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2016, Vol., No.40

  • 1.

    The Subjectivity of Japanese Compound Verbs related to the Co-occurrence with Onomatopoeia : A Case Study of ‘V+tsukeru’

    Kim, Kwangsung | 2016, (40) | pp.9~28 | number of Cited : 2
    Previous studies about Japanese compound verbs mainly focused on the way of combination or semantic extension. Most of them basically supposed that one compound verb has one meaning. It means that they neglected looking into the subtlety of the meaning and the usage of compound verbs. That’s why this paper focused on the subjective meaning and usage of compound verbs. This paper tried to posit a part of the subjective meaning and usage of compound verbs by analyzing the co-occurrence relations between ‘V+tsukeru’ and onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia could be an effective index to analyze the subjective meaning and usage because it reflects the embodiment and conceptualization of a conceptualizer. The analysis showed that onomatopoeia could be a useful index to look into more objectively how each ‘V+tsukeru’ is related to cognitive domains. It is possible to analyze logically the reason why certain compound verbs have co-occurrence relations with certain onomatopoeia. But it is quite difficult to prove and predict the inevitability of the co-occurrence relations. That is one of the reasons why we need to investigate each expression using corpus data. This time, the object of the study was ‘V+tsukeru’. But it is necessary to look into other cases of compound verbs because comparing various cases of compound verbs could help to grasp the characteristics of subject meaning and usage of Japanese compound verbs.
  • 2.

    A Study of honorific expressions of the Japanese company employee as seen from ‘ARATAMARI(Formal consciousness)’ : Survey of the major publishers of employees

    KIMDongkyu | 2016, (40) | pp.29~48 | number of Cited : 1
    This study is for 'ARATAMARI(Formal consciousness)' in honorific expressions in Japanese. This study, it was analyzed for use aspects of honorific expressions Japanese company employee. As a result, it was possible to rewrite the provisions of 'ARATAMARI' in preceding studies. 1)'ARATAMARI' is related to the conditions of the 'BAMEN(The Situation)' of honorific expressions. Specifically, the attribute that 'OHYAKE(public)' and 'Formal' is an important condition as the status of 'BAMEN'. However, not necessarily the 'OHYAKE' and 'Formal' is necessarily to be interlocked. In addition, the 'OHYAKE' is an important attribute of 'ARATAMARI', 'Formal' is not always the case. 2)'ARATAMARI' is the different conditions and the identification of the upper and lower in human relations. 'ARATAMARI' is going to appear on the basis of superior of the person, unfamiliar relationships, the conditions of such a large number of opponent. However, it is not necessarily the case. Familiar relationships, it also appears under the condition that one of the opponent. 3)'ARATAMARI' not only 'TEICHOUGO' and 'TEICHOUGO'-specific vocabulary and writing style. Greetings with a formal property, ranging in idiomatic expressions. It extends to the honorific expressions beyond the words. 4)'ARATAMARI' is not a problem of work and nature of just Keigo. 'ARATAMARI' has consciousness in Keigo expressions, condition, the properties of and components. Furthermore, 'ARATAMARI' is to be positioned as such.
  • 3.

    The syntactic structure of modification clause and 「,」

    Miyoung Nam | 2016, (40) | pp.49~64 | number of Cited : 0
    In the present-day Japan language, [,] but judge as a pose and the function of keeping quiet or a subjective style that it's put, it wasn't talked on so much at a side of the grammatical form. Without rules, handled one is used properly so that you can say, and it's also fact. In the present-day Japan language, [,] but the put syntactic structure found out that the degree which is also here in addition to the function such as the pose and keeping quiet has the decided syntactic type. The postposition is made a predicate in particular, [,] for, it's often come across by a modification department. It can be put in Japanese up to now, [,] it was considered about the appearance condition and the construction condition. Japanese, [,] for, it was possible to be shared with non- modification construction and a modification construction and talk on its syntactic feature.   In the inside, put predicate, [,] the "preposition" which does a postposition and links it to a center noun, a modification department and a main part, the role of relating organically is also played semantically. classify these [the preposition] from now on, look for its meaning type and analyze deeply. But the form of the syntactic structure is also concerned with the meaning from the angle of the syntax, and think the analysis which makes written language the subject is worth doing enough.
  • 4.

