We tested the effects of two training programs on emotion recognition functions in children with ADHD. For children with ADHD (9 to 13 years old), an Emotion Understanding Training Program (EUTP) and a Social Skills Training Program (SSTP) were administered for 10 weeks (60 minutes per session, once a week). All participants were tested for their emotion recognition abilities and behavioral problems before and after the programs. Results revealed no significant difference in self-reported emotion recognition and expression scores between EUTP and SSTP groups after the programs. However, significant differences were found between the two groups on emotion recognition sensitivity for positive emotion, as measured by a dynamic facial emotion morphing task. That is, children in the EUTP group showed significant improvement in emotion recognition sensitivity in responding to happy faces, whereas children in the SSTP group failed to show such improvement. Finally, both group showed reduced behavioral problems after training. Based on such findings, implications and limitations of this study and future research directions were discussed.
Grit, enthusiasm and perseverance for achieving important life goal, predict cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Although prior work on grit has indicated that grit leads to adaptive outcomes, we know relatively little about the longitudinal effects of grit. To address this gap in the literature, we examined whether changes in grit predicted changes in anxiety and school adjustment levels during adolescence. We assessed high school students’ (N=377) leavels of grit, anxiety, and school adjustment twice(six months apart). The results confirmed that an increase in grit predicted a rank-order decrease in anxiety, which in turn predicted a rank-order increase in school adjustment. These findings suggest that improving grit may enhance adolescents’ psychological well-being and school adaptation abilities.
This study explored the effects of grit on emotional, psychological, and social well-being(well-being indicators that form “mental well-being”) and examined whether career calling and job-seeking stress mediate these relationships. The participants were 339 currently unemployed young adults(mean age=22.6, SD=2.7). Grit directly predicted young adults’ emotional, psychological, and social well-being. In addition, career calling significantly mediated the relationships between grit and psychological and social well-being, except that of grit and emotional well-being. Job-seeking stress mediated the relationships between grit and the three types of well-being. These results showed that not only does young adults’ grit promote various states of well-being by strengthening career calling but also by alleviating job-seeking stress. We further discussed the implications of grit for young adults who face various uncertainties and instabilities and its role in career development and the maintenance of well-being.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of Instagram viewing activity, body comparison, and body satisfaction on the self-esteem of 219 female undergraduate students who participated in this study. They responded to questionnaires regarding Instagram viewing activity, body comparison, body satisfaction, and self-esteem. The main results of this study follow. First, Instagram viewing activity had an indirect effect on self-esteem through body comparison. Second, Instagram viewing activity indirectly influenced self-esteem through body comparison and body satisfaction. Specifically, increased Instagram viewing activity corresponds to increased levels of comparing one’s body to another’s. Further, body comparison decreases body satisfaction and, ultimately, diminished levels of body satisfaction lead to a decrease in self-esteem. In conclusion, this study offers the foundation for counseling aimed at preventing women’s eating disorders caused by decreased body satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to examine multiple mediation effects of gender role conflict, shame, and depression among middle school boys on the relationship between victimization from bullying and reactive aggression. Self-reported data of 462 middle school boys were analyzed. The results of structural equation modeling(SEM) indicated that a greater frequency of victimization from bullying was associated with increased gender role conflict among males, which contributed to reactive aggression. In addition, the double mediation effects of male gender role conflict and depression were significant for victimization from bullying and reactive aggression. Shame and depression, respectively, also served as mediators between victimization and reactive aggression. Finally, multiple mediating effects of male gender role conflicts, shame, and depression were also demonstrated. Based on these findings, implications and suggestions for intervention strategies for victimized male students are discussed.
In this study, the effects of maternal cognitive support and emotional support during play on children’s cognitive flexibility were examined. Specifically, the mediating role of interest in the relationship between maternal support and cognitive flexibility was investigated. Fifty-four children aged four and five years and their mothers participated in this study. Mothers’ behaviors during play were videotaped and analyzed. Interest was measured by inquiring about children’s emotions and persistence. Children’s cognitive flexibility was measured by the DCCS (Dimensional Change Card Sort) task. The results of this study following: First, there was a significant difference in children’s interest and cognitive flexibility according to maternal support. Cognitive support was negatively correlated to children’s cognitive flexibility, and emotional support was positively correlated to cognitive flexibility. Second, the mediating effect of interest was significant for the relationship between maternal support and children’s cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest that maternal cognitive and emotional support during play may be important factors that contribute to children’s interest and cognitive flexibility.