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pISSN : 1229-0718 / eISSN : 2671-6542

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2017, Vol.30, No.1

  • 1.

    The Moderating Effect of Ego-Resilience and the Mediating Effect of Social Support in the Relationship between Abuse Experience and Complex PTSD

    노나나 | HONG,CHANG-HEE | 2017, 30(1) | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of abuse experience on complex PTSD in adolescents. It also examined the roles of ego-resilience and social support in the relationship between abuse experience and complex PTSD. Data were obtained from 308 adolescents that had experienced abuse. The results were as follows: First, abuse experience showed high positive correlation with complex PTSD; ego-resilience and social support showed negative correlation with both abuse experience and complex PTSD. Second, multiple regression analysis showed that emotional abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse respectively were significantly able to predict complex PTSD. Finally, the moderating effect of ego-resilience and the mediating effect of social support were significant for the relationship between abuse experience and complex PTSD. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
  • 2.

    Characteristics and Functional Changes in Children at Aizone, a Day Treatment Program for Children with Severe Emotional/Behavioral Disturbances

    노경란 | 남경인 | 양지윤 and 3other persons | 2017, 30(1) | pp.21~40 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The aim of this study is to compare the overall characteristics of children at Aizone, an After-School Day Treatment Program, with those of their peers, as well as to examine changes in their functioning at home, school, and in the community after participation in the Aizone program. As a treatment center based on an integrated-developmental theory, Aizone is a Korean daytime treatment facility that offers not only individual and group treatment for children, but also provides community-linked services integrated with parent and family intervention. Aizone provides services for children with complex or severe emotional and behavioral problems, and is especially targeted towards children from low-income households. With the mission to promote the mental health of children and youth through early intervention, Aizone was established in 2006, and as of 2016, has been implemented in ten locations throughout Seoul and is continuing to grow. This study investigates 201 students at Aizone with 186 controls in order to investigate the general characteristics of children attending Aizone. Also, in order to verify the effectiveness of the program, we measured changes in the children. However, unlike previous studies, which focus on reduction of symptoms, we used the Child Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale to analyze changes in behavior, academics and peer relationships, emotion, and several special areas. According to the results, children at Aizone showed significant improvements in various aspects of function except addiction problems. Implications of the results are discussed.
  • 3.

    Independent and Interactive Effects of Paternal Positive Parenting and Child Negative Emotionality on Children’s Externalizing Behavior Problems

    김현아 | CHANG, HYE IN | 2017, 30(1) | pp.41~62 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract
    This study examined the independent effects of paternal positive parenting, child temperament, and their interaction on the development of children’s externalizing problems. We also explored whether the interactive effect of parenting and temperament, if evident, was more consistent with the diathesis­stress model or the differential­susceptibility hypothesis. Data from the Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) of the Korea Institute of Child Care and Education (KICCE) were used. Results indicated that both paternal positive parenting and child temperament were independently associated with children’s externalizing behaviors. Consistent with the diathesis­stress model, children who had higher levels of negative emotionality and whose fathers showed lower levels of positive parenting were at most risk for behavior problems. The findings suggest that paternal parenting and child temperament may be a promising target for early prevention of children’s externalizing problems.
  • 4.

    Relations of Copying Skills with Word Reading and Writing among Korean Kindergarten Children

    Bonghee Kim | Jeung-Ryeul Cho | 2017, 30(1) | pp.63~82 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated how copying skills were related to word reading and writing in 93 kindergarteners, aged 4 and 5. Children were to complete copying tasks, cognitive-linguistic tasks, and reading and writing measures. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate whether copying skills would predict word reading and writing. Results showed that copying skills explained word writing but not word reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence, and cognitive-linguistic skills. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to find out whether the relations of copying skills with literacy were mediated by cognitive-linguistic skills. Different results were observed for word reading and writing; syllable awareness and orthographic knowledge mediated between copying skills and word reading, whereas syllable and phoneme awareness mediated between copying skills and word writing.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Social Exclusion and Gratitude Writing on Interpretational Bias of the Facial Expression

