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pISSN : 1229-0718 / eISSN : 2671-6542

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 1.67
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2021, Vol.34, No.4

  • 1.

    The Relationship between First-Time Mother’s Grit and Happiness: The Mediation Effects of Meaning of Life and Parental Self-Efficacy in Mothers of Infants and Toddlers

    Park Jooha | Youjin Bae | Sujin Yang | 2021, 34(4) | pp.1~20 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examined grit as a predictor of happiness in the first-time mothers and tested the mediating effects of the meaning of life (search for meaning and presence of meaning in life) and parental self-efficacy as the underlying mechanisms for the relationship between grit and first-time mothers’ happiness. Self-reported questionnaires were collected from 217 full-time mothers with infants and toddlers aged 0-2years. The results showed that (1) all variables in the research model were positively related, and (2) all single, double, and triple mediation effects were significant, with the exception of the search for meaning. This study showed that, despite the fact that the burden of caring for young children was the greatest for first-time mothers, grit increased mothers’ happiness by enhancing the meaning of life and sequentially equipped them with child-rearing efficacy. This work was significant as it was the first study to identify the positive workings of grit in the field of life, particularly for mothers who strived to fulfill their parenting role.
  • 2.

    The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Hangul Reading and Spelling Among Kindergarten Children

    Giye Kim | Jeung-Ryeul Cho | Bonghee Kim | 2021, 34(4) | pp.21~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated the relationship between morphological awareness (compounding, inflectional, derivational, and homophone awareness) and Hangul syllable reading, word reading, and word spelling in 139 5-year-old kindergartners in Korea. This study controlled for nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that Korean morphological awareness explained Hangul syllable reading and word reading and spelling over and above nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary and phonological awareness. When the final beta weights found were considered, homophone morphological awareness, as well as syllable and coda consonants awareness uniquely explained the significant variance in Hangul word reading. Additionally, derivational awareness and coda consonants awareness uniquely explained Hangul syllable reading. Furthermore, coda consonants awareness and homophone awareness uniquely and marginally explained Hangul word spelling respectively. These findings suggest that morphological awareness, especially homophone and derivational awareness, contributes to the early Hangul literacy skills among kindergarten children.
  • 3.

    Relationship between Maternal Maladaptive Perfectionism and Children's Behavioral Problems: Mediation Effects of Maternal Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Childrearing Controlling Behaviors

    Yeajin Kim | DONGGWI LEE | 2021, 34(4) | pp.45~66 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study investigates maternal cognitive emotion regulation strategies and controlling behaviors as mediators in the relationship between maternal maladaptive perfectionism and children's behavioral problems. Overall, 402 mothers with children aged 2-5 responded to a self-report questionnaire. The date were analyzed by SPSS 25 and AMOS 25. The results showed that, mothers’ maladaptive perfectionism predicted their children's behavioral problems, which was mediated by maladaptive maternal cognitive emotion regulation strategies, but not by controlling childrearing behaviors. Specifically, maladaptive maternal cognition emotion regulation strategies significantly affected children's behavioral problems. The findings suggest the necessity for interventions designed to facilitate the adaptive cognitive coping skills for mothers with maladaptive perfectionism.
  • 4.

    A validation study of Ratings of Everyday Executive Functioning(REEF) for preschoolers

    Duri Kwon | Nana Shin | 2021, 34(4) | pp.67~90 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Ratings of Everyday Executive Functioning (REEF), which was developed for 3-5 years old and validated by Nilsen and colleagues(2017) to evaluate the executive function of preschoolers, and the validity (construct validity, convergent validity, concurrent validity, cross validity) of REEF were examined using three samples of Korean mothers and their children aged 3-5 years. The results of the validity of REEF confirmed through the three samples are summarized as follows: First, after going through the translation-reverse translation and review process by a Korean writer, a preliminary survey was conducted to confirm the clarity and appropriateness of the REEF questions. As a result of the item analysis of REEF, the quality of the items was confirmed, and then the final questions were confirmed. Second, as a result of conducting exploratory factor analysis to examine construct validity, all items except for one item showed an acceptable fit of factor loading, indicating that a single factor was suitable, as in the study that developed the original scale. Third, the correlations between REEF and BRIEF-P, REEF and executive function measured by the execution function performance task were significant, and convergent validity was demonstrated. Fourth, the correlation between mothers’ parenting behavior, preschoolers’ theory of mind, problem behavior and language ability was significant, and concurrent validity was examined. Finally, as a result of cross-validity testing whether the results examined through Study Subject 1 appear the same as the new subject, factor loadings of all items except for the two items were found to be similar. In conclusion, the current study is meaningful in that it provides a new and additional tool for the executive function and REEF validated from various aspects can be used in various ways in the future.
  • 5.

