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2014, Vol., No.36

  • 1.

    A state and the property pattern on attributive verb

    Miyoung Nam | 2014, (36) | pp.7~21 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    It will be able to say that the next demonstration so far, are summarized. Although, in Japanese sentence structure, adjectives and nouns can be used predicatively, they lack motional [active] expressions. So, mainly, their primary function is to indicate stativity. In the case of the predicate verb, [active] means a major feature, but the significant semantic function of the status property can not be overlooked. The predicate verb that includes stativity has state condition from the beginning or sometimes it has the condition, depending on the sentence structure. This paper specifies sentences that attains the stative meaning by [Properties] as well as by syntactic structure. [Changes steady state], but not invariant to perform the change, condition persists for type [adjective persistent state changes] will be. And finally, after a temporary change lasting Temporary changes in steady state can be mentioned. State of verb et al would then take on a strong “state property” and is located in the attributive predicate is closely related to the main noun, it should be considered as one group. Compared to the predicate is a predicate overdue order Status Name stands out was discussion about the limitations of predicate types. As a result, when indicates stativity, the “ru” shows its limit to some extent limit.
  • 2.

    A study on “Responses to complaints” at the Korean-Japanese contact situations

    Ro, Juhyoun | 2014, (36) | pp.23~40 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the features of “Responses to Complaints” at the Korean-Japanese contact situations. It focuses on consciousness and behaviors of Korean Learners of Japanese. The data was collected through two surveys; the ‘Discourse Completion Test’ and the ‘Japanese native speaker evaluation survey’. The results are as follows: (1) Under the same situation, Korean learners of Japanese tend to feel more discomfort than Japanese. Korean learners of Japanese tend to feel more discomfort when they are receiving complaints from their peers rather than from elders. (2) When responding to complaints, Korean Learners of Japanese tend to focus more on alleviating complaints than Japanese. On the contrary, Japanese tend to focus more on expressing their apologizing. (3) Despite these differences in consciousness(attitudes), Japanese native speakers tend to evaluate positively the “Responses to Complaints” of Korean Learners of Japanese. (4) After re-investigating the “Responses to Complaints” of Korean Learners of Japanese, I found that Irresponsibility, Excuses, and Imprudent remarks were the main reasons for negative evaluations. In addition, the inappropriate use of apologies and the misuse of the expression ‘- te ageru’ by the Korean Learners of Japanese were evaluated negatively by Japanese. This study will be helpful to resolve mis-communication at the Korean-Japanese contact situations and contribute to deepen the mutual understanding between Korea and Japan.
  • 3.

    Analysis of emotion on the Japanese warship name with the plant name : Mainly on a destroyer name of the Japanese empire navy

    박청국 | 2014, (36) | pp.41~59 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    I analyzed the emotion of Japanese warship name with the plant name in Japanese empire navy. And the study was mainly conducted on the name of the destroyer. The name of the auspicious plant name becomes the name of Japanese destroyer. The types of the auspicious plant name were classified in five. First, there is a felicitous plant for the name. The Japanese thinks that the name of this plant is lucky. This emotion comes from the hope of harmonious human relations. Then, there is the thing which became the auspicious plant from a Japanese folk. They say that this plant has spiritual power. The Japanese have believed that this plant has a power to expel the devil. In addition, there is the thing which became the auspicious plant from the characteristic of the habits of the plant. This was considered to be auspicious plant from hope of happy life. Then, there are lucky tree from the sacred tree called 「sinboku」. This plant is the object of worship and prayed for security. Finally there were few numbers, but there was the auspicious plant from the form. This was adopted to the auspicious plant by the hope of desirable livelihoodI examined emotion of five Japanese auspicious plants type mentioned above. Constructed in the middle of the Pacific War, the name of the destroyers were adopted priorly from “the auspicious plant from a sacred tree” and “the habits of the plant”. In urgent war situation, this is because they expected maximum vitality from the mental power of “a holy tree” and the full vitality of “the auspicious plant from the habits of the plant”.
  • 4.

