use of “motherese” was also observed in a 15-minute free play setting between mothers and infants. Results showed that infants’ nonverbal expression and the use of onomatopoeia were positively correlated with lexical development, and mothers’ play interaction positively predicted infants’ language development. In addition, the relationship between maternal behavior and infants’ language development varied with gender. Discussion included the role of direct and indirect input of mothers’ utterance-facilitation behaviors.
  • 2.

    Developmental Study on Unintentional inhibition: Looking through neutral and emotional valence

    강은미 | Jung yoonjae | Jeong, Yoonkyung | 2016, 29(3) | pp.17~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This research was designed to examine difference in the development of inhibitory control by confirming retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) caused by emotional valence. The study sample included three age groups ; 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and 8-year-olds. Emotional valence controlled for negative emotional stimuli and neutral stimuli. Categorized words in the research study were different from those in a research for study adults, as they were properly selected for children, and were provided to participants with illustrated pictures. Valence adjectives were used as stimuli in the category for emotional valence control, and the pictures provided with them were also expressed according to the emotional stimuli. In the neutral condition, RIF was not observed in 4-year-old participants, whereas RIF was observed in both 6-year-old participants and 8-year-old participants. It is possible that in 4-year-old participants, the cognitive ability that influences unintentional inhibition has not yet developed. In the negative condition, RIF was observed in all conditions. These results suggest that inhibition is difficult for negative emotions.
  • 3.

    A Good Student but not a Good Friend: Domain-Specific Self-Control in Middle School Students

    PARK, DAEUN | 2016, 29(3) | pp.31~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A year-long longitudinal study explored how self-control varies by domain in middle-school students. The current study confirms that self-control can be separated into schoolwork and interpersonal self-control domains and that each domain predicts theoretically relevant academic and social outcomes. At the beginning of the school year, teachers rated their students on behaviors that exemplified self-control in schoolwork and interpersonal contexts. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor domain-specific self-control model. Self-control in schoolwork predicted more active class engagement, which in turn increased academic achievement at the end of the school year. Interpersonal self-control predicted less anger, which thereby reduced peer conflict at the end of the school year. Collectively, the current findings empirically support the domain specificity of self-control and reveal its impact on affective, motivational, social, and academic outcomes. Implications for future self-control intervention studies are discussed.
  • 4.

    The Relationships among Dispositional Gratitude, Gratitude Expression,and Mental Wellbeing among the Elderly,Focused on the Mediating Effect of Relational Satisfaction

    Seung-yeon Lee | Miri Han | 2016, 29(3) | pp.53~73 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    In order to promote the successful aging of the elderly whose numbers have drastically increased in our society, this study examined whether dispositional gratitude and gratitude expression contribute to the mental wellbeing of the elderly through the mediation of relational satisfaction. For this research, we analyzed self-report data from 440 people aged over 65, using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that both dispositional gratitude and gratitude expression directly predicted relational satisfaction and mental wellbeing. Of note, the influence of gratitude expression on relational satisfaction was bigger than that of dispositional gratitude. Furthermore, the mediating effect of relational satisfaction was significant only in the path between gratitude expression and mental wellbeing. The implications of these findings were discussed and effective intervention strategies were presented to improve the mental wellbeing of the elderly.
  • 5.

    An Exploration of the Effects of Using a Human Body Diagram and Children’s Temperament on the Accuracy of Children’s Memory

    Seungjin Lee | 김호영 | Park Seol Gi | 2016, 29(3) | pp.75~93 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The objective of this study was to empirically explore how using additional tools, such as a human body diagram (HBD), during an investigative interview with children affects the accuracy of the children’s recall. To this end, 80 children aged 5-8 living in the Seoul metropolitan area were assessed according to their age, temperaments, and the use of a HBD during interview. The results showed that the effects of using a HBD varied in accordance with the children’s age and temperaments. Among school-age children, the use of a HBD did not significantly vary in accordance with the degree of the children’s shyness, but it did vary in accordance with the degree of shyness in non-school age children. More specifically, non-school age children who displayed a higher degree of shyness answered more accurately to yes or no forced-choice questions and also showed higher resistance to questions containing suggestive information given by the interviewer. Based on these empirical findings, this study discussed the value of the use of additional tools that consider the interviewees’ age and temperamental attributes during investigative interviews with children.
  • 6.

