The present study is designed to investigate the mediating effect of child empathy on parental reactions to children's negative emotional expression and the defender's role in bullying. To this end, 384 fifth and sixth graders were asked to complete questionnaires including Coping with Children's Negative Emotion Scale(CCNES), Children's Versions of the Empathy Quotient(EQ-C) and Participant Role Questionnaire(PRQ). Our results reveal that supportive parental reactions to children's negative emotion has a significant positive effect on both cognitive and emotional empathy. Also, empathy is significantly related to children's defense responses for victims and is negatively related to bullying-supporting and onlooking behaviors. In particular, it was found that cognitive empathy did not have a significant effect on the bullying-supporting responses both in male and female students, whereas emotional empathy had a significant impact on bullying attitudes. Finally, supportive responses for children’s negative emotional expressions were found to influence the defense responses of bullying victims through building empathy in children.
The current study examined young children's judgments of learning intention and occurrence of learning based on a learner's knowledge state and an informant's teaching intention. Three to five-year-olds' theory of mind was measured. Also, after telling six stories including information about a learner's knowledge state (knowledgeable, neutral, ignorant) and an informant's teaching intention (try to teach the learner, does not have any teaching intention), children's judgments regarding whether the learner would try to learn and whether he has learned were asked. Children with higher theory of mind tended to judge that the knowledgeable learner would not try to learn the same knowledge, but the ignorant person would try to learn. Moreover, with age and with an increase in theory of mind, children came to judge that learning occurred when there was a change in the learner's knowledge. In addition to a relation between children's judgment of learning and theory of mind, implications of this development on their learning from a metacognitive perspective will be discussed.
The current study examined 1) the associations among young children’s social withdrawal, preschool adjustment, teacher-child relationships, and maternal management strategies for children’s peer relationships and 2) the moderating effects of teacher-child relationships and maternal management strategies for children’s peer relationships on the association between children’s social withdrawal and preschool adjustment. Participants were 156 children aged 4-6 years(67 boys, 89 girls) and their mothers. Results indicated that shyness, social disinterest, and social avoidance were negatively related to preschool adjustment. However, teachers’ warmth/support moderated the association between children’s shyness and maladjustment, and teachers’ warmth/support and mothers’ advice-concern strategy moderated the link between children’s social disinterest and maladjustment. The results provide useful information for plans and practices to support socially withdrawn children’s preschool adjustment.
The present study investigated the relationship between facial expression recognition accuracy and sharing behavior, one of the prosocial behaviors-of first and third graders. The authors measured facial expression recognition accuracy by DANVA-2 and sharing behavior by modified dictator game. The results revealed that there was no difference in the amount of resources shared with the recipient, but there was a difference in the facial expression recognition accuracy between the two age groups. Older children recognized anger facial expression more accurately than younger children. Furthermore, it was found that children's angry facial expression recognition accuracy is related to their prosocial sharing behavior.
The present experiments investigated moral judgments of blue liesa false statement to conceal an ingroup member's moral transgressions. Adults and children were presented with vignettes and asked to evaluate the decisions of a protagonist who did not report their ingroup member’s (ingroup condition) or outgroup member's (outgroup condition) moral transgressions to a third person. The results showed that adults (Study 1) and 5-year-old children (Study 2A) evaluated the protagonist as more morally acceptable in the ingroup than in the outgroup condition; whereas 4-year-old children (Study 2B) did not show the difference across conditions. These results suggest that children’s moral justification of blue lies emerges around 5 years of age.
The aim of this study was to verify the moderated mediating effect of interpersonal orientation on the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation and SNS (Social Networking Service) addiction proneness through social anxiety. A total of 341 Korean undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years participated in this study via online survey. The mediation effect of social anxiety on the relation between perfectionistic self-presentation and SNS addiction proneness was found only among men. Additionally, interpersonal orientation moderated the mediating effect of social anxiety on the relation between perfectionistic self-presentation and SNS addiction proneness only in a group of men. For women, neither mediation effect nor moderated mediating effect was significant. Based on these results, implications of this study and intervention strategies for undergraduate students’ SNS addiction proneness are discussed.
This study examined whether enhanced attention to other’s emotional and physical characteristics can promote 4-year-olds’ (N = 107) sharing behavior in a dictator game. In this experiment, participants distributed 10 stickers between themselves and a monkey puppet in a picture. Before starting the game, children in emotion condition were asked to guess how the recipient monkey would feel (happy, neutral or sad) after receiving stickers to draw children’s attention to recipient. Children in the appearance condition were asked to think about the color of monkey’s shoes. In control condition, children participated in a standard dictator game without any previous instruction. As a result, children in the emotion and appearance condition distributed significantly more stickers to the recipient than those in the control condition. This result suggests that enhanced attention to recipients’ emotional and physical characteristics can enhance children’s fair behavior in a resource sharing task.