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2015, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    Manyoshu and the ancient city : Nara・Yamato

    Ku Jeong Ho | 2015, (38) | pp.9~24 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This dissertation is an argument between capital between the ancient Japan and Manyoshu from the presentation from Fall International Symposium of Institute of Japanese Studies in Chung Ang University. One of characteristics of Manyoshu is songs(Uta) have many names of region, especially from Nara and Yamato. The ancient Japanese changed their capital around Aska and Nara from the end of 7th to the beginning of AD 8th century. It met with the most important work of Tenno. to build a new capital. Therefore, culture of the age was flourished in Nara and Yamato. The capital was settled down in Nara when Heijokyo was founded in AD 710. This dissertation examined transfer of the ancient Japan through the record of Nihonshoki Shoku-nihongi and Manyoshu.
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  • 5.

    Noun-Predicate Sentences of Gakuichibon & Amakusahan Heike Story

    Kim, Pyunggang | 2015, (38) | pp.75~92 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This study is a report of Noun-Predicate sentences about the forms of use, the number of examples, negative expressions, the past tense expressions, and expressions for guessing in Gakuichibon & Amakusahan Heike Story. 'Nari' is used the most in Gakuichibon. 'Niari' 'Niteari' and 'Deari' are used by secondary types. 'Nari' 'Dya' and 'Dearu' are typically used in Amakusahan Heike Story. Noting negative expressions, 'Nari' and 'Niari' are used in Gakuichibon: 'Denai' is used in the Amakusahan. Noting the past tense expressions, 'Nari' and 'Niteari' are used in Gakuichibon: 'Dearu' is used in Amakusahan. Noting expressions for guessing, 'Nari', 'Niteari' and 'Deari' are used in Gakuichibon: 'Dearu' is used in Amakusahan. 'Saburo' and 'Gozaru' are used as honorific auxiliary verbs in Gakuichibon and Amakusahan Heike Story. In case of using honorific auxiliary verbs, the use of 'De' increases. It means that the Gamakura 'De' has become important in Noun-Predicate sentences in practicing a language.
  • 6.

    [no/wa, no/ga, no/wo] syntactic pronoun

    Miyoung Nam | 2015, (38) | pp.93~108 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    [o/wa, no/ga, no/wo] all constructions had a degree higher than a pronoun of appearance of the complementizer. no/wa except for a construction, no/ga,, no/wo,, it can see a construction being used overwhelmingly as complementizer. Iit was analyzed in syntactic way. no/wa there was difference between a few frequencies, but the pronoun which receives the person, time and the location by a construction found out that it's used freely. Next, no/ga,, the person, time and the location compared by a construction, and had an occurring frequency higher than a complementizer in turn for few pronouns for the pronoun occurring frequency, but the pronoun which shows a place was low relatively. But it's a pronoun, no/ga, a construction and the semantic restrictions don't operate to show a construction the person, time and the location. It's last, no/wo,, the construction is different from two constructions above-mentioned. no/war and, no/ga", it's a complementizer that it's maine like a construction or but apparent, it's so overwhelming that there is no comparison when the occurring frequency is seen, no/wo, there were few pronouns for a construction. This, no/wo, to indicate a pronoun by a construction, anyway, it's with the place which isn't taken.
  • 7.

    A Study on Expressions of Meal Invitations -Focused on Korean Females and Japanese&Chinese Marriage Immigrant Females-

    박복덕 | 김보인 | 2015, (38) | pp.109~128 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims to look at the adaptability on the linguistic culture of Japanese&Chinese marriage immigrant females by comparing their lives with Korean females, especially focused on understanding their meaning behind expression of meal invitations. The purpose of this study is to examine how well the Japanese and Chinese females understand the Korean language culture, in the sense how Korean society is used to saying, 'let's have a meal together' as an ordinary expression of a greeting. In the case of Korean females, when they invited someone to a meal saying 'let's have something to eat', the true meaning behind it was a「formal courteous greeting」, whereas when they were invited to a meal, they thought 「the other person wants to ask a favor」meaning the meal was in return of a future favor. Japanese females equally reported the reasons behind sending such invitations as a meaning of 「when they truly want to have a meal together」and「when they want to express gratitude」. However, when they received such invitations, they thought it was a「formal courteous greeting」. Chinese females reported to use and perceive such invitations only in the case of 「when they truly want to have a meal together」Through this research, it has been identified that cultural difference exist even in understanding a sentence. Therefore, this should be used an opportunity to introduce the "Tandem" education methods to understand and accept the culture differences among each other.
  • 8.

