This study investigated the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory based on self-esteem in younger adults. A total of 84 university students (42 males and 42 females) completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. They recalled three positive and three negative self-esteem memories and rated the quality of each memory. Based on their self-esteem scores, they were divided into high and low self-esteem level groups. The analysis of variance showed that memories of high self-esteem younger adults were more vivid and they recalled more information about themselves and others for a longer time. Regardless of self-esteem level, younger adults recalled more information about themselves in negative events and experienced more changes in emotions and thoughts after negative events. Negative emotional valence of negative events was higher in younger adults with low self-esteem. The content analysis showed that self-esteem memories of negative experiences focused on social relations rather than achievement. These findings suggest that the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory does not work in younger adults, and the effects of negative experiences are strong. Self-concepts can be damaged more in younger adults with low self-esteem.
To understand peer victimization among undergraduate students and provide intervention strategies, the types and rates of bullying experienced by undergraduate students were explored. A moderated mediation model of meaning in life and self-compassion on relation between peer victimization and mental well-being was analyzed using the Process macro. A self-report questionnaire conducted through an online survey platform was completed by 369 students (aged between 18-25 years). The results indicated that between 8.5-19.6% of the participants reported peer victimization in undergraduate school, although there were differences across types of victimization. The moderated mediation model showed a significant conditional mediation effect of meaning in life in the link between peer victimization and mental well-being among students who reported low or average levels of self-compassion. However, the direct effect of peer victimization on mental well-being was not significant. The implications and limitations of the present study are discussed based on these findings.
This study investigated the influence of grandmothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotion expression on the mothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotion expression, children’s emotion regulation, and social competence. A total of 223 children (aged 3 to 5 years) and their families participated in this study. Only maternal grandmothers were included in this study. Grandmothers’ and mothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotional expressions were measured by maternal reports using revised versions of Korean translations of the Maternal Emotional Styles Questionnaire. Mothers also rated the children’s ability to regulate emotions, while the children’s social competence was evaluated by teachers’ ratings in kindergarten settings. Results showed that grandmothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotion expression positively affected the mothers’ attitudes. Grandmothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotion expression were not directly linked to child variables, but instead affected children’s social competence via the mothers’ attitudes towards children’s emotion expression and children’s emotion regulation. In particular, only the direct effect of the children’s emotion regulation on children’s social competence was significant. Findings were discussed in terms of the intergenerational transmission of the socialization of emotion.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive function and narrative skills in preschool children. A total of 33 children aged four to six participated in this study. This study used the fruit Stroop, nonword repetition, word list recall, and matrix tests to examine executive function, while story comprehension and story grammar production task were used to investigate narrative skills. Stepwise multiple regression was applied to examine the executive function tasks that predict story comprehension and story grammar production respectively. The results revealed that the word list recall task and the fruit Stroop task were significant predictors of story comprehension and story grammar production, respectively, suggesting the contribution of executive function to preschool children’s narrative skills.
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderated mediation effect of gender on the influence of effortful control and teacher-child relationships on children’s social development. The participants were 163 children (aged 4-5 years) and their teachers. Mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation models were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and PROCESS macro 3.5 programs. First, the teacher-child relationship mediated the relationship between children’s effortful control and social development. Second, the gender moderated the effects of the children’s effortful control on the teacher-child relationship. Finally, the indirect effect of teacher-child relationships through children’s effortful control on social development was moderated by gender. The indirect effect was significant, especially in boys. This study provides information about ways to guide a child’s social development according to their gender.