This study aimed to examine moderated mediation effect according to the task-focused behavior and teacher-child relationship on the influence of children’s executive function on play behavior type. The participants included 107 children(aged 4-5 years) and their mothers, and 72 teachers. Mediation(Model 4), moderation(Model 1), and moderated mediation (Model 15) models were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 and PROCESS macro 4.0 programs(Hayes, 2022). The study shows, first, task-focused behavior mediated the relationship between children's executive function and social play behavior. Second, the teacher-child intimacy moderated the effects of the children’s executive function on the social play, rough-tumble play, and reticent play. Third, the indirect effect of executive function through children’s task-focused behavior on rough-tumble play was moderated by teacher-child intimacy. These results suggest that the effect of the executive function on the play type through task-focused behavior is different according to the level of teacher-child intimacy. Therefore, the importance of the children’s executive function and teacher-child relationship that influences the level of participation of children in play behavior type was emphasized.
From an early childhood, children evaluate others based on the amount of resources, and they tend to prefer wealthy individuals over poor ones. What is less clear is how strong this bias is in children. The present study probes the relative strength of amount of resource bias and in-group bias, a robust bias in children. Prior to, conducting our analysis we first confirmed that four to six year-old children preferred peers with more resources (Study 1a) and those who were in the same group (wearing the same color t-shirt that they were wearing; Study 1b). Importantly, children preferred an in-group member with less resources over a outside the with more resources, suggesting that the in-group membership is a stronger social cue than the amount of resource cue in early childhood.
The goal of the current study was to investigate emerging adults’ help-seeking from friends as one of the adaptive coping strategies in stressful social situations. Participants included 300 emerging adults who were currently enrolled in college (Mage = 23.28; 48.3% male). They self-reported their perceived goal structures, help-seeking from friends, and levels of friendship quality, anxious solitude, and social self-efficacy. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure of help-seeking from friends: Mastery and Avoidance. Structural equation modeling results indicated that individuals’ perceived goal structures were linked to different types of help-seeking from friends, and different types of help-seeking were associated with levels of friendship quality and anxious solitude. Further, mastery help-seeking from friends mediated the associations between perceived mastery goal structures and friendship quality. The results underscore that help-seeking from friends can be an adaptive coping strategy in stressful social situations and individuals’ perceptions of goal-related messages can have important implications for emerging adults’ help-seeking from friends.
In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of parents’ attitudes and behaviors toward feeding as one of the environmental variables explaining obesity and eating problems in children. We translated the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) developed by Musher-Eizenman and Holub (2007) into a Korean version. To this end, the developer of the CFPQ approved the validation of the Korean scale, and the Korean Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (K-CFPQ) was created through translation-retranslation of the original scale’s questions. A total of 434 questionnaire responses were used for analysis in this study and 31 questions comprising eight sub-factors were developed for the K-CFPQ. The reliability of the items (Cronbach’s α) showed an appropriate level of confidence, and the test-retest correlation results demonstrated high reliability. By confirming convergent validity (Child Feeding Questionnaire: K-CFQ, Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire: K-CEBQ) and group comparison validity, the K-CFPQ was determined to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing parents’ attitudes and behaviors toward feeding. The findings from this study are meaningful in that they verify whether an evaluation tool that can comprehensively measure parents’ behaviors and attitudes related to children’s meals can be used in Korea. Futhermore, the developed K-CFPQ scale is expected to impart an understanding of the relationship between obesity, eating disorders, and parents' attitudes.