    Sentence Pattern and the Usage of Two Categories Adjective Predicative Construction

    Haehwan Park | 2015, (38) | pp.129~154 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This article investigates and analyzes the relationship between sentence constructions and meaning of words in two categories adjective predicative sentence from the point of the sentence pattern logic. Particularly, this article works on the understanding of adjective predicates and sentence pattern of the sentence pattern of two categories, the meaning of each sentence pattern, words and phrases, the analysis about connection between the role of the auxiliary word and that adjective predicates, and also the usages and characteristics of the two categories adjective predicative construction. As a result, main sentence pattern and usage of two categories adjective predicative construction are as in the following. ①「N2ha・ga+N1ni+A」:The standard of judging Doutou, Touka, Idou, Ryoutek, Taisei、Kuukanryou, Suuryou, Toki, Syouhusyou, Sinjou etc, the way of classyfing Ryouteki, Isikikankaku, Kairakukuhi, Sikaku, Mikaku, Kisyou, and others, the reason of judging Hanbou, and the target of judging Zaiakukan, Nouryoku and so on. ②「N2ha・ga+N1de+A」:the reason of judging Tokui, Hanbou, Isikikankaku, Sikaku, Kyuukaku etc, the standard of judging Ryouteki, and the background of judging Tokui. ③「N2ha・ga+N1to+A」:the standard of judging Sinso. ④「N2ha・ga+N1kara+A」:the standard of judging Kankei, Kuukanryou and others. ⑤「N2ha・ga+N1wo+A」:the temporal background of judging Kikkyou. ⑥「N2ni+N1ha・ga+A」:the subject of experiencing the judgement for Huzai, Kanousei, Tokui, Ryouteki, Thyousi, Isikikankaku, Kanjou, Sikaku, Thyoukaku, Kyuukaku, Mikaku, Kisyou and others, the detailed objective of judging Suryou, Ganbo etc, the background of judging Tokui, and the target of judging Huzai. ⑦「N2de+N1ha・ga+A」:the target of judging Huzai, the conditional standard of judging Kanousei and the means and the reason of judging Thyousi. ⑧「N2kara+N1ha・ga+A」:the origin of judging Huzai. ⑨「N2ni+N1wo+A」 : the detailed objective of judging Ganbou.
  • 9.

    A contrastive study on the word species of Korean and Japanese basic vocabulary

    Bae, Juchae | 박지연 | 2015, (38) | pp.155~175 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Korean and Japanese have the same word species called sinitic root words in common, and both of them have the same four word species. So we should ask whether Korean and Japanese have similar percentage of four word species. We analyze the basic vocabulary of Korean and Japanese in terms of word species. There is little to choose between the two languages. From a broad perspective, they have five major similarities. First, native words and sinitic root words are the majority groups and the other two the minority groups. Secondly, native words are more than sinitic root words in the beginning level, but vice versa in the advanced level. Thirdly, sinitic root words are the largest group in nouns, but native words in verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Fourthly, there are no sinitic root words and loanwords in verbs and adjectives. Fifthly, there are no or almost no loanwords in adverbs. From a narrow perspective, they have three major differences. First, Korean has more native words and hybrid words than Japanese. Secondly, Japanese has steeper increase in sinitic root words as the level goes higher. Thirdly, Korean has far more hybrid words in adjectives and adverbs than Japanese. Fourthly, adjectival nouns in Japanese have more similar percent composition to nouns than to verbs or adjectives. The overall similarity in percent composition of the word species of Korean and Japanese would help learners of the other language with vocabulary learning. The more equivalents in the two languages have the same word species, the easier would vocabulary learning be than expected. It should be the next research project to verify the hypothesis.
  • 10.