    Sentence Pattern and the Usage of Three Categories Adjective Predicative Construction

    Haehwan Park | 2014, (36) | pp.61~83 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This article investigates and analyzes relationship between sentence constructions and meaning of words in three categories adjective predicative sentence from the point of logic of sentence pattern. Particularly, this article works on the understanding of adjective predicates and sentence pattern of the sentence pattern of three categories, the meaning of each sentence pattern, words and phrases, the analysis about connection between the role of the auxiliary word and that adjective predicates, and also the usages and characteristics of the three categories adjective predicative construction. As a result, main sentence pattern and usage of three categories adjective predicative construction are as in the following. ① 「N3ha(ga)+N2ni+N1ga+A」: general Huzai target for judgment, criterion for Tekihuteki Ryouteki judgment, Suuryou background for judgment, Ganbou target for judgment. ② 「N3ha(ga)+N2to+N1ga+A」: Kankei Huzai target for judgment, general Kankei target for judgment. Sinso Kankei target for judgment. ③ 「N3ha(ga)+N2kara+N1ga+A」: standard for judgment of Kuukanryou, source of Suuryou judgment, target for Huzai of source. ④ 「N3ha(ga)+N2de+N1ga+A」: Huzai background for judgment. ⑤ 「N3ha(ga)+N2ni+N1o+A」: Ganbou target for judgment. ⑥ 「N3ni+N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」: Huzai judgment of judged subject, target and time background for Nouryoku judgment. ⑦ 「N3de+N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」: target and space background for Nouryoku judgment. ⑧ 「N3ni+N2ha・ga+N1ni+A」: similarity judgment under criteria for comparison of judged subject, similarity and difference judgment under criteria for comparison of judged subject. ⑨ 「N3ha(ga)+N2ha(ga)+N1de+A」: cause of Hanbou judgment.
  • 5.

    A consideration about ‘Zibun-Zisin’ : Centering on the Selection of the Third Person Pronoun

    Seyama Midori | 2014, (36) | pp.85~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This research examined the differentiated uses of ‘Zibun-Zisin’ and the third person pronoun+‘Zisin’. In Chapter 2, the viewpoint theories of Susumu Kuno (1980) and Harumi Sawada (1999); subject orientation, long-distance restraint, and local binding of Masaru Nakamura (1996); Midori Seyama’s theory of the meaning of ‘Zibun-Zisin’ (2013) were examined. In Chapter 3, in each case where antecedents are the third personal pronoun and where they are not, the examples were classified and totaled on the basis of the classified types of referents; the spatial relationship between ‘Zibun-Zisin’ and the third person pronoun+‘Zisin’ and an antecedent; and the coexistence or non-coexistence of a synonym and a third person pronoun, etc. In Chapter 4, I have analyzed how the functions in precedent research were being utilized, and my observed results are as follows. a. In cases of common people or things are the references, and where it is in sntence structures like modifying clauses or modified nouns, it is easy for ‘Zibun-Zisin’ to appear. b. In sentences and contexts where the plurality of synonym and third person pronouns, and ‘Zibun-Zisin’ and third person pronoun+‘Zisin’ coincide, it can be used as the theory of local binding and long-distance restraint, and as the meaning of ‘Zibun-Zisin'. c. In sentences and contexts with an antecedent, ‘Zibun-Zisin’, and the third person pronoun+‘Zisin’, it is used by the viewpoint theory and the theory of the meaning of ‘Zibun-Zisin’. In that case, the third person pronoun+‘Zisin’ can express the meaning of ‘Zibun-Zisin’. d. In sentences where the synonym and the third person pronoun, ‘Zibun-Zisin’ and the third person pronoun+‘Zisin’ do not coincide, it can be used by the viewpoint theory and the theory of the meaning of ‘Zibun-Zisin’.
  • 6.

    An Analysis of Compliment-Response in High School Japanese Textbooks under the 2007 Revised National Curriculum

    Lee Sun Hee | 2014, (36) | pp.105~121 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The textbook plays an important role in Japanese Language Learning, particularly in the Japanese as a Foreign Language classroom where it provides the primary form of linguistic input. The purpose of this study was to analyze the Compliment-Response in High School Japanese Textbooks that are used in high schools in Korea under the National Curriculum revised in 2007. Using textbooks analysis methods, the study investigated the Compliment-Response in terms of compliment topic, compliment response strategies and adjacency pairs. Results are as follows. 1) In the compliment topic point of view there was no significant difference between daily Japanese conversation and topics used in high school Japanese textbooks. Personal capabilities such as skills in painting, Japanese and singing are commonly used in daily Japanese conversation as well as in dialogs in Japanese textbooks. Therefore compliment topics appeared in high school Japanese textbooks reflect the Japanese linguistic behavior relatively well. 2) In terms of compliment response strategies, 'Evade' is used most frequently in daily Japanese conversation whereas majority of high school Japanese textbooks often used 'Reject' as the compliment response strategies. 3) In the context of existence of adjacency pairs, the study found that in many cases, dialogs in high school Japanese textbooks have only compliments itself without any compliment-responses. In conclusion, Compliment-Response in the Japanese textbook was different from that of the Japanese. The results show that the textbooks don’t reflect the daily life of the Japanese and also may mislead the learner with wrong perception when they learn Japanese language. Therefore, it is necessary to observe native Japanese speakers’ conversations and apply the findings of the Conversation Analysis to the textbook revision. Implications suggest that textbook developers could include authentic examples of speech acts and sufficient explanations to facilitate acquisition of communication competence.
  • 7.