    김희영 | Seung-yeon Lee | 2017, 30(1) | pp.83~102 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine the hostile cognitive bias in the task of interpreting neutral facial expressions after social exclusion and to find whether gratitude moderates the relationship between social exclusion and cognitive interpretation bias. Eighty-nine emerging adults participated in the experiment. The data analysis used a 2(social exclusion/acceptance) X 2(gratitude writing/control) ANOVA. The Cyberball game and gratitude writing task were used to manipulate social exclusion and gratitude respectively. For the interpretation task, the participants were asked to look at the neutral facial expressions and evaluate the degree of rejection as well as friendliness of each facial expression. Results indicated that there was a significant interaction effect between social exclusion and gratitude in interpreting neutral facial expressions as rejecting. However, in interpreting neutral facial expressions as friendly, only the main effect of gratitude was significant. Based on the results, therapeutic intervention strategies for negative outcomes of social exclusion were discussed.
  • 6.

    The development of children's abilities to flexibly use mutual exclusivity in word learning

    이현아 | Eun Young Kim | Song, Hyun-joo | 2017, 30(1) | pp.103~115 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Young children readily exploit the mutual exclusivity assumption that each object has one category label, when inferring the referent of a novel word. However, one should suspend this assumption when interpreting a word from a foreign language, which does not share the same knowledge of words with one’s native language. The present study investigated 2- to 3-year-olds’ ability to suspend the mutual exclusivity assumption toward a foreign word. In the native language test trials, a Korean-speaking experimenter presented the children with one familiar object and one novel object, and asked the child to pick a referent of a novel Korean word, “muppi”. In the foreign language trials, on the other hand, a Spanish-speaking experimenter presented the child with one familiar and one novel object, and asked the child to pick a referent of a novel Spanish word, “Pefo”. In the native language test trials, children chose the novel object more often than predicted by chance and there was no significant age difference. In the foreign language test trials, 2-year-olds again selected the novel object more often than predicted by chance, whereas 3-year-olds’ performance was not significantly different from chance. These results suggest that the ability to suspend mutual exclusivity in interpreting a foreign word develops between 2 and 3 years of age.
  • 7.

    The Relations between Meaning of Parents, Satisfaction of Relationship, Happiness and Adaptation in College Students

    Jo Seolae | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2017, 30(1) | pp.117~138 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning of parents and effects of meaning of parents on satisfaction of relationships, happiness and adaptation in Korean college students. Forty questions about the meaning of parents were selected by a pre-study in 141 college students. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted in the main study in which participants were 327 college students. The results showed 4 factors in meanings of parents: factor 1 "the ones who they love and do not want to disappoint", factor 2 "the ones who recognize them as an adult", factor 3 "the ones who support them and can be respected", and factor 4 "the ones who they want to attach to and need to support". A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to explore the effects of meaning of parents on satisfaction of relationships, subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and depression. The results showed that the meaning of parents, especially factor 2 and 3 affected satisfaction of relationships, happiness, and adaptation positively. This study concluded that the meaning of parents have positive effects on satisfaction of relationships, happiness and adaptation. Intervention that enhance the meaning of parents will increase satisfaction of relationship, adaptation, and happiness in college students.
  • 8.

    Achievement Goals, Academic Achievement and Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Boys: The Mediating effect of Prosociality

    Park SunYoung | Kyoung Ok Seol | Juna Kim | 2017, 30(1) | pp.139~157 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of prosociality in the relationship between achievement goals, academic achievement and externalizing problems based on implicit theory. Self-regulation is the primary mechanism that explains the link between implicit theory, achievement and psychological adjustment. Participants included 260 adolescents and their teachers. The adolescents were surveyed on achievement goals and externalizing problems, and the teachers reported on adolescents’ prosociality and academic achievement. Results revealed that a mastery approach had a positive relationship with academic achievement and a negative relationship with externalizing problems, prosociality fully mediated both relationships. Performance avoidance had a negative relationship with academic achievement as well as externalizing problems, prosociality partially mediated both relationships. A performance approach positively predicted academic achievement but was significantly associated with neither prosociality nor externalizing problems. Further implications for youth counseling and educational practice are discussed.
  • 9.

