The present study examines marital conflict as a moderator of relationships between early early child callous-unemotional (CU) traits, disinhibition temperaments, and conduct problems at the transition-to-school-age. Data from waves 2, 5, and 8 of the Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC) of the Korea Institute of Child Care and Education (KICCE) were analyzed. Parents provided ratings of a child’s CU at four years of age, disinhibition at 14 months, marital conflict at 14 months and four years, and child conduct problems at seven years. The result of hierarchical regression showed that CU and marital conflict had significant main effects on future conduct problems. In addition, interaction effects between CU and marital conflict were statistically significant such that the associations between CU and conduct problems were larger for children whose parents reported high levels of marital conflict. On the other hand, main effects of disinhibition and interaction effect between disinhibition and marital conflict on conduct problems were not significant. Results are discussed with respect to both individual and contextual factors in developmental pathways to conduct problems.
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship among children's perception of parental conflict and parenting style, their rumination, social anxiety and school adjustment. A total of 280 children (4th year) and 10 homeroom teachers participated. Each child completed questionnaires on perception of parental conflict, perception of parenting style, rumination, and social anxiety. Children's school adjustment was measured by their homeroom teachers' reports. The results showed that perception of parental conflict was highly correlated with rumination and social anxiety, and negatively correlated with school adjustment. In addition, parenting style high in rejection and control was significantly related to perception of parental conflict. Rumination has a positive correlation with social anxiety and a negative correlation with school adjustment. The results of path analysis revealed that children's perception of parental conflict influenced their school adjustment and was mediated by parenting style high in rejection and control, rumination and social anxiety. In addition, our results showed that parenting style high in rejection and control directly influenced school adjustment, and children's rumination influenced school adjustment, mediated by their social anxiety.
An informant's previous accuracy is an important aspect to judge credibility of his information. The current study examined whether young children trust a teacher or a peer when the teacher was inaccurate or when it is uncertain if the teacher is more accurate than the peer. Four- and five-year-olds trusted the peer's labeling of a toy, but not labeling of an object when the teacher was previously inaccurate and the peer was accurate. In this situation, three-year-olds' trust in the peer was at chance level no matter whether the labeling was about toys or usual objects. Interestingly, when the teacher was inaccurate and the peer's accuracy was uncertain, and when the peer was accurate and the teacher's accuracy was uncertain, children in all age groups did not readily trust the peer's labeling regardless of the kind of objects. Alongside the result that four- and five-year-olds might trust a teacher more than a usual adult, cultural emphasis on harmony with social norms, the elderly, and teachers and its possible influence on young children's trust in teachers will be discussed.
This study aims to ascertain the depression-pain-fatigue symptom cluster in a nonclinical sample in Korea and investigates how family relationships and loneliness might explain the symptom cluster. We recruited 257 young adults, and surveyed the quality of parental and sibling relationships, loneliness and depression, pain and fatigue symptoms. In order to ascertain the symptom cluster among the nonclinical sample, we performed correlational tests and principle component analyses. We also tested loneliness as a mediator between parental and sibling relationships and the symptom cluster. The results confirmed the existence of the symptom cluster in this sample. Furthermore, loneliness fully mediated the link between parental relationship and the symptom cluster, and partially mediated the link between sibling relationship and the symptom cluster. These results suggest that nonclinical samples also experience the symptom cluster and require more comprehensive intervention to treat psychological and physical symptoms. Implications for considering both parental and sibling relationships and loneliness to explain symptom clusters were found.
The present study investigated the development of second-order theory of mind and interpretive theory of mind in Korean 6-year-olds and also examined whether these two abilities are related to evidential reasoning abilities. The results showed that, overall, Korean 6-year-olds performed lower than chance level on the second-order false-belief task, suggesting it is still developing at this age. In the interpretive theory of mind task, performance was relatively good, although children still had difficulty explicitly explaining their reasons behind their choices. Individual differences in the second-order theory of mind scores showed a positive association with the differences in evidential reasoning abilities. Individual differences in interpretive theory of mind abilities also showed a positive association. These results suggest that skills that require representing and computing diverse and complex mental states develop in parallel, or perhaps the second-order theory of mind and interpretive theory of mind abilities might underlie the development of the abilities to reason about the certainty of information obtained and reported from different sources.
Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that an age-related positivity effect in cognitive processes such as attention and memory may reflect efforts at emotion regulation in older adults. Based on this, the study examines age differences in selective attention to emotional information and positivity effect in memory retrieval. Compared to the younger age group (aged 19-26 years), older adults (aged 65-84 years) showed relatively high levels of selective attention to emotional words than non-emotional ones, though not showing positive bias, and also recognized the positively valenced words more than the negatively valenced ones. These findings suggest that an age-related positivity effect in cognitive processes may reflect the process of emotion regulation that contributes to positive affective experiences and sense of well-being in older adults.
This study aims to examine a longitudinal relationship between loneliness, sense of control, and binge eating symptoms. We hypothesize that loneliness, sense of control, and binge eating symptoms would remain stable and reciprocally related over two years. We expected that decrease in sense of control would mediate the relationship between increase in loneliness and binge eating symptoms. We employed autoregressive cross-lagged modeling with 570 young adult Korean women aged 18-31 who completed surveys four times over two years. We found that loneliness, sense of control, and binge eating symptoms were stable over time. We also found that loneliness and sense of control negatively predicted each other, and sense of control negatively predicted binge eating over time. Although the reciprocal relationship between loneliness and binge eating was not significant, this relationship was mediated by sense of control over time. Theoretical and clinical implications of the study and limitations were discussed.
This study examines the relationship among victim justice sensitivity (VJS), hostile attribution bias (HAB) and reactive aggression (RA) of middle-school students. Specifically, we investigated how the relationships of these variables varied according to the level of effortful control (EC). Self-reported data of 420 middle -school students were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that HAB partially mediated the relationship between VJS and RA in the total sample. Multigroup analysis was also conducted based on the level of EC (top/bottom 30%). Results indicated that HAB did not predict RA at low EC, while the mediation effect of HAB was only significant at high EC. A stronger EC significantly weakened the positive relationship between VJS and HAB, and between VJS and RA. This study supported the importance of considering VJS in explaining RA and demonstrated the need to enhance EC to reduce HAB and RA resulting from VJS.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ambivalence of meaning of children on quality of relationships and happiness in middle aged parents. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were examined by study 1 in 210 participants to identify contents and structure of meanings of children. The results showed that positive meanings of children were included of 3 subfactors as ‘love’, ‘supporting’ and ‘attached’, And negative meanings of children were constructed by 2 subfactors, ‘burdened’ and ‘restrictive’. And study 2 was to identify the impact of positive and negative meanings on quality of relationship and happiness in 216 parents. The result showed that mothers reported more higher positive and negative meanings than fathers. Also positive meanings enhanced their care, respect and consideration on their children and it also improved happiness of the parents. However, negative meanings were linked to increased positive quality of relationships and reduced conflict with children, while also enhancing happiness.
The purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences and the mediating effect of generativity, meaning presence and spirituality between search for meaning in life and subjective well-being. A total of 391 middle-aged adults(156 males and 235 females) participated in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between each factors and to analyze the difference between males and females. As the result of this research, we found the fully-mediated effect of the presence of meaning in the relationship of the search for meaning and subjective well-being. Generativity mediated the effect of search for meaning on meaning presence, while meaning presence mediated both the relationship between search for meaning and spirituality and the relationship between generativity and subjective well-being. The effect of spirituality on subjective well-being for male participants was stronger than that of female participants. Limitations of the current study and implications for future study were discussed.
This study examined the influence of mothers’ and teachers’ emotional expressiveness on school adjustment of preschool children. In addition, the mediation effects of children’s negative emotionality and emotion regulation were examined. Data were collected from 110 children(60 boys and 50 girls) between 3 and 5 years old, and their mothers and kindergarten teachers. Mothers reported their own emotional expressiveness and rated children’s emotional temperament and regulation ability at time 1. Teachers’ emotion expressiveness and children’s school adjustment were evaluated by other teachers at time 2. Results showed that children’s negative emotionality was negatively correlated with their emotion regulation ability, and particularly, children’s negative emotionality mediated the relationship between mothers’ negative expressiveness and children’s emotion regulation. However, teachers’ emotional expressiveness accounted for children’s school adjustment, but not emotion regulation. Findings are discussed in terms of socialization of emotion and the role of teachers in the kindergarten classroom.