    Study of Expressions of Wish and Hope in 『(NIHONNSYOKI) (日本書紀)』 : Focused on the use of 「欲」 and 「願」

    Lee Jin-Yeon | 2014, (36) | pp.123~139 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This dissertation describes about how kanji expressions of wish and hope, 「欲」 and 「願」 in “NIHONNSYOKI(日本書紀)” about how their origin as Chinese characters are used in Japanesekun-reading words. As a result, 「欲」 and 「願」, which are typical auxiliary verbs representing one’s subjective hope or will in 「漢籍」, were divided by its semantic function, and had limitations to person and tense. First of all, 「欲」 is used as meanings of 「願望-表出・說明」 and 「希求-說明」 which are lower expressions of wish and hope, and applied mostly as an auxiliary verb. 「願」 means either 「願望-表出」 or 「希求-表出」, and is applied mostly as an auxiliary verb and an adverb. That means 「願」 is used as an auxiliary verb when it means 「願望-表出」, and as an adverb when it means 「希求-表出」. Also, 「欲」 is used in written language and the use of person and tense is less limited, but 「願」 is used in conversations and is limited to first person present tense. Lastly, as a result of kun-reading by Japanese word order according to β群 stated in 書紀區分論, 「欲」 means both 「願望-表出・說明」 and 「希求-說明」, and is used as an auxiliary verb. In the other hand, 「願」 is used only as the meaning 「希求-表出」, and shows Japanese writing style inside kanji by being used as an adverb.
  • 8.

    A study on the modify forms written in Korinsuchi

    Choi, Chang-wan | 2014, (36) | pp.141~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study is to explore the modify forms of the modern times Japanese especially in Korinsuchi. Korinsuchi is Korean-Japanese dictionary which is Japanese translated with the Korean original in Edo period. According to Korinsuchi which is published 1881 year, Japanese modify verb is ‘ageru, ukagau, uketamawaru, osoreiru, omenikakaru, sasiageru, zonzuru, tazuneru, haisuru, mairu, mamieru, mousiageru, mousikosu, mousitukeru, mousu, oru’, and assistant verb is ‘teageru’. Korean translation is ‘durida, durussaoni, hwangsonghuda, meonpumhuda, boibda, boiobsida, olrida, huobda, sipuda, haobda, heoda, heoyoida, chatta, mutta, jeolhada, oda, kada, kaobse, boiobda, haobda, niruda, hada, kibeolhada, sigida, pumheoda, saloda, alwiobda, yeobjubda, itta, munan’. Japanese additional honorific form is ‘o~mousu, go~suru’. And Korean translation is ‘si, ob’. The number of Japanese modify verb is 105(91%), and Japanese additional honorific form is 10(9%). ‘Go~suru’ is connected to honorific verb ‘kudasaru’ which is form of ‘go~ sitekudasasu’ meaning of honorific form. Modify verb is not higher rank than additional modify form in Korinsuchi published 1881 year.
  • 9.

    Recognition of Otherness displayed in Traveler’s Journals of Japanese Modern Writers : Soseki’s 『Journey to Manchuria and Korea』 and Akutagawa’s 『China Trip』