    Preschoolers' Sociomoral Evaluations of Ingroup Exclusion

    Joo-hyang Park | Kyong-sun Jin | 2021, 34(4) | pp.91~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    We investigated preschoolers’ sociomoral evaluations of ingroup exclusion in two experiments (N = 120). Children were assigned to minimal groups using minimal group paradigm (Tajfel et al., 1971) and participated in a Cyberball paradigm (Williams et al., 2000) with their ingroup members. In the game, children experienced either ingroup exclusion (exclusion condition) or ingroup inclusion (inclusion condition). When linguistic cues about exclusion or inclusion were given (Experiment 1), 5-year-olds in the exclusion condition evaluated ingroup members more negatively than those in the inclusion condition. When there was no linguistic cue (Experiment 2), 4-5-year-olds also exhibited similar results in their moral evaluations as the children in Experiment 1. In the following social-preference task, children in both conditions preferred ingroup to outgroup member. These results suggest that children can evaluate ingroup members who excluded them as negative, yet they maintain a social preference toward them.
  • 6.

    Exploring the relationship between digital device usage, executive functions, and reading time and preference in 4th to 6th graders

    Aran Kim | Nam, Minji | Youngon Choi | 2021, 34(4) | pp.109~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In light of an increase in the use of digital media devices, reading has been steadily declining, particularly beginning around K4 through K6. However, there is limited empirical evidence directly supporting this relationship. The present study examined the association between the usage of digital devices and reading, and how children’s executive function (EF) plays a role in this relationship. Overall, 304 parents whose children were in 4th to 6th grades reported on the average time their children spent using digital devices and partaking in various types of reading, together with their children’s attitude toward reading and EF. We also asked parents if they provided media education to their children. The results showed that the more parents use and rely on digital devices, the more their children rely on them. The more time children spent on their smartphones, the less likely they were to spend time reading books. In addition, children with lower EF scores spent more time on digital devices and less time reading, and were also less likely to prefer spending time reading. In particular, the shifting component of EF uniquely predicted reading time and preference. However, no significant moderating effect of EF was observed between digital device usage and reading. Instead, EF predicted reading and digital device usage. When parents provided education about digital device usage, the child’s reading time and preference increased and the EF-related problem score was lower, suggesting that providing education for children about digital device usage can be useful and effective. Together, these results suggest the possibility that factors such as children’s EF development and parental education may play a role in the relationship between children's digital device usage and reading habits.
  • 7.

    Perceived Helicopter Parenting and Psychopathic Tendencies in College Students: The Mediating Effect of Lying to Parents

    Ji-young Park | Kyong-sun Jin | 2021, 34(4) | pp.133~151 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Parents’ involvement is generally related to many positive child outcome. However, recent studies have found the negative effects of over-controlling parenting, or "helicopter parenting," in college students. This study examined the mediating effect of lying to one's parents on the relationship between perceived helicopter parenting and psychopathic tendencies in emerging adulthood. Korean college students (N = 437) reported their parents' helicopter parenting, current deceptive behaviors toward parents, and psychopathic tendencies. The results revealed that the adults who reported higher levels of helicopter parenting showed higher levels of deception toward their parents and higher levels of psychopathic tendencies. The levels of deception toward parents mediated the relationship between perceived helicopter parenting and psychopathic tendencies.
  • 8.

    Development and Validation of the Korean Version of Subjective Sense of Calling in Childrearing Scale (K-SSCCS)

    Suran Lee | Youjin Bae | Sujin Yang and 1other persons | 2021, 34(4) | pp.153~182 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Korean version of Subjective Sense of Calling in Childrearing Scale (K-SSCCS) in order to integrate cultural differences in parental roles and the meaning of parenthood. The study developed 26 preliminary items based on the original questions from the Subjective Sense of Calling in Childrearing Scale (SSCCS), the results from a qualitative study examining the concept of a life calling to raise children, and literature about Korean parents. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis was conducted (N = 479). The results showed 19 items representing four factors (purpose/identity, sacrifice/devotion, passion/growth, and awareness/focus). In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analysis supported 18 items with four factors (N = 628). A validity analysis and evaluation of a nomological network, along with psychological well-being and parenting variables, confirmed that the K-SSCCS would be a reliable scale for measuring the strength of the calling to raise children. The implications of the study are discussed.