    Goguryeo Anthroponomy in Nihonshoki

    YU,MIN-HWA | 2016, (40) | pp.65~92 | number of Cited : 4
    Among the Goguryeo-related articles found in Nohonshoki, about 60 Goguryeo anthroponyms are used throughout volumes 10, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 27, 28, 29, and 30, and the usage is limited to the king of Goguryeo, his royal family, artisans, envoys, and monks. Before volume 26, all name registries are listed by names only or with a combination of “job title+name.” After volume 26, job titles and rank titles began adding to the names as the usage of Goguryeo envoy anthroponyms increased. In this period, “department name+rank title+name” was the basic form while omitted forms like “rank title+name” and “department name+name” were also used. While epigraphy research by Koreans show that Goguryeo anthroponyms take the form of “department name+job title+rank title+name,” in Nihonshoki, this form cannot be found. The usage of job titles is flexible, thus names usually appear without them and as “department name+rank title+name.” Additionally, research of transcriptions of Goguryeo anthronyms shows that 2 syllables were used the most for proper names. 3 syllable names were second widely used, but 1 and 5 syllable names were not apparent or had less examples of usage. Also, despite the limited existing resources, speculations are made for two-worded last names “伊梨” and ”久禮” and proper name suffixes “流,” “德,” “群,” “婁,” and “干” during the Goguryeo Period.
  • 5.

    The Usage of 「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 Sentence Pattern of Adjective Predicative Construction

    Haehwan Park | 2016, (40) | pp.93~116 | number of Cited : 0
    This article investigates and analyzes the relationship between sentence constructions and meaning of words in adjective predicative sentences that have 「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 pattern, from the sentence-pattern-logical point of view. As a result, major usages of 「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 sentence pattern were as follows. ①「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 sentence pattern was used in almost every meaning range. The exceptions were 'Sitasii' of Kankei-Sinso, 'Chikai, Tooi' of Kankei-Idou, 'Ii' of Ryouteki- Manzokujuubun, 'Chuyoi, Moroi, Yowai' of Chikara Taisei, 'Medetai' of Kengu, 'Medetai' of Kikkyou and etc. ②「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 sentence pattern can be converted into one-category sentence that has 「N1ha・ga+A」 pattern in almost every meaning range. But, converting of 'Chikai, Tooi' of Kankei-Idou, 'Ii' of Ryouteki-Manzokujuubun, Medetai' of Kengu, 'Medetai' of Kikkyou and etc. was impossible. ③When both sides, 「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」 pattern of two-categories sentence and 「N1ha・ga+A」 pattern of one-category sentence, were available, it was often that transferred- adjective take two-categories sentence and original-adjective adopt one-category sentence. ④There were many types and usages in meaning group like 'Abstract relation, mind and act', but those in meaning group like 'Natural phenomenon' were very simple.
  • 6.

    Stopping and Affrication in Yonaguni Ryukyuan

    LEE BYEONG HOON | 2016, (40) | pp.117~136 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to examine stopping and affrication in Yonaguni Ryukyuan within the framework of Optimality Theory. Voiced fricatives became voiced stops in Yonaguni Ryukyuan due to a markedness constraint *Ons/VcdFric, which bans voiced fricatives in onset position. Contrary to voiced fricatives, voiceless fricatives did not become voiceless stops. I account for this asymmetry by ranking constraints such as 〚*Ons/VcdFric ≫ Ident(strid) ≫ *Ons/VclsFric〛. *Ons/VcdFric was more highly ranked than the faithfulness constraint Ident(strid), so voiced fricatives changed to voiced stops. But *Ons/VclsFric was less ranked than Ident(strid), so voiceless fricatives did not change to voiceless stops. Voiceless fricative /ʃ/ became affricate [ʧ] or [ʧʔ] before /i/ in Yonaguni Ryukyuan. It was caused by a markedness constraint *PalFric, which bans palatal fricatives. Despite of *PalFric, [ʃi], which was changed from /se/ by vowel raising and palatalization, did not become [ʧi] or [ʧʔ] in Yonaguni Ryukyuan. To account for this counter-feeding opacity, I propose a locally conjoined constraint [Ident(cont) & Ident(high)]Body A faithfulness constraint Ident(cont) was lower ranked than the markedness constraint *PalFric in Yonaguni Ryukyuan, so /ʃi/ changed to [ʧi] or [ʧʔi]. However, since the composite constraint [Ident(cont) & Ident(high)]Body was more highly ranked than *PalFric, [ʃi], which was changed from /se/ by vowel raising and palatalization, did not change to [ʧi] in Yonaguni Ryukyuan.
  • 7.