    Kim Nan Hee | 2014, (36) | pp.159~176 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This thesis explores the views of Japanese modern intellectuals toward others during the period of Imperialistic competition based on the texts of Soseki’s 「Journey to Manchuria and Korea」 and Akutagawa’s 「China Trip」. An additional attention was paid to the fact that their views had a thread of connection with the discourse of orientalism that the West applied to the colonization of Africa and Asia. Narrative attitudes exhibited in the travel journals reveal that Soseki maintained consistent leisureliness of ‘saseibun’ attitude, looking away from the realities of colonies, while Akutagawa at least passively participated in the realities of China connected with international situations of the time. It can be seen as their limitation that the two writers stayed in the perception of ‘the others’ and did not have lucid historical awareness. The two travel journals stood out in the narrative that China is a filthy, ignorant and grotesque place with natural beauty and exotic atmosphere while at the same time they emphasize the modernity of Japan. The more emphasized Japan’s modernity is, the more obvious China’s savagery becomes. Like the Oriental image from Europeans’ perspective as Edward Said pointed out, Japanese intellectuals provided foundation and rationale to fortify the domination-subordination relationship by looking at China and Korea as ignorant places. Edward Said exposed ‘Orientalism’ as a view of the West toward the East. ‘Orientalism’ is a criticism on Western view of the East. It aroused the awareness that Orientalism is the way to relate with the Orient, or the East, not the essence of the East. Orientalism is characterized by backwardness, sensuality and passivity as European image to be aware of the different culture of the East that lies far afield. And this image symbolized the ‘discourse’ to establish the superiority of the West and seek cause of domination over the East. This Western attitude and Japan’s relationship with China and Korea have in a lot common.
  • 10.

    Japanese Modernism Literature and Sports

    김옥희 | 2014, (36) | pp.177~194 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Sports novels of modernism gradually disappeared after flourishing from 1930 to 1932. Why sport had been in the limelight as a motif of literature among novelists of modernism in the early 1930s, and was avoided immediately? The purpose of this thesis is to illuminate the reason and background through analyzing literary works in detail. There were chosen as the subject of analysis the sports novel In The Sports City and critique About Sports Novel, written by Abe Tomoji, representative writer of modernism. As a result, I found the limit that Abe Tomji was supposed to feel about his sports novel. He had decided not to write sports novel anymore, with introspection about that he was busy writing a love story between a sports player and a modern girl, without any social criticism. Furthermore I investigated from various sources of that time why ‘modern girl’ had appeared in the most of sports novels of early 1930s, and why love between sports player and ‘modern girl’ had become a pattern, meaning how sport and love had a strong connection. As a result, I could find that sport had been a part of ‘Erotic’ in the early 1930s, known as the time of ‘Ero-Gro-Nonsense’, and had been used as a metaphor for love with becoming ‘wonderful modern landscape’. Eventually sport had been one of the important cultural key words, and had changed the expression method of literature, and also had expanded the realm of expression of it, by being used as a literary motif.
  • 11.

    A Study on Kawabata Yasunari’s “Twenty years old” : The interface between Ginsaku and Kawabata

    김일도 | 2014, (36) | pp.195~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    “Twenty years old”, one of many works by Kawabata,, expresses literary features of his works as well as in other works, though it received relatively less attention than other works. There is no doubt that Ginsaku’s remembrance of his deceased mother and inferiority caused by the absence of motherhood correspond with Kawabata’s feeling for the birth and sorrow experienced during his lonely childhood. This means that Kawabata reflects himself in reality into the transformed character of Ginsaku. Likewise, considering his literary tendency to pursue women’s beauty through all his works, we can find a common point rooted deep in the mind of Ginsaku and Kawabata. Kawabata sought for the harmony of nature and human, aiming for the search of beauty in his whols life. Ginsaku’s conflicting emotion might come from the solitude he had experienced in his childfood. Presumably, it was his desire to overcome the solitude in his own works. In conclusion, the alienation and deviation lead Kawabata who is surrounded by awareness of today's crisis to be in the condition of self-wareness and mentality deliverance. So to speak, the solitude and alienation of reality do not end by itself. It could be said that those feelings have in-depth meaning because they trigger the catharsis of life and self-awareness which goes with overcome beyond the anxiety.
  • 12.

    The Study on Translation Patterns of 『Nihonryouiki』 in 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』

    MyungJae Moon | 2014, (36) | pp.215~232 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The translation of 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』 following 『Nihonryouiki』 showed the process of interpreting Chinese classics into Wakankonkoubun and the compiler realized the process based on various and elaborate plots. Above all, 『Nihonryouiki』 laid emphasis on ‘genpou’ and ‘reii’ of its titles, whereas 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』 reflected the entire organization and plot of the work into each title. In terms of unfolding the text, 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』 did not translate the text in consecutive order, but created the context by retouching and revising the text according to the intent. However, excessive dilated statements might have a reverse affect on literary accomplishments that duplicated descriptions could loosen the story. With regard to ‘heigo’, some texts were founded on 『Nihonryouiki』, but most of them were changed. As mentioned above, whereas reflecting the entire plot of the work, there seemed some discordance in ending the story with irrelevant lessons of life. In addition, mistranslation made 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』 different from the original. While translating difficult Chinese writings, the compiler misunderstood the text or changed the text in order to justify his errors. As [Sakimori] or [ubasoku] showed, the disappearance or change of social situations in the era of 『Konzaku- monogatarisyu』 could be the factor of mistranslation, which composed of literary characteristics of 『Konzakumonogatarisyu』.
  • 13.