    A Study of foreign word in Japanese Enka song of Shōwa period

    Heeyoung Sa | Kim,Soon-Jeon | 2015, (38) | pp.177~196 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A research paper of this assertion, focused on the study about foreign words in the lyrics of Enka, which was popular in Showa period, the word origin, notation, and aspect of social acceptance were studied through the analysis of foreign words included in Enka from 1930 to 1980. As checked out the lyrics of Enka, 1969 hit songs in Showa period, 905 words of foreign origin in 751 songs (38%) were adopted. It understood that proper nouns such as a name of place and person were accepted and spoken when an alien unique object was brought into regardless the political and cultural influences. Furthermore, realized that proper nouns and common nouns were employed more frequently in using form of foreign words. The only conversation was found in a song. That is 'I love you'. Foreign words corresponding Japanese and the form of foreign words with Japanese rather than completed sentence were marked. As studied the origin of word, English was original language of foreign words which was widely used. Portuguese and Dutch with western civilization since modern opening of ports were largely spoken, and French foreign words were used most related to culture. Korean words appeared 7 times only in 1950s to 1960s. With the result, it reconfirmed acceptance form of foreign words depended on political preference. Lastly, It recognized that foreign words were pronounced differently prior to final acceptance owing to the different origin system on phonological disparity with original language. Transformed sounds were created, but also the meanings of words were changed. In the view to the studied the formation of foreign words in Enka, it was shown that the words in the field of humanities and culture were subject to the limited public who enjoyed Enka. That was connected closely with culture adhered daily life or emotion of public rather than politics, economy and science which proved the principle of things.
  • 11.

    On the change of several morphemes in modern Japanese

    KwangSoo Lee | 2015, (38) | pp.197~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The purpose of this paper is to describe on the change of several morphemes in modern Japanese. I attempted to research the problems about the change of morphemes such as [da] changed from [suru] following verbal noun, [na] as suffix changed from the ending of na-typed adjective and [teki] as productive particle changed from suffix. The predicate combined verbal noun with [da] is nominal formally, but syntactically the relation of case is molded from its verbal properties. The sentences with verbal noun predicate have the meanings of modality such as realization of expectancy, notification of imminent matters, emphasis, imperative and so on. The morpheme [na] fixed with non-static nominals is indeclinable and has the function that indicate the static meanings as adjectivizer and that modify nominals as suffix. Originally the form [teki] taking a morpheme or a word as the preceding basis can be regarded as lexical suffix. But the form [teki] taking a clause as the preceding basis also can be considered as a productive and grammatical particle. I estimate that the tendency of using [teki] including a clause would be more popular in the future Japanese. I think that the usage of changed morphemes should be regarded as important contents in learning Japanese.
  • 12.

    Relation between language competence and language use in Japanese immigrant communities in South America

    lee kil yong | 2015, (38) | pp.215~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This research aims to analyse language competence and language usage patterns in two kinds of Japanese immigrant communities in South America, those originated by Japan's main island immigrants and those originated by Okinawan immigrants. Research carried out in four communities showed that there are two patterns concerning language maintenance and language shift process, maintenance of Japanese language and evolution towards monolingualism. We observed three main points concerning oral competence and reading competence among second generation speakers and 1.5 generation speakers. (1) Bilingualism among second generation speakers who can use both main island Japanese and the local language. In communities like Vila Carrao in Sao Paulo city, where the majority of second generation speakers has competence only in Portuguese language, Portuguese is used at home among speakers of the same generation. Correlation between language competence and language usage is observed. (2) Although 1.5 generation speakers have high Portuguese language competence, they also use Japanese in daily life, switching languages according to the hearer. An internal community language concerning code switching is observed in this case. (3) It was also observed a high subscription rate of Japanese newspapers reading among 1.5 generation speakers with reading proficiency in Japanese.
  • 13.

    A Contrastive Study of Naming of Korean and Japanese Movie Titles -Focused on Hit Movie-

    Jung, Sung-Wook | 2015, (38) | pp.240~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Language changes by the flow of time and culture enjoyed. The movie is the genre that can see the appearance changed from the first definition of society. This paper analyzed the title of Japanese movie and Korean movie by period, ranking, use of characters, form and syllables. Even if it is the work of the same times, there is a case that ranking is different. When it comes to the mark, it was used 359times in Korean and 409times in Japan. 'Kanji' was used more for a title in Korea, and 'Katakana' was used for a title in Japan. The frequency of the mark has increased by time in both Korea and Japan. As for a from, one form occupied more than half in Korea by between ranking and period. In Japan, one form increased by ranking. But, two more forms have increased by period. When it comes to a syllable, in Korea, the movie which of the syllable of the title is short tended to have high order. The number of syllables of the title of the movie in Japan was more than that of South Korea. A syllable was short, as for the title of the movie which was high in ranking. On the other hand, the number of syllables of the title of the movie which had low ranking was not constant. A title of 3 syllables is used most in Korean and a title of 7 syllables is used most in Japan by a period. The title of the movie is a thing to express the contents of the movie. To make it easily to remember and catch eye, the change was given to the use of characters of the title and the number of syllables. In conclusion, for success of film, it is better to use about four syllable for the title in Korea, and about ten syllables in Japan. Even though the form of titles have changed and would change by time, it is difficult to write the overall flow of movie only based on information by this investigation. But, the research about the use of characters and syllables of the title seems to be helpful for future's research task.
  • 14.

