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pISSN : 1229-0718 / eISSN : 2671-6542

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2018, Vol.31, No.2

  • 1.

    Informants' characteristics that affect the selective trust of Korean children

    Somi Jeong | Youngon Choi | 2018, 31(2) | pp.1~19 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The present study investigated the characteristics of informants that affect Korean children’s selection of a more reliable source of information with regard to age, gender, and status. Four and five-year-old children were presented with the pictures of two people contrasted in terms of their age, gender, or status. they were then asked who they expected to have more knowledge and which informant they would prefer to ask the name of a novel object. Overall, 5-year-olds selected adults over children, teachers over parents, showing that they consider age and status in their selective trust. By comparison, 4-year-olds were not affected by these characteristics in choosing a knowledgeable informant. Interestingly, while boys selected teachers as a reliable source over parents, girls’s selective trust was not affected by the status of the informant, suggesting that status is a characteristic that boys tend to consider at an earlier age. These results suggest that the informant’s characteristics may affect the development of selective trust differently according to the child’s age and gender, and that Korean children’s development of selective trust may not follow the same developmental pattern as children studied in the US or Europe.
  • 2.

    Relationships among Anxiety about Aging, Future Time Perspective and Happiness in Middle-Aged Women

    Eun Hee Seo | 최지연 | CHONG,YOUNG-SOOK | 2018, 31(2) | pp.21~40 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the influence of anxiety about aging on Subjective Well-Being(SWB) and depression mediated by Future Time Perspective(FTP). Future Time Perspective measured two types: focus on opportunities perspective and focus on limitations perspective. Participants were 325 middle-aged women, aged between 45-64 years, -living in Busan and its surroundings. The results obtained from Process macro analysis developed by Hayes were as follows: First, anxiety about aging predicted less future time perspective focused on opportunity and more future time perspective focused on limitation. Second, the future time perspective focused on opportunity mediated on the relationship between anxiety about aging and subjective well-being after controlling educational level and perceived health state. Finally, ​the future time perspective focused on limitation mediated on the relationship between anxiety about aging and depression. The results show that two types of future time perspective predicted subjective well-being and depression. It suggests that the future time perspective focused on opportunity will function positively among elderly people.
  • 3.

    Development of Cognitive Control in the Flanker task and its Relations to Self-Regulation

    Park, Young Shin | KIMCHOBOK | 2018, 31(2) | pp.41~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Developmental changes in cognitive control were examined among 131 children and college students and the relationship between cognitive control and self-regulation was also examined among 96 children. The Eriksen Flanker Task was administered in order to measure cognitive control. Effortful control, emotional regulation, and smart-phone addiction proneness were also measured. The Flanker Interference Effect and Conflict Adaptation Effect were observed in four age groups. The magnitudes of the effects were not different among the age groups. These results suggest that children and college students experience interference from flanker stimuli to the same extent and that they exert top-down control on interference to the same extent. The Flanker Interference Effect and Conflict Adaptation Effect in reaction times were not related to effortful control, emotion regulation and smart-phone addiction proneness. However, the Conflict Adaptation Effect in error rate was positively related to smart-phone addiction proneness.
  • 4.

    The Effects of Social Skills Training Program in the Elderly

    Youngkyoung Kim | Ghim, Hei-rhee | 2018, 31(2) | pp.61~82 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The present study investigated the effects of a social skills training program for older adults. The program was composed of education and training regarding social role and social relationship, identification and differentiation of emotions, empathy, expression of emotions and thoughts, mind reading, etc. Thirty older adults (M=72.17, SD=4.02) of the experiment group were compared with 29 older adults (M=75.00, SD=5.78) who participated in the cognitive training program and 27 older adults (M=70.67, SD=3.23) without any treatment. Trained older adults showed benefits in emotion regulation, empathy, mind reading, and subjective well-being, and parts of these training benefits were maintained at a one month follow-up. These findings suggest that this program may either help the maintenance or improvement of older adults' social skills. Result implication, research limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.
  • 5.