    Issue on Harmony of Korea & Japan through Gong, Ji Young and Tsuji Hitonari's 『Ones that Come After Love』

    Ji-Youn SON | 2014, (36) | pp.233~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In the midst of the extremely clouded relationship of Korea and Japan, this thesis is to study the forms of ‘Harmony of Korea and Japan’, ‘Friendship of Korea and Japan’, completed by authors of best-sellers of Korea and japan, and see the limit and possibility. The book 『Ones that Come After Love』, written by Gong, Ji Young and Tsuji Hitonari together, is in the form of collaboration and it is interesting since it can be read as one work or two separated works. First, Gong-novel written from Hong's perspective, dismantled the usual romantic fantasy featured by Korea and Japan's joint ventured dramas, which had stayed away from sensitive matters between Korea and Japan to consider the emotions of both nations, rather it focuses on ethnic and national problems. Even though the subject matters such as Yoon, Dong-Ju, Korean Letter, azalea, or the white-clad folk, which summon the national identity, may give heavy impression on Romantic Novel, it seemed, to Gong, it would be hard to unleash the theme of unity or friendship of Korea and Japan without them. On the other hand, Tsuji concentrated on overcoming and reconciliation rather than the conflict. The male character, Jun-go, shows his effort to understand Hong and Hong's country, Korea, in the positive manner. At this point, the Poet Yoon, Dong Joo and his poem played the important role and beginning with the use of mistranslated 「Seo-Si」, the problems were spotted on how to understand his poem. Because it is the style of Tsuji Hitonari in Union of Korea and Japan, and it is forwarded only to Koreans, it is criticized for not being delivered to Japanese readers at all. Moreover, the efforts, which the Romace story planned by two of the renowned best-sellers of both nations with mutual understanding, caused the unwanted result by stepping out of the planned purpose since it reveals the perspective on two conflicting proposition, an ‘Individual’ and the ‘People・Nation’Nevertheless, this novel pitched a heap of issue by two well-known authors of Korea and Japan who attempted to explore the possibilities of ‘Union of Korea and Japan’, ‘Friendship of Korea and Japan’
  • 14.

    A Discourse on <the Second Sino-Japanese War> and women through Novel 「Comrades-in-Arms」

    OH, Sung-Sook | 2014, (36) | pp.253~273 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper analyzed that a novel based on war experiences 「Comrades-in-Arms」 appearedin a women‘s magazine and media discourse regarded <war> as ‘Katakiuchi(blood-revenge)’by Japanese men and represented <war> as a war they eagerly desired heroic ‘honorabledeath in battle’ in Bushido. It was considered that this symbol has played a role in helpingthe general public, particularly women, on the home front understand <war>. By focusing on the fact that 「Comrade-in-Arms」 appeared in a women's magazineFujinkoron, this study concluded that 「Comrade-in-Arms」 and media discourse at thattime tried to imprint the fact that <war> waged total war to active duty soldier, veterans,colonials and women on the home front on women. Specifically, the results can be summarized as follows: First, this paper pointed outthat <war> against China changed to ‘Katakiuchi’ of their families and comrades-in-armsand considered that traditional ‘Katakiuchi’ provided a justification for needing to kill theenemy of China. Second, this paper discussed that reckless ‘Katakiuchi’ and Bushido requiring fearlessnessof death incited ‘honorable death in battle’. Third, this study pointed out that it naturally got women involved in <war> by embodyingit as a war of minorities such as Ryukyuans Gempo Brothers. 「Comrades-in-Arms」 appeared in the women's magazine instilled a sense, ‘You womenhave a more comfortable life than men’ and justified the exploitation of physical productivityand labor by showing a war of men's privileged domain. Furthermore, it can be said thatit played a full part in making women accept sadness pain and sacrifice as a propagandamedium.
  • 15.

