The current study examined the main and moderating effects of adolescents’ social goals and friendship quality on social adjustment behavior. Social goals (i.e., intimacy, popularity, and dominance) and friendship quality (i.e., positive and negative) were assessed in a sample of fifth and sixth graders and used to predict their social adjustment behavior (i.e., physical and relational aggression, bullying, prosocial behavior, and isolation). The results indicated that intimacy goals negatively predicted relational aggression and bullying. Social dominance goals positively predicted aggression, bullying, and isolation, and negatively predicted prosocial behavior. In addition, positive friendship quality negatively predicted physical aggression and isolation, whereas negative friendship quality positively predicted aggression and bullying. Results also found evidence of moderating effects, such that positive friendship quality mitigated the level of physical aggression for youth who had high social dominance goals. These findings emphasize the importance of considering social goals in tandem with their friendship quality to better understand adolescents’ social adjustment behavior.