    Shōshi(Ⅰ) of God Names in Ancient Japanese

    Kunsik Choi | 2015, (38) | pp.263~285 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This is to discover the characteristics of shōshi (praise morphemes) employed in god names by comparing them with those used in general words, which were revealed by Kaneko (1977). This study shows that most of the praise prefixes found in general words were also used in god names, except for a few prefixes such as yasu (安) and toFo (遠). kēzyōgeɴ (adjectival root) type of shōshi such as oFo (大), toyo (豊), mi (御), waka (若) and take (武) are most frequently found in god names owing to their semantic implications. mi was frequently used with another praise morpheme; it was the old and most common praise morpheme, being also used as an honorific form. The level of praise goes up with more praise morphemes as in -kami (神), -oFo-kami (大神), and –oFo-mi-kami (大御神). Gods’ world was described as a fictional superhuman word, which was far beyond the realm and limits of human beings. To express Gods’ dignity, awe and respect, supernatural power, and mystique, certain affixes for deity and divinity were required in god names. This study deals with a part (Class I) of the affixes. Another study is expected to discuss shōshi of Class II and III, which are related to spell and shamanistic faith. The author argued in an earlier study that oFo, waka, and wo (小) used in contradistinctive names came to acquire a new function of showing seniority from the old one of expressing praise. The question of how affixes of Class I, II, and III were realized in human names found in Sekichō (籍帳) and Ki-Shoki (記・書紀) still remains to be answered.
  • 15.

    A Study of Tokutomi Roka's "Treason Theory"

    Kim Nan Hee | 2015, (38) | pp.287~305 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Tokutomi Roka's "Treason Theory" is the text of the justification lecture delivered by the accused in Japan's "High Treason Incident" of 1911. It contains dangerous contents that could only have been written under harsh circumstances at the risk of death. This study hypothesized that Roka's lecture was influenced by the humanistic spirit of Christianity and the practical intelligence of Western writers such as Tolstoy, Emerson, and Zola. Influenced by this humanistic spirit, Roka revered socialists who were executed for high treason as revolutionary patriots. Thus, the text of the lecture contains many novel contents that were ahead of their time. The text claims to advocate the ideal of universal brotherhood, according to which humanity must be united as one. However, it fails to acknowledge the contradiction that Japan's imperialism and its Emperor system hindered the realization of this ideal. Roka himself was a follower of Emperor Meiji. Considering the fact that contemporary anarchists and socialists clearly believe that the "Emperor system" was used to justify Japan's imperialism, Roka's social consciousness can be said to contain some limitations.
  • 16.

    One consideration on 「Avalokiteshvara」 story -focused on The Tale of the Heike-

    Kim Mi-Ok | 2015, (38) | pp.307~325 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Taira no Kagekiyo(平景清)was a samurai of the Taira clan who took part in the Genpei War of Japan, against the Minamoto clan. He was captured at the battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185. In 1196, Kagekiyo then allowed himself to starve to death at the new capital of Kamakura. Kagekiyo is perhaps most famous for his appearance in the eleventh chapter of the fictionalized epic The Tale of Heike, in the section called The Dropped Bow(弓流). Kagekiyo starred a warrior in the The Tale of the Heike. But through Yōkyoku in the The Kagekiyo, Daibutu-Kuyou, Japanese Traditional Music(幸若舞) Kagekiyo, the character, Kagekiyo was getting enlarged and grown in Japanese classical puppet play Career Kagekiyo, written by Chikamatsu Monzaemon. Japanese Traditional Music Kagekiyo can be called the best dramatic work in the middle era. This paper shows the clue to the background why Kagekiyo starred an essential character in Heike focusing on many articles dealing with the legend Kyongchung.This paper will suggest not whether the legend was a true but what aspects will ne appeared according to the the each period.
  • 17.