    Effect of Developmental Change of Infant’s Temperament on Preschoolers’ Externalizing Behaviors

    Kim Yeonsoo | Keumjoo Kwak | 2016, 29(3) | pp.95~111 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    The current study investigated changes in negative emotion and regulation temperament in infants and examined the relationship between the rate of change of temperament and externalizing problems of early childhood. Participants in this study were 149 mothers of infants. Temperaments were measured from 6 months to 18 months using IBQ-R(Infant Behavioral Questionnaire-Revised). The K-CBCL(Korean Child Behavior Checklist) was used to measure externalizing problems at 4 years old. Latent growth modeling was used to analyze change estimation of temperament during infancy, and was applied to verify the relevance of changes of infant temperament and early problem behaviors. As a result, the 4-years-olds’ level of externalizing behaviors was associated with higher negative emotion and lower regulation temperament at 6 months. The results were discussed in terms of the importance of longitudinal analysis in developmental psychopathology.
  • 7.

    Maternal Psychological Controlling and Adolescent Peer Relationships: Examining the Roles of Basic Psychological Needs and Gender

    박지은 | Kyoung Ok Seol | 정희원 | 2016, 29(3) | pp.113~133 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The current study examined the relationship between maternal psychological control, satisfaction of basic psychological needs and peer relationship quality in early adolescence based on Self-Determination Theory. The hypothesis is that satisfaction of basic psychological needs would mediate the relationship between maternal psychological control and peer relationship quality. The hypothesis was tested among 508 adolescents from grades 1-3 in middle school (males: 265, females: 243). The mediation analysis revealed that satisfaction of basic psychological needs completely mediated the relationship between maternal psychological control and peer relationship quality. We further analyzed gender differences in maternal psychological control, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and peer relationship quality. When we performed a multi-group analysis of this structural model, we confirmed that the model of the satisfaction of basic psychological needs as a mediator between maternal psychological control and peer relationship quality held true for both boys and girls. However, differences in the path coefficients for boys and girls indicated that the association between satisfaction of basic psychological needs and peer relationship quality was stronger among boys.
  • 8.

    Aging and emotion regulation: flexible engagement of cognitive control through the evaluation of reward

    JIN YOUNG-SUN | 김현옥 | 2016, 29(3) | pp.135~163 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    It has been considered that the decline of cognitive function due to aging is an essential part of later life. However, emotion regulation ability, which requires cognitive control, improves despite the deterioration of cognitive control. The current review suggested three possible explanations that can account for this paradoxical phenomenon. Additionally, we examined previous studies related to these three hypotheses. As a result, we confirmed that reduced reaction to emotional information was not found in older adults. Mastery deriving from the life experience of the elderly also cannot explain improvements in emotion regulation strategies, which demand cognitive resources. Based on the behavioral and neural findings, we found that the hypothesis of selective engagement of cognitive control depending on motivation can most reasonably elucidate the enhancement of emotion regulation in older adults. This is a novel perspective that enables us to deeply understand cognitive aging beyond decline and deterioration, suggesting a more parsimonious explanation for asymmetric effects of aging on various sub-areas of cognitive functions and a reasonable account for why the apparent effect of aging on cognitive functions does not seem to appear in the everyday functioning of older adults.
  • 9.

    The Effects of Positive Behavioral Support on problem behaviors and on-task behaviors of children with ADHD during independent learning time at home

    소명희 | Yunhee Kim | 2016, 29(3) | pp.165~193 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of positive behavioral support on problem behaviors and on-task behaviors of children with ADHD during independent learning time at home. For this purpose, this study conducted a positive behavioral support for three elementary school students with ADHD manifesting problem behaviors during independent learning time at home using an functional assessment and multi-element intervention strategies and investigated its effects on their problem behaviors, on-task behaviors during independent learning time at home, academic self-efficacy and their parents' parenting self-efficacy. As research methods, using multiple probe design across subjects, an experiment was conducted during baseline, intervention, and maintenance period, and changes in the incidence rate of on problem behavior during independent learning time and the rate of on-task behaviors were measured, using the partial-interval recording. As a result in all three children, the incidence rate of their on problem behaviors decreased and the incidence rate of their on-task behaviors increased during home-based independent learning time. In addition, the children’s academic self-efficacy and their parents' parenting self-efficacy increased, too. This study indicated that home-based positive behavioral support could improve the learning behavior of children with ADHD.
  • 10.

