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2018, Vol., No.48

  • 1.

    Honorific patterns and honorification of causativity with “Nasaru” in the Spoken Japanese New Testament

    Sung-Kyu Lee | 2018, (48) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The present paper studied the usage of “Nasaru” a honorific variant of “Suru” in comparison with “Sareru” in the Spoken Japanese New Testament. And we also studied the three roles of “Nasaru” as follows: [1] Nasaru in false separation as in 「Susumeru → (Susume-Wo-Suru ; false separation) → Susume-Wo-Nasaru」・「Mukuiru → Mukui-Wo-Suru (false separation)> → Mukui-Wo-Suru」. [2] Renyoukei+Nasaru in the honorific form as in 「Mukuiru → (Mukui-suru ; false union) → Mukui-nasaru (honorificaiton)」・「Arawareru → (Araware-suru ; false union) → Araware-nasaru (honorification)」・「Hohuru → (Hohuri-suru ; false union) → Hohuri-nasaru (honorification)」. [3]Nasaru for the honorification of causativity as in 「Kaeru → Kaera-seru (causativization) → Kaera-se-nasaru (honorification)」・「Tsugu → Tsuga-seru (causativization)> → Tsuga-se-nasaru (honorification)」・「Hohuru → Hohura-seru (causativization) → Hohura-se-nasaru (honorification)」. There have been little studies on the honorification of the suffixed derivatives, for example, causativity or passivization, in the literature. Though the causativity and honorification on Tsuga-se-nasari-masu-ka, Hohura-se-nasatta were studied in this paper, we admit that our study suffer some limitation and further study is needed.
  • 2.

    The tense system of predicate nominal sentences with a human-denoting subject

    CHANG Heeju | 2018, (48) | pp.31~48 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In order to investigate the tense system of predicate nominal sentences with a human-denoting subject, I collected relevant example sentences from conversational sentences in contemporary Japanese novels. I also divide the collected sentences into those denoting an individual subject and those denoting a generic subject. I further provide the three-way classification of sentences denoting individual subjects in terms of whether they may be concurrent with expressions of past tense. These classifications reveal the tense system of each type of sentence. Firstly, when a subject denotes an individual subject, a sentence describing a constant characteristic of the individual denoted uses a past tense form to express the inexistence of the individual. If the individual is existent, however, the use of past tense is disallowed, and only the non-past form is used. Secondly, a sentence describing a variable characteristic of the individual denoted may be concurrent with the past tense form and it also allows the use of temporal expressions for past tense. In connection with this, I also observe that the use of the past tense form expresses that the relevant characteristic is no longer existent (i.e. a change of the individual or the inexistence of the individual), while the use of the non-past tense form describes the present characteristics of the individual. Finally, a sentence denoting a temporal phenomenon is compatible with temporal expressions for past, and the use of the past tense form points to the pre-utterance time at which the event in question occurred, while the use of the non-past tense form describes the present event. On the other hand, in the case of generic subjects, most of the collected sentences describe judgments based on the speaker’s thoughts, and the non-past tense form tends to be used. For the groups which are currently inexistent, however, the use of the past tense form is licensed, which implicates that the groups in question are no longer existent
  • 3.

    Aspects of language contact and Image on katakana Korean in social networking services