    Japanese Modern Literature and Sports Nationalism

    김옥희 | 2015, (38) | pp.327~348 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It was 1930s that Japanese Government made a frantic attempt to empower ideology of emperor system and spread militarism. At the same time, it was the time of popularization of sports as it received great deals of enthusiasm by public crowd. However, the two phenomena, the dissemination of militarism and the popularization of sports were not coincidence. This is because the popularization of sports secretly contained the purpose of Japanese Government, which was to actively appropriate sports to empower militarism and nationalism. Since the Roman Empire, sports have kept close relationship with politics as it was used as a means of control of mass. In Japan, this aspect was conspicuous particularly in 1936, the year of the Berlin Olympics. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examinate how the Government utilized literature and what roles writers played in Berlin Olympics in order to increase the attention of nation's interest on Olympics and enhance nationalism. Mass media actively cooperated Japanese Government's political use of sports. Especially, since newspapers were having keen competition to collect readers, they needed to increase the excitement about Olympics by with mass-friendly methods. Asahi Shimbun's open competition of Olympics songs for cheer was one of the them. Since it is inevitable for fight songs to involve nationalism, this paper finds the link between literature and sports nationalism by investigating Olympic fight songs. Following the open contest of fight songs, each newspaper made great deals of efforts to effectively deliver the excitement of Berlin Olympics to Japanese people, such as hiring novelists and poets as reporters. That was the first time literary writers participate the report of sports. Novelists such as Yokomitsu Riichi, Mushanokoji Saneatsu and poets including Saijo Yaso are the examples. They increased the attention to the Olympics and enhanced nationalism by visiting the stadium and reporting the opening ceremony, games and medal winners by prose or verse with literary rhetorics. Why would the three were selected as special correspondents among numerous writers? The paper primarily examines the causes and the background. Then it compares the attributes of prose and verse written by the three writers focusing on Olympic Ceremony and Sohn Ki Jung's winning gold medal. This reveals Saijo Yaso was the most loyal correspondent and his poems are the most applicable example of utilizing literature for instigating sports nationalism. Lastly, the paper analyzes the critiques on Olympia by Japanese literary men. It investigates Sato Haruo's poems, works of Yasuoka Shotaro and Mishima Yukio featuring nationalism like Saijo Yaso's pieces, followed by analysis of Kobayashi Hideo's essay which shows opposite direction. 1936, the year of Berlin Olympics, is the year that 2/26 Incident occurred and professional baseball started to run. It means the popular interest was on sports living in the condition of political suppression and ideological control. Hence, this paper is an attempt to reveal the contribution of literary writers to the Berlin Olympics, the central issue of the public interest.
  • 18.

    A Study on Kawabata Yasunari’s “Makeup” - Recognizing of Life and Death -

    김일도 | 2015, (38) | pp.349~364 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In Kawabata’s 『Make up』, ‘Make up’ is a behavior to assure that he is alive rather than an insincere behavior or sympathy on a fatality. the meaning of a toilet in a funeral hall changes depending on the character. Firstly, for an old woman, it does not mean a place for maintaining or confirming life. On the other hand, for a young lady, that is a place for check her life stirred by a dead person. And for a girl, that is a place for condolences to dead people and checking her own life. And it display a depth of self-examination by generalization of a living thing by disposing the flow of time and life through the death which disappeared as the seasons rolled by. It is effectively draw the inevitable fate of life and death through the object are moving from plant to human and the path that ‘Should not avoid to see it.’ It is implying that death is a natural phenomenon to accept. Make up in a toilet at a funeral is a behavior with selfishness and sense of guilty. At the same time, funeral is for expressing one’s regret for the deceased but feeling the aliveness of oneself. Highlighting the question about the nature of human being by bring a thing that a double meaning place and behavior into relief. And also,comparing these two meaning of ‘Make up’ and combining it, shows the attitude of a self-awareness. It is shown that the work is interested in the death through the background of a work is funeral. Even more,through the scene of observing a withering flowers, deepen into a thought of human being’s life and death. It is showing that the narrator ‘I’ is reflecting the author himself. And also, reconfirmed that this connection between Kawabata’s work and the death could be a keyword to understand his work.
  • 19.