    Development and Reliability of Korean Developmental Spelling Assessment(KDSA)

    Minwha Yang | Ra, Jongmin | Lee, Ae Jin and 1other persons | 2016, 29(3) | pp.195~214 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    This study aimed to develop a diagnostic instrument to assess children’s developmental level of spelling abilities, which can be used to identify students with writing disability. Based on a rigorous review of previous research and three pilot studies, the Korean Developmental Spelling Assessment (KDSA) was developed. The KDSA comprised of two spelling tests: the phonological feature test and the morphological feature test. The phonological feature test assessed students’ abilities in spelling five phonological features: liaison, initial consonants/principal vowels, aspirated/ tense consonants, final consonants, and w/y glides. Moreover, the morphological spelling feature test assessed students’ abilities in spelling six morphological features; simplification of final consonants, co-articulated tensification, co-articulated aspiration, consonant assimilation, compound consonants, and compound vowels. The KDSA was standardized with 1,049 students across the county. The results of point-biserial correlation, polychoric correlation, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and split-half correlation revealed that the KDSA is a highly reliable measure. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
  • 11.

    The effects of foreign-language exposure on infants’ understanding of conventional properties of language

    이윤미 | Song, Hyun-joo | 2016, 29(3) | pp.215~229 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The present study examined whether foreign-language experience in infancy influences the development of understanding that word meanings are shared across speakers of the same language. Thirteen-month-old infants with regular exposure to English (the exposed group) or with very little exposure (the monolingual group) participated in a violation-of-expectation task. First, the infants watched two speakers alternately singing nursery rhymes in Korean. Then one of the speakers provided a novel label (panu) for one of two novel objects. In the following test trials, the other speaker used the same label (panu) to refer to the same object (same-object event) or a different one (different-object event). Monolingual infants looked at the different-object event longer than at the same-object event, while exposed infants looked about equally. These results suggest that exposure to a foreign language can influence early understanding of the conventional nature of language.
  • 12.

    Re-examination of the Role of Executive Function in Sentence Processing Development: Inhibition versus Cognitive Flexibility

    남민지 | Youngon Choi | 2016, 29(3) | pp.231~251 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Cognitive control hypothesis proposed that 4-5-year-old children’s immature inhibitory control leads children to commit unique interpretation errors in processing a temporary ambiguous sentence. However recent findings showed a tendency of association between cognitive flexibility and children’s sentence processing ability rather than inhibitory control. The present study examined which component of executive function between inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, directly relates to 4-5-year-old children’s sentence processing ability. Using flanker task, children’s cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control were measured. A sentence act-out task was also administered to measure children’s sentence processing abilities. The results showed that cognitive flexibility indexed by sequential congruency effect significantly and uniquely contributed to children’s sentence interpretation errors, after controlling age, working memory, and abilities processing unambiguous sentences. By contrast, inhibitory control was not related to sentence processing. These results demonstrate that cognitive flexibility plays a more crucial role than inhibition in the development of child sentence processing ability, suggesting further that active goal/cue monitoring may be an important aspect of sentence processing abilities.
  • 13.

    The Effects of Paternal Psychological Control and Father-Child Attachment on Aggression: The Mediating Effects of Emotional Regulation

    김현아 | CHANG, HYE IN | 2016, 29(3) | pp.253~275 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    This study examined the contribution of paternal psychological control, father-child attachment, and their interaction to adult children‘s aggression with their emotion regulation as a mediator of those processes. A total of 156 college students completed a set of questionnaires assessing paternal psychological control, father-child attachment, children’s emotion regulation and aggression. Additionally, the Competitive Reaction Time to yield a behavioral index of aggression. Results indicated that paternal psychological control and father-child attachment each predicted aggression via their effects on emotion regulation, and the results remained significant even after controlling for the effects of maternal psychological control and mother-child attachment. However, father-child attachment did not moderate the relationship between paternal psychological control and children’s emotion regulation and aggression. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.