    shin hye yeon | lee kil yong | 2018, (48) | pp.49~69 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study analyzed the sociolinguistic characteristics of katakana Korean in social networking services(SNSs). Data for the analysis were obtained from Twitter. This study analyzed the forms of structural combination and images by extracting the cases where nida was used on Internet community sites with katakana Korean and compared them with the cases where only hamunida and imunida were not used on Internet community sites. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. (1) Regarding the overall usage aspect of katakana Korean, hamunida is attached to verbs, and imunida to nouns. It seems that the use varies according to the structural characteristics and grammar rules concerning hamunida and imunida in Korean language. (2) “Hamnida” is equivalent to “(shi)masu” in Japanese, and “ imnida” to “desu”. The possibility of replacement of one for another in the collected data was examined. As a result, it was found that the users tend to apply the structural rules of the Korean language to both elements when using “hamunida” and “imunida”, showing awareness of their difference. (3) There were many cases in which the “い” of Japanese adjectives was combined with “imunida”. In these cases, it is supposed that “い” was dropped due to its fusion with “i” of “imunida”. (4) The analysis on the usage statuses of “nida”, “hamunida”, “imunida”, and “emojis” revealed a substantial number of cases in which an emoji was used to convey a more negative meaning in “nida” compared with hamunida and imunida. Therefore, users of “hamunida” and “imunida” seem to have a more positive image of Korea or the Korean language compared with users of “nida”. It is believed that he users of “hamunida” and “imunida” have some knowledge of Korean language. They use this knowledge in their SNS messages, showing a positive attitude toward Korea.
  • 4.

    Aspects of Interactions in Requesting Behaviors of Korean, Chinese, and Japanese Speakers: -A Study on the Interactions in the Initial Conversation Portions-

    Kim, Jong-Wan | 2018, (48) | pp.71~88 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The current study analyzes the aspects of inter actions taken by the requester and the requestee by observing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese college students who ask for a recommendation from their advising professors. The interactions expressed during the initial conversation are (1) greeting when entering the room, (2) request for self-introduction, (3) request to sit down, and (4) making the request. The current study makes the following observations about interactions of the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese students. (1) When the requester entered his or her advising professor’s office, Korean professors (requestees) only used response expressions without saying greeting expressions. (2) When requesting self-introduction to the requester, Japanese-speaking requestees utilized various levels of honorific speech. (3) When the requestee asked the requester to take a seat, Japanese- and Chinese-speaking requesters sat down as they used expressions of gratitude to the professor, but Korean-speaking requesters only said “yes.” (4) Korean-speaking requesters took the initiative in requesting the recommendation, while Chinese-speaking students indirectly approached the subject when their advising professor asked their purpose of visit. In addition, Japanese speakers tended to begin their request with expressions of apology. As shown, the current research reveals that Korean-, Chinese-, and Japanese-speaking requesters and requestees take different forms of interaction in short discourses made when beginning a conversation.
  • 5.

    A Study on the interchange of vocabulary in Chinese character cultural sphere of the 19th century -Focused on the Foreign Place Notation in Korea, China and Japan-

    Seong Hee Park | 2018, (48) | pp.89~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual condition and influence of geographic naming in Chinese character culture area by analyzing geographic naming that appears on the modern newspaper archives and the diplomatic documents of port opening era in 19th century, and examining matches for the titles of Chinese and Japanese in the western resources. This study attempts to provide basic data to clarify the influence relationship of geographic naming in Korea, China, and Japan by extracting nominated entries, building databases and applications, through a comprehensive comparative analysis of systems. Through this, although geographic naming in Korea has been influenced by China’ and Japan’ naming due to the proximity of the area and frequent cultural exchanges, around the 1880s, it was found that following the traditional Chinese origin naming, as the Japanese influence was increased, it gradually changed to accept the naming method used in Japan. In this study, the geographic naming of Korea was examined based on the individual data for the usage patterns and aspects that are changing in terms of vocabulary with the turning point of opening port to Japan from the influx of Western culture through China.
  • 6.

    The narrator’s stance and mental attitude presented in a catchphrase -The comparison of Korean and Japanese shopping sites-

