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2019, Vol., No.51

  • 1.

    A Cognitive Linguistic Study on the idioms of Body Languages —Around the chest and belly—

    kwon ik ho | Hong MInhee | 2019, (51) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 2
    This study began with a motif about how the body language for chest and belly expresses happy and sad feelings through some conceptual metaphor. In other words, from a cognitive point of view, we tried to approach the concept of abstract emotion in body language, which material and specific concepts were adopted as source areas to express happy and sad feelings. First of all, the body language for chest is more metaphorically used in emotions or emotions in a person than in other body parts, especially in Korean, where the metaphorical concept of happy emotions, or source areas, was less than the source areas of sad emotions. In contrast, in Japanese, the source of happy emotions was slightly larger than the source of sad emotions. And in the case of belly, the source area of happy emotion seems to be three concepts in Korean, while the source area of sad emotion is more than happy with six concepts. In the case of Japanese, unlike in Korea, the source area of happy emotions is somewhat greater than that of sad emotions. What’s interesting here is that there are fewer or fewer idioms associated with metaphorical concepts such as “instrument,” “dirt,” “money” and “enemy” than in Korea, in terms of Japan’s special society and commercial culture. This is seen as the result of a metaphorical expression that has long been customary in Japan’s unique historical, cultural and social environment.
  • 2.

    The Usage and Meaning of Demonstrative respond to Negation in Modern Japanese

    Kim,Young-Min | 2019, (51) | pp.29~46 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper offers the meanings and functions of 「sonna/sonnani」 in response to the negation and draws following conclusions: First, in case of 「sonna」; ① 「sonna」 is distinguished from 「sono」 because it functions as a demonstrative pronoun which expresses a speaker’s emotion or evaluation. ② When 「sonna」 is combined with a noun such as 「mono/koto」, the expression of negation becomes extremely higher and it affects adjectives or other noun modifiers. ③ Since 「sonna」 establishes distinctive verbal uniqueness, it is matchlessly used in idiomatic expressions. Second, in case of 「sonnani」; ① 「sonnani」 has twofold characteristics; the usage of adverb and demonstrative pronoun. ② Through the comparative analysis of 「amari~nai」 and 「sonnani~nai」, it was able to find out similarities and differences. Future tasks in this field could be the similarities and differences of 「sonna」 with expressions such as 「sonnahuuni」「souiuu/souitta」 or characteristics of 「sonna」 in use of irony. Through these researches, it is expected to extend the boundary of the negation study and develop the meanings and usages of demonstrative pronouns logically and systematically.
  • 3.

    Noda in casual conversations of Korean-speaking learners of Japanese —A comparison with noda in formal conversations—

    Yang, Naeyun | lee kil yong | 2019, (51) | pp.47~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the current study, we focus on the actual use of noda in casual conversations with the plain form of Korean-speaking learners. Further, this study compares and analyzes the use of noda pronounced in casual conversations by Korean-speaking learners, using formal conversations of Korean-speaking learners and casual conversations of Japanese native speakers. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Korean-speaking learners use noda more frequently in formal conversations than in casual conversations. Korean-speaking learners use noda less frequently than do Japanese native speakers in casual conversations. (2) Korean-speaking learners use noda much more often than other modality expressions both in casual and formal conversations. However, this tendency is more pronounced in formal conversations. (3) The affinity between noda and verbal predicates is found in polite conversations but not in casual conversations. Hence, noda in Korean-speaking learners has been found to be used in formal conversations much more frequently than in casual conversations. Additionally, the characteristics of the use of noda in polite conversations are not found in casual conversations. With regard to the recognition of the frequent use of noda in formal conversations, learners may tend to avoid using the morphologically complex -masu type in difficult verbal predicates in the polite form system and instead use the simplified form of mechanically suffixing n-desu onto the plain form.
  • 4.

    Action Report for Korea-Japan Remote-Exchange Meeting using SNS —Focus on the effects brought to Korean-Japanese-Language Learners—

    Oikawa Hiroe | Fukushima Minori | 2019, (51) | pp.69~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed example of a remote-exchange meeting and to consider its results and issues in between Korean-Japanese-language learners who study Japanese language at a Korean university and students who major in Korean at a Japanese university. As a method of doing this, we conducted an optional questionnaire and a free-descriptive questionnaire to analyze what kind of changes appeared to the Korean-Japanese-language learner’s language aspect and attitude toward Japan and Japanese. As a result of the practice of the remote-exchange meeting, firstly, they have gained confidence communicating in Japanese language. Secondly, their learning motivation have increased. Thirdly, they were able to connect in real time with students in same generation. Fourthly, they were able to connect personally via SNS. Lastly, as a productive outcome, they could have more effective remote-exchange meeting by using SNS. On the other hand, there were four issues to point out. Firstly, the importance of setting the right theme. Secondly, the lack of use in Korean language by Japanese-Korean-language learners during exchanges. Thirdly, technical difficulties. Fourthly, there were issues with its time and number of sessions for exchanges. Last but not least, they could confirm through these practices that remote-exchange meetings are great opportunities for the young people of Korean and Japanese who are building up the future together, can actually mingle and become independent based on their own experience and also utilize as learning place from one another.
  • 5.