    Children’s Moral Reasoning and Defending Behavior in School Bullying: The Moderation Effects of Classroom Level Characteristics

    Keng-Hie Song | Seung-yeon Lee | 2018, 31(2) | pp.83~103 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    This study examines why moral reasoning does not always predict defending behavior in school bullying. The moderation effects of classroom level characteristics including collective efficacy and classroom climate were studied to explain this inconsistent relationship. For this research, a self-administered survey was conducted by 373 participants from the fourth grade nested in 111 classes in 29 elementary schools in South Korea. Data was analyzed by bullying types using multilevel modeling. The results indicated that the moral domain did not have a significant impact on students’ defending behavior. Informal social control derived from peer relationships, one sub-factor of collective efficacy, positively predicted individual students’ defending behavior in both physical and verbal bullying. The effect of moral reasoning on defending behaviors in verbal bullying situations was moderated by a sense of fairness in the classroom. The classroom characteristics should be considered in the development of intervention plans for school bullying as well as the individual moral reasoning of students.
  • 6.

    Mediating effects of Grit and Positive Psychological Capital on the relationship between leisure activities and life satisfaction in high school students

    Hyosun Choi | Sujin Yang | 2018, 31(2) | pp.105~123 | number of Cited : 52
    Abstract PDF
    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of high school students' leisure activities on the satisfaction of life through two parametric variables, called Grit and Positive Psychological Capital(PPC) through structural equation. Leisure activity, Grit, PPC and Life Satisfaction were surveyed among 226 high school students. Leisure activities directly affect the satisfaction of life. Grit and PPC mediated the relationship between leisure activities and life satisfaction. Also, the dual mediating effects of Grit and PPC on the relationship between structural leisure activities and life satisfaction were proved to be significant. This study empirically confirmed the concept that leisure activities, which are non-learning factors, provide a challenge for high school students to develop Grit. In addition, it is significant that we found a structure that PPC acquires by leisure activity and, as a result, strengthens Grit, which improves overall life satisfaction.
  • 7.

    Adverse Parenting Experiences and College Students’ Problematic Drinking: Impulsivity and Perceived Importance of Drinking in College as Mediators

    Ji Hye Park | Kyoung Ok Seol | 김지혜 | 2018, 31(2) | pp.125~144 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study aimed to examine an integrated model of college students' problematic drinking based on Life History Theory and the Acquired Preparation Model. We hypothesized that adverse parenting experiences in childhood would promote fast life strategies, which promote the development of impulsivity. Impulsivity would lead to the perception of the importance of drinking in college, which in turn predicts the increase in problematic drinking. In this study, 365 college students participated. We found that adverse parenting in childhood predicted college students’ problematic drinking. As hypothesized, this link was mediated by impulsivity and the perceived importance of drinking in college. We also tested whether this model would differ by gender. The result of the multiple group analysis showed that there was no gender difference in this mediation model. However, the relationship between adverse parenting experiences and impulsivity was stronger among males. Implications for alcohol related counseling for college students and the development of an alcohol abuse prevention program were discussed.
  • 8.

    The effect of temporal processing on the development of grammar in second and third grade students

    Yoon-Ji Song | Kim So-Yeon | 2018, 31(2) | pp.145~167 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    We investigated whether temporal processing can explain language development in school-aged children. Specifically, we tested the relationship between language functions and Temporal or Spatial Working Memory (SWM or TWM) functions in 2nd and 3rd grade elementary school students. Participants performed SWM and TWM tasks, as well as standardized WM tests in Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. The Language Scale for School-Aged Children (LSSC) was conducted to evaluate language functions. Third graders showed significantly higher abilities in SWM, TWM, and the grammar domain of language function. Further, regression analyses revealed that TWM can explain significant variances in language functions measured by LSSC in all participants, after ruling out the effects of age, SWM, and general WM functions. Notably, for the third grader, the grammar domain was significantly explained by temporal processing functions measured by TWM, even after controlling for the effects of SWM, age, and general WM functions. In sum, our study demonstrates a novel finding that temporal processing can play a significant role in language development, especially in the domain of grammar in school-aged children.