    KWAK EUN SIM | 2018, (48) | pp.107~124 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In the present study, a catchphrase used in a Korean shopping site and that in a Japanese counterpart were examined in order to analyze the modality used for each catchphrase, and compare its narrator’s stance and mental attitude for the behavior request. As a result of classifying the modality forms, it was found ten different forms of modality have been used for the Korean catchphrases. In contrast, the limited numbers of modality forms were used for the Japanese counterparts. In addition, assumed that the modality form used in a catchphrase represents its narrator’s stance, it was classified under three categories: an advertiser, a consumer, a friend, then the modality forms used by each of three stances were analyzed. Next, the strength of mental attitude for the behavior request was measured. As a result of comparing the ratios of the different modality forms used for the catchphrases, it was found that the ‘declarative modality’ with both strong and weak forms of mental attitude have been mainly used for the Korean catchphrases. On the other hand, the Japanese counterparts presented the limited numbers of modality forms used, and as for the strength of mental attitude, showed a tendency for the declarative modality with modest strength being mainly used. Language expression represents the language use of the period. While Japanese catchphrases stick to a passive request of behavior, Korean counterparts were found presenting the strong form, to a certain extent, of ‘evaluative modality’ as well as the weakest form of ‘hearsay modality’; In conclusion, Korean catchphrases corresponds to a consumer more dynamically and positively in accordance with the change of time.
  • 7.

    A study on the Error of Japanese Adverb and Teaching Method -Focusing on the beginner & intermediate level of Korean Learners-

    park mi sook | 2018, (48) | pp.125~143 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the misuse of Japanese adverbs in elementary and intermediate Japanese learners. The frequency and causes of misuse in 4 sections are analyzed as follows. In terms of The evaluation of [surveyⅠ]「zuibun, nakanaka, hizyouni」, meaning of 「zutto」, Co-occurrence relation of 「zenzen」, verifiable that it was misused when it was mixed with 「kitto, zehi」, especially, misuse rate was very high in the usage classification according to the evaluation of degree adverb. In terms of The evaluation of [surveyⅡ], the unfriendly response to the expression of 「tabun, dandan, mada, mosi」. In terms of The evaluation of [surveyⅣ], misuse due to missing sentences and adverbs such as 「sukkari, douzo」 and the misuse by synonyms was relatively high such as 「ikura(~temo), zehi, takusan, dandan」. In terms of The evaluation of [surveyⅢ], it is possible to look at the types of adverbials and the kinds of inquiries and the differences in the style of the adverbs, which are represented by 「taihen, totemo, hizyouni」. The errors in the Co-occurrence relation between the double degree adverb and the predicate were high. As a result, it is required focusing teaching that the degree of adverbial affects the meaningfulness of each adverb, together with the evaluation of the evaluation, the Co-occurrence relation with the predicate, the adverb of the sentence, the distinction between the response and the expression of the sentence.
  • 8.

    Teaching Method of Sino-Japanese according to the Correspondence Rules -Focused on Zero Consonant of Sino-Korean-

    HA SO JUNG | Lee, Kyong Chul | 2018, (48) | pp.145~164 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, we extracted only Chinese characters with a On’yomi in the Joyokanji Table(2010) and used them as research data. Then, after extracting 278 Chinese characters corresponding to the zero consonant/∅/ of Sino-Korean, we analyzed the correspondence relationship between Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese. And also analysis of Chinese characters was conducted according to the system of Chinese characters and the Ancient Chinese. As a result, the zero consonant/∅/ of Sino-Korean are mostly corresponded to A-gyo/∅/(39.49%) in Sino-Japanes. Next, Ya-gyo/j’/(22.61%) and Ga-gyo/g/(21.01%) were corresponded in order. Also, zero consonant/∅/ of Sino-Korean are partially corresponded to Na-gyo/n/(6.36%) and Za-gyo/z/(6.68%). In this case, except for one to two Chinese characters, Na-gyo/n/(6.36%) was all Go’on and Za-gyo/z/’(6.68%) was all Kan’on. Therefore, we suggested correspondence rules on the basis of these regular correspondence relationships between zero consonant of Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese. In addition, we proposed 6 steps of teaching-learning method in order to utilize these rules in Japanese language education.
  • 9.

