This study aimed to examine the effects of Korean and Chinese mothers' parenting environment and parenting stress on children's anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study participants were 135 Korean mothers and 209 Chinese mothers of children aged 3-5 years old. Frequency, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0. First, Korean and Chinese mothers reported that their parenting time increased during the COVID-19 due to the closure of children's educational institutions. Second, Korean mothers' parenting stress was significantly higher than Chinese mothers. Finally, for Korean mothers, the experience of self-quarantine, confirmed cases in the family, and parenting stress were significant variables on the children's anxiety. Chinese mothers' parenting stress affected the Chinese children's anxiety. This study provides information about the parenting environment during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors that could affect children's anxiety.
This cross-sectional, longitudinal study aimed to investigate the predictive effects of SES and parent-child interaction on children's language skills and executive function. We analyzed the data of 318 children (M=62.28 months, SD=1.22) from 2013 (T1) and 2016 (T2) from Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the predictor variables on vocabulary scores at T1, and word application, verbal reasoning, and executive function at T2. Results revealed that SES and parent-child interaction were significant predictors of expressive but not receptive vocabulary at T1. Only SES predicted word application and executive function at T2, but both variables predicted verbal reasoning. This study revealed parent-child interaction’s essential factor along with SES predicting children's language skills and executive function. Hence, rich parent-child interaction in low-SES homes could aid in bridging the gap brought on by SES.
Causal relational reasoning is the ability to make abstract inferences about causal relationships among objects or events and is one of the most important thought processes that allow individuals to draw and acquire various forms of knowledge. The current review analyzed research that examined the early development of causal relational reasoning across different cultures, including research conducted in Korea in this domain. In particular, we examined whether the developmental pathway of causal relational reasoning is universal or diverse across cultures and the possible role of language and/or sociocultural factors. Developmental patterns that appeared around age three differed across the U.S., China, India, and Korea, possibly attributable to diverse language acquisition patterns and cultural contexts. However, no definitive conclusions could be drawn from the current data because of the limited evidence available. Research conducted in Korea has also been limited to replications of past studies. Suggestions were made for future studies of Korean toddlers and children that could help further verify the developmental pattern of causal relational reasoning.