    The Christian Recognition Expressed in Transgression

    Choi SoonYook | 2014, (36) | pp.275~292 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Toson who I cried to the place where power extended to for human liberation, andwas going to dissect constant observation and society showed a courageous challenge ina meeting of survival and the discrimination of the cover discrimination Buraku (village)to still continue after the Meiji Restoration. I insist while the Westernization setting theclassroom of the elementary school where it should have been with (莲华 temple) ofIiyama which is a Buddhism area of the Shinshu first most in the spot of the villagediscrimination, and being opposed to contradiction of the inequity society through the citizenof human cover discrimination manner that received influence of the Buddhism most whenthe liberation is caused by confession. However, as is expected, I can do confession unlike an object of the Christian confessionat a point called the confession for the world when it is apparent that there is not confessionof the Christian recognition. Toson played a big role to tell about existence of the then coverdiscrimination Buraku (village) in the world to study contradictoriness of the modern Meijisociety through this work. What general people are not almost conscious of about antiquatedof the Japanese society, the old evil as for the social position discrimination not to disappearafter a liberation law was promulgated either of Japan discriminatory; was in an accident. In the Japanese society, in the group discriminated against as the society where thecommunity-like life of the group is given priority to over than an individual, groupconsciousness is strong in the group, and a group of the sides to discriminate against isthe group society where it is difficult for other groups to get because unity is very strong. The fact that I know only after I investigate a Buraku (village) problem, and Toson reallysurveys the Buraku (village) should be really surprised. I insist by proving social positionthan “it is this transgression”, and writer Toson is unsociable and I cover the social positionand it is uneasy and buys it in discrimination society when you must get freedom fromsuppression called the self-deception. It was even slightly human, and then much Buraku(village) people wanted to grow and covered the social position and were going to livewith normal social position, but were reality to be ousted from on the spot when foundout. The human equality awareness of the writer keeps strong, but the recognition of thehelp of Toson who is over by confessing it to the society confesses it to God, and itis thought that distance is far with a true feeling of opening and the viewpoint of theChristianity faith to save it, and to feel a feeling.
  • 16.

    The Relationship between Educational System and Schools in Teaching of “Tradition and Culture” : A Case Study of Educational Courses in Okinawa Prefectural Yaeyama High School

    goya junko | 2014, (36) | pp.293~310 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In recent years, the way in which the dual themes of ‘Tradition and Culture’ have beentreated in the field of school education have shown growing diversification. Against sucha background, this has repercussions on who literally ‘keeps the flame’ of the EducationMinistry’s guidelines based on the revised 2006 Fundamental Law of Education. A further issue that has arisen is to whether any efforts related to these twin themesare to be covered as part of the established core curriculum (including integrated periodsof study.) Or, should they be categorised among non-core study areas. Consequently, theeffective enforcement of such a curriculum, whose burden is borne by both national andregional government, differs depending on each school’s situation. So, it is ultimately upto the discretion of each individual school as to if it consigns this subject to being a non-coresubject or not. In this regard, it is necessary not to overlook the way in which schoolsand their respective regions are involved. With reference to the institutional efforts relating to national ideas of ‘Tradition andCulture,’ this paper will review the individual implementations accompanying the revisionsmade to the Education Ministry’s guidelines. In addition, it will place under considerationthe practical elements of the performing arts curricula adopted by Yaeyama High School. In particular, attention will be paid to the ways in which the courses offered at YaeyamaHigh School manifest and function in terms of the wider curriculum. Consequently, theeducational system related to implementing ‘Tradition and Culture’ based lessons alongwith the school’s own interpretation of such a policy and its wealth of other functionswill be commented upon.
  • 17.

    A Study of the Utagoe (Singing Chorus) Movement

    Shim SooKyung | 2014, (36) | pp.311~328 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study focused on the Utagoe (Singing Chorus) Movement of the early days. The Utagoe Movement, developed systematically as part of the cultural policy of theJapan Communist Party, is similar to the state-dominated ‘Nation People’s Song’ of theprewar era and ‘National Singing Chorus Movement’. The Utagoe Movement was similar to the state-dominated people’s edification movementof the pre-war period. The latter was developed systematically: the repertory of songs wasdecided by the nation, education was fulfilled through songs, and the emphasis was onthe nation people, through ‘chorus’ singing. In its early days, the Utagoe Movement was not the people-oriented cultural movementit claims to be at present. In the Utagoe Movement, the general public exists as the target to be educated andenlightened by intellectuals. With the spread of this movement, the ‘Utagoe teahouse’ began to appear and gainpopularity throughout the country. However, a fair number of songs sung in these teahouseswere not in the ‘Seinenkashu (youth songbook)’, the collection of which was decided bythe Utagoe Movement. The songs sung in the Utagoe teahouses were different from thosein the repertory of the Utagoe Movement; EnKa popular at the time was sung instead. This state of affairs indicates the general public’s awareness of the Utagoe Movement. That is, the prevailing practices of the time showed the distance between the intellectualsof the Utagoe Movement and the general public. Utagoe Movement can be seen as a political movement aimed at making peoplebetter(edification) after World War II.
  • 18.