    Learning Method of Sino-Japanese according to the Correspondence Rules —Focused on an(ᅟᅡᆫ)・al(ᅟᅡᆯ) Vowels of Sino-Korean—

    HA SO JUNG | Lee, Kyong Chul | 2019, (51) | pp.95~112 | number of Cited : 3
    In this study, we extracted 74 Chinese characters corresponding to /an/(ᅟᅡᆫ) vowel of Sino-Korean and 25 Chinese characters corresponding to /al/(ᅟᅡᆯ) vowel of Sino-Korean in the Joyokanji Table(2010). Then we analyzed the correspondence relationship between the Sino-Korean and Sino-Japanese. Furthermore, we considered learning method to help learning Sino󰠏Japanese, and the following conclusions were drawn. [1] Among all the /an/ 83 sounds of Sino-Korean, 76 sounds(91.56%) corresponding to /aN/ vowel of Sino-Japanese. Therefore, It is necessary to learn the correspondence relationship of ①an⇒aN, and also need to learn about the /n/ sound of Middle Chinese is reflected as /n/ in Sino-Korean, but it reflected as /N/(ん) in Sino-Japanese. [2] Among all the /al/ 30 sounds of Sino-Korean, 23 sounds(76.66%) corresponding to /atu/ vowel of Sino-Japanese. Therefore, It is necessary to learn the correspondence relationship of ①al⇒ atu, and also need to recognize that the final consonant /l/(ㄹ) of Sino-Korean is corresponds to /tu/(ツ) of Sino-Japanese. Furthermore, It is necessary to learn the /t/ sounds of Middle Chinese are reflected as /tu・ti/(ツ・チ) in Sino-Japanese, but most of these are gradually unified to /tu/(ツ), and a few appear as /ti/(チ) in Sino-Japanese Go’on.
  • 6.

    The Persistence of Grammatical Meaning and Function in Deverbalization —The Deverbalization of Conditional Verb Forms—

    Jaephil Ha | 2019, (51) | pp.113~131 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Sureba, suruto and sitemo, which are conditional verb forms in modern Japanese, are used to express causality in a broad sense, and it is widely known that they become deverbalized in some cases. Verbs such as miru, a visual verb, iu, a locutionary verb, and omou, a thinking verb, get deverbalized when they take a conditional form, and they usually turn into postpositions, connective particles, connectives, or sentence adverbs. However, no connection has been identified so far between usages of such deverbalized verb forms and those of general conditional verb forms. This study examines how the grammatical meaning and syntactic function of general conditional verb forms affect usages of deverbalized verb forms. Due to the grammatical meaning of conditional verb forms, if an event in the subordinate clause of a complex sentence is expressed in a conditional form, another event is also implicated. For example, the sentence “If it rains, let’s take a taxi” implies a case of not raining, in addition to a case of raining that is mentioned explicitly. Such implication can be identified in usages of postpositions and sentence adverbs that indicate a rationale behind the judgement on, or the evaluation of, a person or object. If a postposition or sentence adverb signals a rationale behind the judgement on, or the evaluation of, a person or object, another rationale is also implied in addition to the explicit one. In complex sentences, conditional verb forms connect the events of the subordinate and main clauses. Such a function is found in usages where conditional verb forms turn into connective particles and connectives. If conditional verb forms become deverbalized, the connective function expands from the sentence level to the text level. In other words, conditional verb forms simply serve as a connective element within a complex sentence, whereas they connect sentences if they get deverbalized and turn into connectives.
  • 7.