    Exploring the effect of experience on the development of evidential reasoning

    유성재 | Youngon Choi | 2017, 30(1) | pp.159~176 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The source of information conveyed by a speaker is marked with evidential morphemes: whether it was obtained from direct experience, indirect inference, or indirect hearsay. Evidential reasoning refers to abilities to infer the information source and its relative certainty using these evidential markers. It has been reported that evidential reasoning begins to mature after the age of six but this reasoning ability can appear earlier or later depending on the input frequency of evidentials used in each language. The present study aimed to explore the possibility that the effect of input frequency actually originates from the evidential experience related to each marker. To test this idea, a hide-and-seek play story was created in which information linked with direct experience was always correct whereas information associated with indirect inference or hearsay was correct only 50% of the time. Four and 5-year-olds were told this story four times and their evidential reasoning abilities were compared with those who were read a story that was unrelated to evidential experience. Four-year-olds who read the story with the experimenter, showed signs of improvement in their reasoning, but this effect was not observed among 5-year-olds who were shown the story via a video presentation. The role of the type and amount of evidential experience and other cognitive factors underlying development of evidential reasoning abilities were discussed.
  • 10.

    Exploring psychological factors influencing the punishment after social exclusion in female adults and adolescents

    정유진 | Kim So-Yeon | 2017, 30(1) | pp.177~193 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    We investigated critical factors and individual characteristics explaining punishment behavior after experiencing social exclusion. Our findings suggest that experiencing social exclusion can influence one's behavior and mood; such experience causes the excluded person to develop a negative attitude and take actions intended to punish the excluding parties. Female adults (19 - 24 years old) and female adolescents (13-15 years old) participated in this study. Participants completed written questionnaires with scales designed to measure their perspective taking, rejection sensitivity, and resistance to peer influence. Each participant subsequently experienced both social inclusion and exclusion while participating in the Cyber ball task developed by Williams (2000). After the Cyber ball task, participants played a Dictator Game in which they divided coins between themselves and players who had previously either included or excluded them during the Cyber ball task. Punishment behavior was measured by the participants’ unfairness in distributing coins to the other party. The results revealed that participants in both age groups selectively punished people who had excluded them in the Cyber ball task. In the adult group, this tendency towards punishment was associated with resistance to peer influence and the level of mood change. However, the tendency was associated with rejection sensitivity in the adolescent group. These results suggest that although both age groups exhibited negative attitudes and punishment tendencies to excluders after social exclusion, the triggering factors of the punishment were different between the two age groups. It is important to note that both the resistance to peer influence and rejection sensitivity found in each age group were related to inherent characteristics, and not due to changes in mood or social distress.
  • 11.

    The Effects of Maternal Instructional Support, Teacher-Child Relationship, and Children’s Cool and Hot Executive Functions on Children’s Task-focused Behaviors

    SUNG, JIHYUN | 2017, 30(1) | pp.195~217 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the effects of maternal instructional support, teacher­child relationship, and children’s cool and hot executive functions on task-focused behaviors. Participants were 94 children aged 4 and their mothers and teachers. Data for maternal instructional support behaviors were observed from mother­child interactions when doing a puzzle and drawing with an Etch-a Sketch. Children’s task-focused behaviors and teacher­child relationship were reported by teachers, and their cool and hot executive functions were assessed with a series of tasks provided by an experimenter. Path analyses showed that maternal instructional support was significantly related to children’s cool executive function and influenced children’s task-focused behavior by mediating cool executive function. Teacher­child relationship was significantly associated with children’s cool and hot executive functions, and was also directly associated with children’s task-focused behaviors. The relationship between teacher­child relationship and task-focused behaviors was partially mediated by children’s cool and hot executive functions. In addition, cool and hot executive functions were independent but were both significant predictors of task-focused behaviors. These findings confirm mothers’ and teachers’ roles in children’s development and learning, and provide backgrounds for the development of teacher education programs to support teacher­child relationships.