    Discourse function of ‘toka’ in the contact situation

    Lee Eun Mi | 2016, (40) | pp.137~152 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, discourse function of ‘toka’ in the contact situation between Japanese female native speakers and Japanese female non-native speakers was investigated. The results of this study were summarized as follows. In this study, the functions of ‘toka’ were classified into ‘exemplification’ and ‘mitigation’. In addition to, ‘exemplification’ was subdivided into ‘enumeration’, ‘representation’ and ‘specification’, and ‘mitigation’ was subdivided into ‘topic initiation/topic switching’, ‘expression of opinion’, ‘expression of emotion’, ‘quotation’, ‘uncertainty’ and ‘others(surplus)’. Female Japanese non-native speakers used slightly more ‘toka’ than female Japanese native speakers in the contact situation. For the discourse function of ‘toka’, the ratio of ‘mitigation’ was higher than that of ‘exemplification’ in contact situation(both female Japanese native speakers’ utterances and female Japanese non-native speakers’s utterances), and this tendency was stronger in female Japanese native speakers’ utterances. Moreover, the ratio of ‘mitigation’ was higher in utterance-final. There are differences in specific usage of the function of ‘mitigation’ of ‘toka’ in contact situation between female Japanese native speakers and female Japanese non-native speakers. However, it could be said ‘toka’ in the contact situation has a function of language strategy to maintain smooth communication with interlocutors.
  • 8.

    A study about on the interaction of a lightly imposing ‘Apologetic behaviors’ : As a center since Korea and Japan male and female college student

    JungHyunAa | 2016, (40) | pp.153~175 | number of Cited : 2
    The present study aimed to compare the similarity and difference of a lightly imposing‘Apologetic behaviors’ in interaction, using 64 conversations between college friends of Korea and Japan male and female.  In a lightly imposing scene of apology, both Japanese and Korean male and female native speakers that have to apologize turned out to mainly use ‘utterances of situational explanation, apology and/or accountability’ while those worthy apology mainly used ‘utterances of mistake, situation confirmation, blame and/or concession’. In detail, Korean native speakers who have to apologize mainly used ‘utterances of interpersonal consideration and/o r mistake adjustment’ while those who receive apology mainly used ‘utterances of compensation. In addition, Japanese and Korean male native speakers who have to apologize more used ‘denial of accountability and expression of dissatisfaction’ than Japanese and Korean female native speakers who have to apologize while Japanese and Korean male native speakers who receive apology more used ‘utterances of blame’ than Japanese and Korean female native speakers who have to apologize. Particularly, Korean male native speakers showed this tendency more obviously. On the other hand, Japanese and Korean female native speakers who apologize more used ‘utterances of apology’ than Japanese and Korean male native speakers who apologize. Especially, Japanese female native speakers who are entitled to apology showed repeated acceptance of apology.
  • 9.

    Deverbalization of verbal conditional forms in modern Japanese : In case of verbal conditional form ‘-ba’ and ‘-to’ -

    Jaephil Ha | 2016, (40) | pp.177~201 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study describes deverbalization, which is synchronically observed in conditional forms of verbs in contemporary Japanese. Here, deverbalization refers to verbs changing to other parts of speech while losing their lexical, morphological, and syntactic characteristics as verbs. Verbs from lexically represent motion or change in a person or an object, are inflected morphologically in tense, aspect, voice, mood, and polarity, and function as a predicate in a sentence syntactically. Perusing the usage of conditional forms of verbs, however, some of them have lost the various characteristics as verbs. This deverbalization also refers to grammaticalization and lexicalization. Grammaticalization refers to the phenomenon in which in certain contexts or constructions, words that have autonomy loses their original lexical meanings and thereby transform into forms with grammatical functions ― such as clitic, adposition, and affix. In this study, I have confirmed the phenomenon in which they develop into postposition, connective particle, and connective. Meantime, lexicalization refers to a word going out of its original lexical category to transition to an element in another lexical category. In this study, I have verified that a speaker uses the form that derives from the conditional form of the verb in order to express his or her attitude with regard to the content of the sentence that he or she mentions. Specifically, there is change from a verb to a sentence adverb that indicates the speaker's attitude.
  • 10.