    A Study on Waka Poetry Contest in Newspapers —Focusing on the Theme for the Utakai Hajime—

    LEE YUN JI | 2019, (51) | pp.133~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Each January, Japan’s imperial court hosts the New Year’s Poetry Contest for members of the imperial family and some carefully chosen private citizens to read Waka poems they had composed on a preannounced theme. Every year, more than 20,000 Tanka are received from private citizens. This ceremony, known as the Utakai Hajime(Imperial New Year’s Poetry Reading), is the modern version of a court culture supposedly dating back to the mid-Kamakura period. It is a traditional event where the imperial court interacts with the general public through Waka. From 1874, poems written by the general public were admitted for consideration for the first time, and the Utakai Hajime ceremony which had previously been conducted exclusively within the court thus became open to the common people. In 1879, of the poems submitted by the general public, those considered to be of special value were recited at the Utakai Hajime, along with poems written by the imperial family. Since 1882, all poems recited at the ceremony including those written by the Emperor and the imperial family have been published in newspapers and since 1884 they have been also published in the a government organ. Such changes reflect efforts to advertise the modern emperor’s presence and imperial authority to the public and build a nation of subjects who would partake in the tradition of Waka composition passed on for over a millennium. In the process, Waka was the ‘Japanese national identity’, has been disseminated and strengthened through various kinds of the culture media. Ceremonies such as the Utakai Hajime had served to establish the emperor as a symbol of continuity and cohesion. Especially the print media like newspapers and magazines had played a role in both perpetuating and institutionalizing national culture. This article first chronicles the history of the Utakai Hajime and then, explores the relationships between National Literature and print media through analysing a role of the print media as a constructer of national identities, particularly focused on newspapers.
  • 8.

    Study on the exchange through a letter sent by the Bashō to Gyoriku

    Heo Kon | 2019, (51) | pp.149~168 | number of Cited : 0
    The subject of the letter Bashō sent to Gyoriku can confirm that the Haikai In most cases, there is a complex record of the contents, but among the 13 letters, 10 references to the Haikai refer to them. What this means is that Bashō is an indirect means of conveying that Haikai reform was the goal of his life. And the contents of the special drawing of Gyoriku are shown in 5 letters, and 2 letters centered on general greetings. And there are 2 letters mentioning his nephew Dōin. In this way, most of the letters Bashō sent to Gyoriku can be said to be the subject of Haikai. In letter 2.9, Kokuriku is actively requesting to perform poetry activities. In letter 2.10, Bashō is criticizing “Dentori Haikai(点取俳諧)”. In letter 2.11, he praises Kyoriku’s work. However, the writers of the time say that they are dissatisfied with Detyō Haikai(手帳俳諧). And he is criticizing the writers of the time who can not accept “Garumi(軽み)”, one of the ideals of Bashō’s poetry. In letter 2.13, Bashō depicts his constant pursuit of Haikai reform as he introduces his work. The content of these letters is the expression of Bashō’s determined will to the Haikai reform. Therefore, the keywords Bashō sent to Gyoriku are called HikaI. This is the willingness of Bashō to reform the Haikai, and it can be assessed that Bashō is represented through a letter to Gyoriku.
  • 9.

    Development of Imperial Japan and Dams as Cultural Heritages —The Transformation of Cultural Heritage and the Practice of a Local Society in Taiwan—

    MURASHIMA KENJI | 2019, (51) | pp.169~194 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine how dams, which were built for the development of imperial Japan, are now accepted as cultural heritage in postwar Taiwan. This study explores the Wushantou Reservoir in southern Taiwan as an example and basis of cultural heritage studies in Taiwan. In the process of De-Japanization in the postwar Taiwan, colonial buildings used to be considered as negative legacies of Japanese imperialism in the past, which brought about shame and embarrassment for the Taiwanese. However, since the 1990s in the midst of Taiwanization progress, the Taiwanese society began to re-think about colonial buildings as important historical heritages, which need to be preserved. The transformation of the Wushantou reservoir provides as an important aspect of postcolonial landscape in Taiwan. The Wushantou reservoir did not survived with iconoclastic fervor in the process of De-Japanization. However, it has become a symbol of promoting Chinese culture by displaying the statues of Chiang Kai-shek and the Temple of Heaven. In particular, the Chia-nan irrigation association's campaign to reestablish the statue of Yoichi Hatta (founder of the Wushantou Reservoir) was marked as a turning point. In the progress of Taiwanization, Hatta was represented by various groups and, as a result, related colonial buildings were reconstructed. In contrast to previous studies, this study argues that the preservation of the Wushantou reservoir is resulted from a manipulation of Japanese colonial period. In the process, the irrigation association played an important role. The association intended to use the colonial buildings for overriding the De-Japanization and glorifying the Japanese colonial period.
  • 10.