    A Possibility of Japanese Literature Education at the University -The Wary that is Complete Dependence on the Political and Economic Thinking-

    Jooyoung Kim | 2015, (38) | pp.365~382 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The overall perception of Korea towards Japan does not escape from the comprehensive dependence on the political and economic conviction. In this context, we could raise a question in that such a pattern of thinking is really appropriate. Moreover, it is regrettable to request modifications that are entirely incorrect recognition based on the unrealistic stance. Here, “we” have to reconsider the issues that are general, but have easily been dismissed. The domain of knowledge based on language has ups and downs because it is simply affected by the international situation of the political and economic issues. Its problem is not merely confined to the area of Japanese literature. The mere emphasis of translation as a main role of communication that highlighted by the instrumental knowledge has given rise to the harmfully contradictory result. In this paper, I explore the possibilities of literary education as an alternative for the education of the area and the study of Japanese literature that are extremely suppressed in 2014. This can be considered separate problems of surface schooling seen from verbal communication function, the possibility of Japanese literature teaching seen from universal surface literature teaching, and examples of Japanese literature teaching model. Through this study, we could extend the social function of Japanese literature education, and to seek an alternative of strained awareness of the political and economic thinking.
  • 20.

    Haruki Murakami's Pinball, 1973 -Focusing on the world view in this novel-

    Kim, Chung-Gyoon | 2015, (38) | pp.383~403 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article studies the world view shown in the novel Pinball, 1973, one of Haruki Murakami's early major works. Analysis of this novel gave me an insight into the following. ‘I’, the protagonist and narrator of Pinball, 1973, confronted the world view in the 1960s with that in the 1970s. In this novel, the world view in the 1960s represents a perspective focusing on ‘political power’and ‘love’. In the meantime, the world view in the 1970s is characterized by ‘loneliness’, that is, a perspective that everyone in this world is fundamentally lonely. In Pinball, 1973, the 1970s is an era set under a new condition of life distinguished from the 1960s. According to the novel, people in the 1970s lived as if they became a part of a machine, losing their personality in a highly-industrialized society. However, ‘I’, the narrator, had a hope to lead a personalized life without losing himself to the system of highly-industrialized society. ‘I’ is a character who overcame allteglichkeit and reflected on his own life. Through such self-reflection, ‘I’ reached a conclusion that it was the order of universe and the life of people that things began from nothing and returned to nothing. And with this in mind, ‘I’ overcame the sadness of losing his girl friend Naoko. Pinball, 1973 shows this mental journey attaining a view of the universe and the world that people's life is in the universal order of coming from nothing and returning to nothing.
  • 21.

    A Study on the character of the heroof “No Longer Human” by Osamu Dazai-Focusing on Yozoh’s clown doing-

    LeeJaeSung | 2015, (38) | pp.405~423 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A Study on the character of the heroof “No Longer Human” by Osamu Dazai-Focusing on Yozoh’s clown doing- “No Longer Human” is one of the representative works of Osamu Dazai. This paper is a review about the format, structure, narrative, and hero’s character of “No Longer Human”. The format of this novel is composed by five part such as preface, first memorandum, second memorandum, third memorandum, and postface. Preface and postface among these, it describes the main character Yozoh as the third person. By targeting the main character Yozoh to describe the third-person narrative, the author made Yozoh’s memorandum to be seen rather than to demonstrate to the general reader. By doing so, it made Yozoh’s memorandum, not a flimsy confession to demonstrate to the general reader, and made to look as honest confession of a man decides to commit suicide. With such effect of the preface and postface, readers will feel the thrill of sneaking and spying illusion without the permission of the secret private confession. The sentiment reads like a secret diary the sneak peek accomplice would be to place a corner of the mind of the reader. This novel is a fiction that is extremely close to the actual life of the author of Osamu Dazai. By the secret and not secret that the main character and author overlap, readers may compare that appears is what is reflected in variations in the actual circumstances of the case or reading novels, like solving puzzles, and can feel the fun. It is causing a lot of empathy and compassion called the most impressive and appealing characters that Yozoh effectively, and the development of the story right over his clown doing.
  • 22.

    Through the exchange of The Letters Bashō and Gyokusui in the Study

    Heo Kon | 2015, (38) | pp.425~441 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Check this through a letter exchange between Bashō and Gyokusui of this large category was divided into three. The type of the first flow of pure Bashō to Gyokusui may lead to Haikai, often give each other's Haikai, including assessments while receiving flow through the Haikai like. The second flow is a type of communion with the poets. Bashō is for the exchange of their poets and writers to introduce special attention to writing and to interact with each other and to care for the look was confirmed through the letters. These first and second flow is characterized by the achievement of their lifetime Bashō is thought to promote reform and development of the Haikai you want to the active exchange of Bashō was an action that is willing. Such deliberate exchanges of Bashō by targeting their life on the reform and development of the Haikai in a very positive role in achieving that will be able to. The letter was sent from Bashō to Gyokusui, Bashō is asking Gyokusui is the safety of the family, and even to borrow money, you can see the contents. Through this form of communion is a very friendly relationship was an Bashō and Gyokusui can be confirmed. Bashō and Gyokusui are based on the exchange of trust, having been a human was possible. Bashō and Gyokusui, and the flow of the Haikai is available through increasingly close relationship because he was able to say that the development will be the last.
  • 23.