    Aspects of <Inigadaniayo> -based song that is handed down to Yaeyama Islands of Okinawa : Concerning “Function of song” and “Role of singer”

    大城 學 | 石川恵吉 | 2014, (36) | pp.329~346 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The <Inigadaniayo> based song, it is a general term for a group of songs sung in theepic form the growth method of millet and rice. This paper, one that aims to clarify the aspects of <Inigadaniayo> based song that is handeddown to the Yaeyama Islands of Okinawa, will be discussed from the perspective of “thenature of the subject of the representation” about the role of singer and function of song. Previous Studies on the song of the same system, there is a Shigeru Ishigaki (1976) andYasuhiko Miyara (1982) so far. Both paper presents a discussion and important perspective inconsidering the song of the same strain. Reveal the subject separators and first song of the samestrain, especially the latter, have discussed the relationship of ritual songs incidental to the songand song of the same strain. However, both papers, to the extent that you make the descriptionof some will be given the special terms and subject matter of the song of the same strain, theanalysis has not been performed and expressions structure of the song, function, for the roleof singing principal. Therefore, in this paper, again, we tried to analysis of the role of singingmainly the function of the song along with the reveal aspects of the song of the same strain. As a result, the song of the same system, it is classified as ①Song of instruction formatand ②Song of passive form from the side of the form of expression, and was led to thefollowing conclusion from the point of view of Masami Tamaki (1999) and “The natureof the subject of the representation”The song of ①Song of instruction format, at instruction format of the foregoing, Raihouzinspeaker, social for the protection and growth method of millet and rice you want, is onethat gives the blessing and instruction to the (people of the village) growers are listeners,and is a song that has a function of Raihouzin reach out to the people it positioned. Therefore,I can be responsible for the singer the song is that populations responsible for speak theword of Raihouzin. On the other hand, ②Song of passive form, positioned to be the song that has the functionof people to represent the secular and men to make millet and rice from now to ask thepatron and respectable growth of millet and rice to Raihouzin it is possible, I can be saidthat the singer responsible for the song, and the population plays a role to reach out to Raihouzin.
  • 19.

    Yanagi Muneyoshi and aesthetic theory of Getemono

    大竹眞由美 | 2014, (36) | pp.347~361 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper conducts study on Yanagi Muneyoshi’s aesthetic theory of crafts. Yanagi is a scholar who introduced arts during the period of Chosun dynastyto Japan. He also criticized Japan’s atrocities vociferously. Even though there arepeople who think Yanagi is humanist, the predominant view is that his view onChosun’s arts and crafts remained orientalism reflecting those days. Orientalismis the colonial conception of history that rulers judge and conduct research onsubjects one-sidedly. I also think that Yanagi cannot disengage from such suspicionscompletely according to his works on Chosun’s arts. But It is also excessive thatonly one book studying Chosun’s arts in the middle of complete works set (22books) can formulate his all thoughts. Thus, this paper focuses on the society’strend at that time and his stream of studying on crafts. Not crafts as a purposeof appreciation but that of application. That is Yanagi’s serious pursuit of thereal crafts. In my opinion, his deep affections on Chosun’s art originated fromhis ardor for crafts. My study reaches one point that he just didn’t prefer goodsdisregarding unknown makers. He had the utmost respect for common people’shandwork started as use and their lives using the goods preciously. By these clues,we can infer that he faced Chosun’s art in the same spirit. If so, it is a key openinga new land for the studies on Yanagi that we better focus on his attitude towardcrafts rather than interrogate on his character.
  • 20.

