This systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigated the current status of literature on teletherapy interventions for adolescents. This study explored characteristics and effects of the interventions to provide a basis for the development of teletherapy program for adolescents. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, and the articles analyzed were selected according to the PICOS questions commonly used in clinical practice. The titles and abstracts of studies published during1986–2022 were searched on PubMed and reviewed, Twenty-three articles were selected. A meta-analysis was performed to comprehensively review the results of these studies. The systematic literature review showed that research had been actively conducted since 2020, and cognitive behavioral therapy-based teletherapy was the most common. The meta-analysis found that among the outcome indicators, well-being, rumination, anxiety, and depression had moderate effect sizes, whereas the effect size of emotional control was not significant. The overall effect size was .448 (.374–.522), indicating a moderate effect, and suggesting that teletherapy is effective for adolescents who experiencing difficulties with emotional behaviors.
This study examined the effects of group and perceived norms on bystanding and defending behaviors among early adolescents. Longitudinal data from 890 elementary school students nested within 34 classrooms (52% male) were collected at the start (Wave 1) and the end (Wave 2) of the school semester. The results with the multi-level models indicated that both group and perceived norms on anti-bullying at Wave 1 significantly predicted bystanding and defending behaviors at Wave 2, after controlling for age, gender, and the baseline behaviors at Wave 1. The agreement between the group and perceived norms on anti-bullying varied by classrooms, and anti-bullying group norms at Wave 1 moderated the effects of individuals’ empathy on defending behavior, and the effects of self-efficacy for defending on bystanding behavior at Wave 2. The results suggest that the interventions focusing on perceived norms could be effective in decreasing bullying and increasing by-standing behaviors.
This study investigated age differences in the mean-level and relationships in the development of preschoolers’ facial emotion recognition, emotion comprehension, and emotion word comprehension. One hundred and fifty-two Korean children aged 3-6 years were tested nonverbally using the facial emotion matching discrimination task, Test of Emotion Comprehension, and emotion word comprehension test. In all tasks, the children’s performance significantly increased with age, whereas gender differences were not evident. All variables were positively associated with each other, even when controlling for age. Most importantly, the correlations between the variables varied according to age. No significant correlations among the variables were found for 6-year-olds, and emotion comprehension and emotion word comprehension were more strongly related for 4-year-olds than other age groups. Facial emotion recognition consistently positively related to emotion comprehension and emotion words from 3 to 5 years of age. These results indicate that these three basic emotional competencies develop critically during early childhood, and that their relationships can differ by age.
This study examined the relationship between parental calling and happiness, the mediating effect of meaning in life in the relation between parental calling and happiness, and group differences between mothers by children’s age. In this study, 406 mothers with preschool children (age: 1~6 years) and 425 mothers with adult children (19 years and older) completed a self-reported questionnaire. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and multiple-group analysis. The results showed a significant positive direct and mediating effect of meaning in life in the relationship between parental calling and happiness. In addition, the relationship between parental calling and meaning in life was stronger in mothers of preschool children and the relationship between meaning in life and happiness was stronger in mothers of adult children. However, there were no group differences in direct and mediating effect. This study is significant in that it highlights on the mothers’ internal factors that can support personal happiness and the effects varied by the life span development of parents.
This study examined the extent to which sleep problems influenced internalizing and externalizing problems directly or indirectly through emotion dysregulation among adolescents. The sample comprised 5,454 adolescents (2,586 girls, 10-14 years old) drawn from the 4th wave of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD study 2019-2021) conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The findings of path analysis indicated that higher levels of sleep problems were significantly and positively associated with emotion dysregulation, internalizing, and externalizing problems. In addition, higher levels of emotion dysregulation significantly mediated the effects of sleep problems on internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings indicate that addressing sleep problems and improving emotion regulation skills can be effective ways for preventing internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents who are vulnerable to sleep issues.
Traditionally, K-MMSE, a psychological assessment tool used for dementia screening, has been used to evaluate cognitive ability based on summative scores. However, aspects such as whether the relationship between cognitive ability and test scores is assumed to be linear or non-linear and whether item-weight is considered or not may lead to different test scores and different classification. Use of the total score as a test score requires linear relationship and item unweighting, but many psychological tests do not meet these assumptions. The current study examined similarity and classification agreements among test scores derived from different scoring methods, by using K-MMSE data sourced from 6,548 middle-aged and older adults. The Pearson correlation coefficients were high between the scores based on the classical test theory with linearity assumption and between the scores based on the item response theory with nonlinearity assumption. The unweighted scores of total and partial credit model were completely consistent in their classification despite the inconsistency in linearity assumption, but the weighted scores from factor analysis and generalized partial credit model, had the lowest classification agreement. We also found that the greater the asymmetry in the distribution of the total score, the lower the similarity of test scores and classification agreement based on different scoring methods. Lastly, it was emphasized that the selection of appropriate scoring methods should be consistent with the objectives of the test.