    A Study of relation between variety of negative expression and education in Japanese : Focusing on "~masen" and "~naidesu"

    Kim,Young-Min | 2016, (40) | pp.203~219 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is focusing on relationship between polite negative sentence and Japanese education especially regarding to "masen" and "naidesu." Most text books currently used in universities in Korea takes "~masen" form for the basic form of the polite negative sentence in all word classes except "i-adjective." In most cases, the fact that "~masen" form is enough to express the polite negative sentence in Japanese education is prevalent. Tanomura's research of the polite negative sentence with newspaper sources supports that tendency. However, this tendency is not proper because the sentences used in newspaper takes literary style using “~masen" form frequently. In colloquial style, "~naidesu" form is used more dominantly in actual conversation than "~masen" form. Kobayashi (2005) supports this perspective on using the polite negative sentence by contrasting Tanomura's study. Thus, some textbooks which is focusing on the colloquial style for instant using in actual conversation limits "i-adjective" in "~naidesu" form. Through the study so far, the negative expression has various form in the glance at its form. Like this, the negative expression in Japanese has diverse characteristic. One takes the negative form and meaning at a time, but others have non-negative meaning while these take the negative form. Therefore, in Japanese education, textbooks that reflects the various characteristics of the negative forms in realistic and systematic way are needed. Taking proper balance between "~masen" and "~naidesu" is necessary to acquire both expression: "masen," for semi-formal experession and "naidesu," for semi-informal expression.
  • 11.

    The Current Status, Future Works, Methods and Theories of Needs Analysis : An Exploratory Study for Japanese Language Learners at South Korean Universities

    kim hyon ju | 2016, (40) | pp.221~243 | number of Cited : 2
    This is a basic study for conducting needs analysis(NA) of Japanese language learners at South Korean universities. It has two purposes: 1) to examine the theoretical basis and information collection tools of NA and the current status of research on the topic in South Korea; and 2) to present the direction of research on the needs of Japanese language learners at domestic universities. NA is conducted continuously and repetitively throughout the curriculum. It has also been shown to be capable of a considerable effect on the overall curriculum. Thus far, the questionnaire method has been the mostly widely used tool to collect information in analyzing Japanese language learners’ needs. However, information collection tools that can actually be used for NA in foreign language teaching are very diverse. After surveying earlier research, this study proposes a NA methodology. Here, two or more tools are appropriately used for TSA, LSA, and PSA, respectively. It presents the items to be reviewed to create a standardized questionnaire on Japanese language learners’ needs. It also presents the direction of NA in Japanese language education. Future tasks consist of a sequential review of: 1) construction of a needs questionnaire; 2) review of the questionnaire’s reliability and validity; 3) NA of students taking general education and major courses in Japanese; and 4) reflection of the learners’ needs and evaluation. The most basic task in curriculum design is a review of: 1) the expectations of learners, the users/consumers of education; and 2) ways to embrace and reflect their needs in the curriculum. If performed successfully, it will greatly help to create textbooks and to construct the curriculum for Japanese departments at universities.
  • 12.

    The Analysis of Humble Languages in Business Japanese Textbook

    Cho, Nam-Sung | 2016, (40) | pp.245~266 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper examined humble languages used in Business Japanese textbooks (10 kinds). The key results are as follows: (1) Humble languages have been using 2.7 times more than respectful languages in Business Japanese textbooks. (2) While Business Japanese textbooks reflect all of the N4-level humble languages, it doesn't reflect much of N1〜N2-level ones, especially prefixes. (3) From the number of humble languages to be used, o/go -suru, -teoru, mousu comprise 39.1% of the whole, which represents preferential usage. (4) The average duty cycle of humble languages(35 ones) in the textbook has 50.9%, which means diverse humble languages are not used. It is recognized that humble languages in Business Japanese Textbooks are not used much but used with unequal distribution without their diversity. It is hopeful that this could be the informative guide to frame and develop textbooks in the future. It is, however, judged that the above results came from giving priority to the actually needed business scenes and putting emphasis on the more natural conversations, and so it shows the preferential usage is the first thing to guide.