    A Normative Study on the peace movement regarding the issues of the Futenma base.

    KANG KYUNGJA | 2015, (38) | pp.443~464 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This thesis aims to provide a normative consideration of the peace movement around the Futenma base and determine the roles, limitations and possibilities of the peace movement focused on the right to live in peace. It provides a diachronic overview of the political background of the Futenma base transfer, examines the movement against the Henoco base construction to date, and investigates the right to live in peace, created and spread as a basic value and norm against base construction, from a normative perspective. It shows that the right to live in peace as a constitutive norm has played a key role in forming the identity of Okinawa people and in developing discussions on the anti-base movement. On the other hand, the roles of the right to live in peace as a regulative norm are limited because the Okinawa base problem is addressed on the basis of the diplomatic politics of the America-Japan axis. However, the anti-base movement based on the right to live in peace is being driven by international solidarity movement and will thus gain momentum. In addition, with Okinawa local politics entering a new phase with the new governor, the political pressures from America and Japan and the expansion of discussions on peace as a human right will make political changes possible.
  • 24.

    A Study on Sociocultural Context in Japanese Orokamuko Tales

    Kim Yongui | 2015, (38) | pp.465~482 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper pay attention to the sociocultural aspects of tales from the Japanese folklore known as the name of <stupid son-in-law(Orokamuko)>. <Stupid son-in-law> is one of the well-known representative tales along with such as <stupid town(Orokamura)> and <silly bride(Orokayome)>. First, when viewed from the angle of the evolution theory of tales, <stupid son-in-law> is closely related to the marriage system called Mukoiricon (聟入婚) in Japan. Of marriage institutions, pay attention to that the folk practices called Mukoizime (聟いじめ) involved in Mukoiricon are especially associated with. Mukoizime means a kind of groom bullying practices against new groom, in which apply a variety of sanctions on him in JapanSecond, pointed out the relevance between the foolish words and actions by groom who appeared in <Stupid son-in-law>, and the cultural endemism in his wife's home. <Stupid son-in-law> tales were often occurred in the process of grooms' adapting to different cultures, called wife's home for a groom who begins to live in his wife's home after the marriage. Third, the groom appeared in <stupid son-in-law> was originally not a fool. That is a result that the strict eyes of his wife's home and the people in the village who looks at a strict experimental eyes did action on the groom transferred from the outside world. As a result that the eyes have linked to the generation of folk tales, <stupid son-in-law> was born.
  • 25.

    A study on the acceptance phrase of Western culture in Early modern Japan -In attempt of simplification-

    Yi, Keun Sang | 2015, (38) | pp.483~499 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    A study on the acceptance phrase of Western culture in Early modern Japan-In attempt of simplification- To characterize the understanding of accepting Western culture in Early modern Japan's society where the time period had been a national isolation policy, late 16th to 19th century of 300 years of time period will be selected to show how Japan has simplified its characteristics in accepting Western cuture. We will mainly consider to focus on the Japan's response in education organization to have a clear understanding of accepting Western curlture through out the time period of 300 years in early mordern Japan, Especially taking a close view on how Japan has accepted and developed Rangaku(蘭學) and Yogaku(洋學) in the movement toward modernization of education. Since 1571, under the time of Nanbangaku(南蛮学) Japan had been passive, since 1641 Japan had beginning to show active response under Komogaku(紅毛学). After 1811 and between 1857, further strong active movement had been started and finally from 1860 whole a lot active attitude took place in Banshowagegoyo(蛮書和解御用) and Banshosirabesho(蕃書調所). Since 1874 a complete acceptance had been settled in Tokiokaiseigakko(東京開成学校). Passive to active, these active movement became further active attitude and aprroaches. Finally, wide expansion led to a complete acceptance of Western culture.
  • 26.