    Using of series of words in Waka: Through -「Musubu Teno~(むすぶ手の~)」・「Tsukiya Aranu~(月やあらぬ~)」-

    Ku Jeong Ho | 2018, (48) | pp.165~182 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examined two poems from Kokinshu written by Tsurayuki and Narihira. In his book 『Korai Huteisho』 and Uta-awase, Shunzei assessed Tsurayuki’s 「Musubu Teno~(むすぶ手の~)」 and Narihira’s 「Tsukiya Aranu~(月やあらぬ~)」, as the best poems by emphasizing importance of Keiki and a using of series of words. Tsurayuki and Narihira have different styles, therefore they tried to describe different worldview of poetry. In spite of the difference in their styles, they have common ground which makes their works would be selected as the best poems in Kokinshu. Through this point, the researcher examined and researched the common ground of two writers. As a result of research, three characteristics—using a series of words seeking Shunzei’s aesthetic ideal, a series of contents which is derived from the series of words, and a plentiful reflection of Keiki as entire background—were acknowledged.
  • 10.

    On consideration of shamanistic properties seen in ‘ubamen’ and ‘miyaruhalmital’ -by focusing on ‘noh,’ ‘obasute,’ and ‘Bongsan mask dance’-

    hwang suk joo | 2018, (48) | pp.183~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The origin of ‘tal’ and ‘omote’ derives from religious rituals, thereby contains a goal within itself, the pursuit of the divinity, and the heteromorphic facial expressions, the fruit of such an attempt. It is a means to visualize supernatural forces, hence the heteromorphic appearances. By successfully conveying such intention, it could equivocally represent secular humane attributes along with divine aspects. This paper will discuss the mask of a piteous old lady who had been abandoned by her family and is leaning towards death away from life. Both masks have distinctive faces unidentifiable as normal, human facial expressions. It is thought to be the result of visualized cogitation to portray secular and divine worlds simultaneously, as well as its religious and shamanistic roots.
  • 11.

    Diplomacy and Idea of Amenomori Hoshu in the Record of the Joseon Dynasty Diplomatic Envoy to Japan

    Hoyun Lee | 2018, (48) | pp.199~216 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Amenomori Hoshu is known to be a political thinker who advocated ‘the diplomacy on the basis of sincerity and trust’ based on ‘equality, parity’ with Joseon unlike the modern Japan’s idea of invasion of Asia. However, If we see the historical records that mention Amenomori out of the records of the diplomatic envoy that was dispatched by the Joseon Dynasty to Japan's feudal government for intercommunication, it can be known that they described Amenomori’s actions and strives that conflict with ‘the diplomacy on the basis of sincerity and trust’ he advocated and the evaluation on Amenomori was not very good. Premodern East Asian Intellectuals evaluated other persons depending on the degree of achievement of ‘Chinese civilization which Confucianism (禮樂文物)’ that was the universal idea at that time aimed for, and ‘the diplomacy on the basis of sincerity and trust’ was established by confirming the feeling of solidarity with the counterpart standing on the basis of ‘etiquette and music culture and civilization’. Amenomori took charge of the practical affairs of the diplomacy with Joseon and while accepting the demand of Japan's feudal government and Joseon, actively arbitrated and negotiated with Joseon. In these processes, there were strives and frictions and because of that, he was negatively described in the record of Joseon. ‘The theory of the diplomacy on the basis of sincerity and trust’ that Amenomori advocated in his later days could be said to be an idea that was born by him emphasizing ‘Chinese civilization which Confucianism(禮樂文物)’ with many frictions and strives in the scenes of diplomacy as a lesson.
  • 12.

