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2017, Vol., No.45

  • 1.

    The problem of “Gazing” in Modern moving space -Focused on Mori Ogai’s “Denshanomado”-

    Tae Kyun Yim | 2017, (45) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 1
    In this paper, I try to review the problem of the subjects and objects in the space of modern city, by examining the problem of gaze created in the tram of modern transportation, which is newly emerged in the city center of Tokyo after the Russo-Japanese War, focusing Mori Ogai's short story "Denshanomado" In the 'moving space', a newly born tram in the modern city, people became very close to a variety of different types of others with different origins, social status, and tendencies. The nature of 'closedness', which is in the space of the tram, that is, characteristic due to the limited space, occurs unnecessary physical contact in the super close proximity, which leads people to fall into temptation one after another. Ogai's "Denshanomado" has a similar character to the so-called "train novels" in a large context, but in fact, it is a work that shows an essentially different status. In Ogai’s "Denshanomado" the interest of "I" focused on only one woman, and the focus of description is concentrated in solicitude for the woman. In other words, it can be found that the focus is on the ethical and moral cleanliness of 'I'. In the work, 'I' hold an appearance of a 'gentleman' different from it of the men who are gazing with a 'sexual' gaze. One of the expressions to be emphasized several times is the phrase 'does not want to be rewarded'. Through the monologue of the woman, the author lets the reader identify the "noble spirit" that excludes the sexual desire and "pure intention" contained in the kindness of "I", and eventually "I" acquires the status as a "gentleman". In this novel, it is found that the male gaze, which is commonly found in the novels of the time, called 'desire' or 'deviation', takes an extremely modest form. The 'I' in the "Denshanomado" is forming a 'seeing / seen' relationship by expressing the psychology of a woman who attracts my attention in the form of 'monologue' of the woman, further more seeking mutual communication. In the 'kindness that does not want reward', the woman's self-awareness due to the specificity of the profession as a demimonde and the author's consciousness for a relief of the woman is implicit. I think that the social discourse of male supremacy lies behind the scenes.
  • 2.

    Study on the exchange through a letter sent by the Bashō to Zisoku.

    Heo Kon | 2017, (45) | pp.29~44 | number of Cited : 0
    The exchange of letters between Bashō and Zisoku had a great influence on Bashō's Haikai reform. The period in which Bashō and Zisoku interacted with Haikai was between two years and seven months from April 1685 to November 1687. It is very meaningful that Bashō exchanged letters only to Zisoku for one year and eight months. And this was a very important time in Bashō's life when Basho was reforming Haikai. The exchange of letters between Bashō and Zisoku had a great influence on Bashō's Haikai reform. It was not limited only to economic assistance from Zisoku. Zisoku has left a great track record in developing Haikai as partners in the reform of Bashō. In the process Bashō and Zisoku was Haikai promote reform through letters and meetings. Meet between Bashō and Zisoku may encounter but was this that was based on an understanding of each other long. Thus Zisoku may be that an important role in the process of pushing the Bashō new Haikai reform.
  • 3.

    The narrative structure and characteristics of Okinawa's folktale <A Man's Sex with a Stingray>

    Kim Yongui | Kim,Hee-Young | 2017, (45) | pp.45~65 | number of Cited : 0
    Okinawa has historical and cultural traditions that are different from the main land of Japan. Narratives which have come down to Okinawa before modern times are not an exception. It means that there is a unique narrative tradition in types and contents there. This study analysed the story named <A Man's Sex with a Stingray> and characteristics in the viewpoint of human–animal marriage. The appearance of unique animals that are different from the main land of Japan in Okinawa's tale leads more exciting tale worlds. The heterogeneous animal that plays a role of man is a pig. And the animal that plays a role of woman is a stingray(Ei). A stingray is called Kamanta in Okinawan. The case that a stingray appears in tales as woman's role is a very rare example when compared to the cases of Korea and China as well as the main land of Japan. In general, the human–animal marriage is used to put an emphasis on mythological orthodoxy and divinity through unusual birth of heroes or is mobilized as a narrative system to explain the origins of specific things, places or annual events. However, the characteristics are not found in <A Man's Sex with a Stingray>. A man's sex is extraordinarily humorous. Of course, there may be different opinions about whether a man's sex with stingray can be considered as marriage or just sex. This study considered it marriage and included it in the category of human–animal marriage. This study analysed the narrative structure and characteristics in each type of <A Man's Sex with a Stingray> and pointed out a few distinctive characteristics: First, the motif that a hero visited a palace of sea kings because of a sex with a stingray has an important meaning. Second, it has a close relation to its folk religion. Third, a sexual vein of humor is straightforward. Among them, this study speculated on the motif that a hero visited a palace of sea kings because of a sex with a stingray in the category of existing Yonggungseolhwa(tales of palaces of sea kings).