    Reform of the shogunate and color woodblock print of Utamaro

    milim Lee | 2014, (36) | pp.363~380 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    It is told that Utamaro, Tyutazyu and Utagawa Toyokuni as well had been punishedby Edo Shogunate's Enforcement Ordinance in the first year of the Bunnka period. It wascommonly received view that the cause of incident of "the Evil of the brush" was ≪太閣五妻洛東遊観之図≫ and "the Picture of Nisiki" was the reason of the punishment. However few records regarding "the Evil of the brush" can be found in the historicalrecords in the period of Edo. Moreover after the 20th century there is no manifestationabout "Basis" as well as most evaluation has even less credibility. One of the significance about "the Evil of the brush" is that it is not the picture ≪太閣五妻洛東遊観之図≫ but it is showing a woman which was found in the essay written byKyokutei Bakin. The five pictures of "the Picture of Nisiki" : <真紫久吉> <加藤清正> <紫田修理進勝家小谷の方> <武智十兵衛> and <福島左衛門> which were painted at the same time of≪太閣五妻洛東遊観之図≫ receive most attention. These five pictures show the importantmilitary commanders in the Warring States period and the period of Edo and they showwomen and prostitutes who were close to them. "The Picture of Nisiki" had a marginof trouble to circulate the false rumor or ridicule the name of military commanders suchas Ieyasu, which was the most worrisome to Shogunate. In short, the five pictures of Nisiki by Utamaro has a scene to violate the 5th ruleof the Enforcement Ordinance which was announced in the period of Kyouho. Inexorabilityof punishment of the Shogunate's reform in the period of Edo was too notorious to beimagined in the present age. Utamaro had been imprisoned and hadcuffed for 50 daysand Tyutazyu was enforced to forfeiture the half of his property.
  • 21.

    The Representation of Dalian in Modern Japan : A colonial city as a method

    Lee, soo yeol | 2014, (36) | pp.381~395 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In modern Japan, two different images about Dalian are co-existing: a modern cityand a colonial city. Those images of Dalian represent an aspect of Dalian as a colonialseaport town built in the 20thcentury. Dalian has been under the domination of Greatpowers including England, Russia and Japan, one after another, and in the process,it became a representative colonial seaport town in East Asia where different ethnicgroups co-existed. Firstly, I will look at Dalian’s modern history. This can be saidto be the history of ordeal in a sense that the city of Dalian has passed through thecontacts and conflicts with different ethnic groups. And secondly, I will look at apossibility of a new identity which was born in the midst of the history. Multi-cultural society of Dalian was another feature of colonial city of Dalianresulting from the history of Imperialism. Diaspora people or marginal men, who werecreated in the midst of political chaos, were definitely the tragic existence as wellas the victim of history. At the same time, they relativized the logic of a nation-statethat regards the equation of the ethnic origin with political identity as natural. In thissense, Dalian, a colonial seaport city built in 20thcentury, has a significance as amethod to imagine the post-modern times.
  • 22.

    A Study on the Repatriation of Captives throughout the Ending Era of the Goryeo Dynasty and the Beginning Era of the Chosun Dynasty : A Critical Review on the Theory of “Imagawa Ryousyun‘s Background of the Repatriation=Economic Benefits for the Purpose”

    Han, Yoonhee | 2014, (36) | pp.397~420 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    The subject of this paper is repatriation of captives of Goryeo (or Chosun) people whokidnapped by Waegu (倭寇). ‘Repatriation of Captives’ studies contended that the wholesubjects of repatriation including Kyuusyuutandai (九州探題) Imagawa Ryousyun (今川了俊) had repatriated captives for the economical benefits exclusively, based on the factcaptives were repatriated. Therefore, this paper confirmed the object of the repatriationof Imagawa Ryousyun - was it on the economic goal or not? - and the features of therepatriation of captives. As a result, the fact was established - beyond the half (70%) of captives were repatriatedby Imagawa Ryousyun when he was appointed as the Kyuusyuutandai. And this paperconfirmed the fact - why Ryousyun repatriated more than 2,000 captives when he wasin his post. Imagawa Ryousyun was appointed as kyuusyuutandai for suppression Waeguand to sweep Southern Dynasty. But it was too difficult to control Waegu, Ryousyunrepatriated captives to Goryeo as the diplomatic action for getting the trust that the Shogunatesupresses Waegu diligently. Under the situation of invasion of Waegu decennary, Ryousyunrepatriated captives several times. So Goryeo trusts the effort of Shogunate and ceasesdispatching the Mission proposal prohibition of Waegue. Thus the policy that repatriatesCaptives leads to mitigating strained military and diplomatic relationship between Goryeoand Japan, and it means that driving force which makes Goryeo and Japan to restore andcultivate the confidential relationship.