This study aimed to classify life goals among South Korean 12th graders. Moreover, the roles of gender and developmental factors (parent-child relationships, a sense of community, and learning goal orientation) that contribute to life goal profiles were studied. Finally, adjustment at university according to life goal profiles was investigated. The Korean Educational Longitudinal Study data was analyzed, using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). There were 2,828 participants (males: 1,275) who completed the second, third, sixth, and seventh surveys. The results indicated that the life goals of the 12th graders were classified into three types: pursuing life goals, intermediate, and low development. In addition, when students reported a high level of respect for parents, responsibility to participate in society, cooperative learning, the mastery approach, and performance avoidance, they were more likely to fall into the intermediate life goals profiles than the low development profiles. Moreover, a high level of achievement pressure, respect for parents, and concern for others contributed to increasing possibilities that students belong to the pursuing life goals profiles. In addition, compared to boys, girls tended to be more likely to be affiliated with pursuing life goals profiles than intermediate life goals profiles. Finally, pursuing a high level of diverse life goals in the 12th grade increased adjustment success at university. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.