    The Study of Play Picture(芝居絵) and Nishikie(錦絵)in the Edo Period(江戸時代)

    milim Lee | 2015, (38) | pp.501~517 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The Study of Play Picture(芝居絵) and Nishikie(錦絵)in the Edo Period(江戸時代) In the world of Japanese Woodblock Prints(浮世絵), the painters who painted Play picture(芝居絵) played an active role in making Sign pictures(看板繪) and Artworks(挿絵) in Printed books(版本) as well. Sign pictures(看板繪) has been handed down up to date protected by patent right of Torii School(鳥居派), however, the unique method of depiction(描写法) considers as one of tradition of Japanese Woodblock Prints(浮世絵). Moreover, In publication, Artwork(挿絵) or Cover(表紙) in the Original copy(正本) of Nagauta , Long epic song(長唄Nagauta) or Ballad drama(浄瑠璃) is one of kind of Play picture(芝居絵), and so is Artwork(挿絵) in Lines Collection(台詞集) called Parrot stone(鸚鵡石). The novel contained the picture of Kusazōshi(草双紙), mostly as Artwork(挿絵) of Play picture(芝居物語), depicted the stage as real and painted people as Portrait(似顔) of Actor(役者) in the form of Japanese woodblock prints(浮世絵師). Japanese woodblock prints(浮世絵) has developed with Kabuki(歌舞伎) on a basis of reciprocity since the early Painting of Handwriting(肉筆畵) times. Later, in the late Meiji Period(明治 1868-1912), when the photography became substitute for Play picture(芝居絵), Japanese woodblock prints(浮世絵) also started to decline. Japanese woodblock prints(浮世絵) brought up by Common people in the Edo Period and Kabuki(歌舞伎) faced the same fate. Play picture(芝居絵) among the remaining Japanese woodblock prints(浮世絵) reveals the glorious aspect of Kabuki(歌舞伎) in the Edo Period.
  • 27.

    A Review of Postwar Sexology Magazines in Japan-With a focus on "The Study of Man"-

    Jeehyung Lee | 2015, (38) | pp.519~539 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The present paper deals with an investigation on『The Study of Man』, a postwar sexology magazine published in Japan. With a motto claiming 'the sexology magazine for the cultured people', 『The Study of Man』made inquiries of everything concerned with 'sex' from the perspective of such vast areas as medicine, science, psychology, society, custom, history, etc. It was anything but an amusement-oriented low taste sex magazine that solely sought after satisfying sexual curiosity and trivial desire of the mass. It aimed instead to explore 'sex' on the one hand but kept sense of balance or limit on the other hand by heading forward 'culture' and drawing a clear border line with vulgarity. The magazine put extraordinary weight on the contents and articles handling connection between war and sex, views of sexology and sex medicine, as well as homosexuality reflecting the characteristics of the time after the war. Besides, it was also characteristic of running mainly a regular corner for counselling of sex problems and publishing reports on sex-suggestive news in an effort to respond to the needs of and communicate with readers in a clever and positive way. It is particularly remarkable to note the great concern of 『The Study of Man』for the issue of homosexuality. The magazine possessed a rich inventory of the articles in this regard and examined the issue from various viewpoints. It seems, however, hard to conclude that 『The Study of Man』showed deep understanding to the position of homosexuals as minority group of the society. On the contrary, there seems to be rather traces of its attempt to highlight the article about homosexuality just to cater to the wishes of the mass. The magazine should nevertheless be highly estimated for its efforts to bring to the fore broadly the issue of sexuality which was then tabooed. In sum, we can't deny the success of 『The Study of Man』since it definitely spoke for the voice of isolated and suppressed minority with 'sex' by defining possibility and flexibility of the time after the war.
  • 28.

    Become a participant: A study on owners of folk custom

    中里亮平 | 2015, (38) | pp.541~566 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    My thesis is about the experience of becoming a participant in a ritualized festival in modern Japan, taking the Kurayami festival at Ookunitama Shrine in Fuchu City, Tokyo, as my main example. Kurayami festival perform May 3 4 5 6,and its participant are over ten thousand.Kurayami festival has 8 mikoshies and 22 dashi and 6 huge drams, and its history beyond 600.Kurayami festival is one of the most famous festival in Japan. Conclude only that contemporary festival participant and is not.Various elements , such as the audience, mass media, area residents , another festival , the police.I want to think contemporary festival.Is required by reviewing the traditional festival in contemporary festival. Kurayami festival is adequate presence for thatI will of course be looking at the experience of people who participate in such events, but also the experience of those who become participants and how the ritual actually operates from the inside. I hope to propose and open new lines of thinking on these matters from the perspective of research into rituals and folklore.