    Daisaku Ikeda's Way of Realizing World Peace -An Analysis based on the Global Governance-

    park sang pil | 2018, (48) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper addresses Daisaku Ikeda's way of realizing world peace, who is both the founder of Soka University in Japan and the president of SGI(Soka Gakai International). He is not been properly studied as a religious leader and a peace thinker. I specifically examined what actors were concerned and what level of governance was emphasized in the global governance regime in his 35 years of Peace Proposal through the research method of discourse analysis. The concepts of the UN and related to the UN appeared 1782 times in the text and 972 times(55%) of them were used as ways of realizing world peace. With this, we can say that he lays emphasis on the UN as a means of peacemaking. In addition, he described the concepts of the UN 219 times(23%) out of 972 in connection with the global governance. As cooperative partners in the global governance, NGO was considered to be the most important partner which was mentioned 151 times(69%) out of 219. As a result of this, we can judge that he emphasizes NGOs the most as the partner of the UN. In the analysis of cooperative form, the level of sharing basic value, which is the lowest level of global governance, was 137 times(63%) out of 219. The emphasis on the roles of the UN and NGO in the global governance regime was also confirmed in terms of quality. The researches on religious leaders will enrich the peace science which is a multi-discipline, if we study on religious leaders in various ways and study comparatively with leaders of other religions in the future.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Japanese Social Perspective on War Crime as seen through  BC Class War Crime Trial -Focusing on the Bushido Trial-

    KANG KYUNGJA | 2018, (48) | pp.243~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This Study tried to identify the problems and causes of Japanese perspective on war criminals focusing on the perception of war criminals in the trial process of BC class war crimes trial. To this end, this paper investigated how the spirit of Samurai was projected into the perception of the BC class war criminals and Japanese society by examining Yokohama Court’s " Bushido Trial", one of the BC class war crimes trials, and the nature of the Samurai spirit, which became the spiritual foundation of the Japanese people under the modern emperor system. As a result, the traditional Japanese spirit of the Samurai was thoroughly used to establish the ideology of the modern emperor. This was later deteriorated into the Imperial Samurai Spirit which claimed even one’s life for the Emperor at war times. Because BC class war criminals were brainwashed in this spirit, they could not feel any sense of conscience or responsibility for the atrocities of war carried out in the name of the Emperor. The lack of guilt on the war and war responsibility in the present Japanese society can be said to be relevant to the imperial Samurai spirit. Before criticizing the war crimes trial against Japan, Japanese society should look at the realities and problems of the imperial Samurai spirit that was transformed for the establishment of the modern emperor ideology. Only then would it be possible to confront the historical fact of how many Asian countries have been damaged by the war in the name of the Emperor, and move to a real reconciliation with the other Asian countries.
  • 14.

    A Study on the ≪Record of A Living Being≫ by Kurosawa Akira -Focusing on Factors of Box-Office Failure and Purpose of Production-

    Lee, Si-Jun | Kim, Ho-kyoung | 2018, (48) | pp.261~284 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper considers an atomic bomb film ≪Record of A Living Being≫ by Kurosawa. As this study related the director’s purpose of production to viewers(audiences)’ criticism and social environment related to causes for the box-office failure of this film, it is differentiated from the existing researches. ≪Record of A Living Being≫ is the only work that has failed in box-office out of Kurosawa’s works. As an external factor of failure, the situation of the time could be pointed out. In the second half of 1955 when the film was released, the atomic energy was promoted as ‘the second sun’ because ‘the national policy’ aiming to develop the peaceful use of atomic bomb and atomic development as peace industry was supported. As internal factors of failure, first, audiences could not identify the main character Nakajima’s ‘fear’ and leaving for Brazil with their own fear, which was considered as incoherent. Second, the ‘family drama’ surrounding the inheritance of property between family members was highlighted, so that the main ‘nuclear’ issue got ambiguous. However, contrary to the existing atomic bomb films, the director did not give the experience of radiation exposure to Nakajima and his family, and even did not contain any cruel scenes of radiation exposure. The director aimed to show the fact that ordinary people without concrete damage should feel ‘fear’ as ‘special fear’ would not be caused by special damage by atomic bomb. Also, conflicting Nakajima’s anxiety of atomic bomb with the family’s financial concern by disguising it as ‘family drama’, the director effectively presents the essential critical mind of atomic bomb threatening lives. Moreover, observing Nakajima’s ‘fear’ in the third-party position of a doctor Harada, the director objectively materializes Nakajima’s abstract warning of atomic bomb.