    Imperialism and Girls’ Norm —Focused on Takarazuka Girls’ Revue in the Modern Period of Japan—

    Bae Myojung | 2019, (51) | pp.195~211 | number of Cited : 1
    Takarazuka Girls’ Revue in the first years of the 20th century compressively shows the process of girls that exist as modern subjects being standardized through various institutionalizing mechanism. In the process of standardization and institutionalization that expands from the norm of homes, schools, and ultimately to that of the nation state, girls are defined as an entity enslaved and tethered by triplicated structure of norms, and in this dissertation, this phenomenon is termed “Girls’ Norm”. The girls’ communities of modern Japan have confirmed and verified their own identity through the norm of chastity requested by the patriarchal system, and the Girl Cadets of Takarazuka Music School(TMS) have practiced this further as an unassailably intimate school norm. Then the wholesome norm of Takarazuka Music School which is abstracted as the phrase of ‘Be Pure, Proper and Pretty’ expands naturally into the norm of imperialistic nation state. The point is that the norm practiced by the Girl Cadets was not only a compulsory obligation forced ab extra, but also a choice made by themselves intentionally and autonomously ab intra. Hence, in this dissertation, I investigated the process of practicing girls’ norms and the duplicity of the subject who practices the norm herself. The main purpose and significance of this analysis lies on questioning the infinite extendability and latent riskiness of normalized perception and revealing the peculiar relationship between the Takarazuka Girls’ Revue and the imperialistic politics.
  • 11.

    Political Implications of the Ancient Chinese Banquet

    Lee, Kang Bum | 2019, (51) | pp.213~230 | number of Cited : 0
    The banquets also have special social and political meanings, depending on the purpose of the meeting. In particular, if the organizer of the meeting is a politically important person, all acts will have political implications, so it is often necessary to change the course of politics or to achieve the desired results by carefully rearranging the political maneuvering. In this paper, we chose banquets with a thick political meaning rather than these friendly but casual banquets to look at what these banquets mean historically. In this paper, through seven examples, we looked at the turning point of history, or the various faces of governing, made in the splendid site of banquets. While you can learn the determination, tolerance and courage of the leader at these banquets, you can plant the hypocrisy of the powerful and the ugly images of self-examination as teachers on the other hand.
  • 12.

    Representation of “comfort women” in Korea and Japan in the 1970s —Focusing on the movie “The Japanese military comfort women” and “Women’s Dei Shin Tai”—

    Choe, EunSu | 2019, (51) | pp.231~248 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper focuses on two films produced and performed in 1974 to examine the perception of ‘comfort women’ in the Korean and Japanese societies before the 1990s. It is a movie “Women’s Dei Shin Tai” and “The Japanese military comfort women” produced and performed in Korea and Japan in 1974. In order to visualize the significance and problems that each film has in the area of “Comfort women” related discourses and representations, first of all, “Korean comfort women” have been represented in post-war Japanese popular culture You need to find out. The novel “syunpuden” depicting the love and death of Japanese soldiers and “Korean comfort women”, Has been filmed three times in postwar Japan. In this process, the heroine’s “ethnicity” is made invisible. The Korean movie “Women’s Dei Shin Tai”, which borrowed the story and structure of the movie “syunpuden”, points out the contradictions inherent in the representation of “Korean comfort women” in postwar Japanese films by changing male characters into Korean. However, here, the aspect of the ‘comfort women’ problem is turning back to the ‘national’ discourse is symbolically revealed. Meanwhile, the heroine of the movie “The Japanese military comfort women” is not “Korean comfort women” but “Japanese comfort women”. This is different from the scheme of “comfort women” in postwar Japan. Here, it can be seen that the ‘comfort women’ problem in Japan in the 1970s is linked to the ‘Karayuki San’ that traditional discrimination problem of women.
  • 13.

    A Multi-Cultural Comparative Study on the Married Japanese Migrant Women’s Quality of Life —Focusing on the Healthiness of the Family and the Development of Programs—

    Han, Hye Bin | 2019, (51) | pp.249~272 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis as its purpose has the safe settlement and the increase of the health of the family of the married Japanese migrant women in Korean society, in order to be pointed in that direction the development of the family life education for the sake of the quality of life and the healthiness of the family. To analyze the difficulties within the marriages of the high-level of the differences between the Chinese and Southeast Asian migrant women who are married to Korean men compared with the married Japanese migrant women, and to discuss the quality of life and the healthiness of the family in regard to the theory and pre-studies, and then to put forth the family life education programs. This study sought to find out the differentiation between the married Chinese and Southeast Asian migrant women and the Japanese women. In order to make an effort to resolve this, the following educational programs were proposed. First, the necessity of the family life education program for the married migrant women. Second, emphasizing the healiness of the family life education program.