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2020, Vol., No.52

  • 1.

    Sentence Pattern and Usage of Adjective Predicative Construction for ‘Sinsokankei’

    Haehwan Park | 2020, (52) | pp.7~28 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article is written for studying sentence pattern and usage in adjective predicative sentence that express ‘Sinsokankei’. The adjetive that denote ‘Sinsokankei’ are analyzed in two categories, orginal-adjective and transferred-adjective. The main results of the analysis can be summarized as follows. ① Typical examples are ‘Shitasii’ of orginal-adjecitve and ‘Ii, Warui, Nai’ of transferred-adjective. The adjectives of these two types represent a wide difference in sentence pattern and usage. ② The main sentence patterns of original-adjective are 「N2ha․ga+N1to+A」 and 「N1ha․ga+A. On the other hand, the main sentence patterns of transferred-adjective are 「N3ha(ga)+N2to+N1ga+A」 and 「N2ha(ga)+N1ga+A」. ③ Transferred-adjective required additional noun pharases because the semantic attribute of the word are weak compare to original-adjective. This is why there are more noun phrases in the sentence pattern. And, while ‘Ii and Warui’ of transferred-adjective mean general judgement of ‘Sinsokankei’, ‘Nai’ means absence of ‘Sinsokankei’. ④ The most basic sentenc pattern is 「N2ha․ga+N1to+A」 in original-adjective and 「N3ha(ga)+N2to+N1ga+A」 in tranferred-adjective. Both patterns are used for the objective of judging ‘Sinsokankei’. ⑤ There is a lot of abbreviations and reordering of two noun phrases in 「N2ha․ga+N1to+A」 and 「N3ha(ga)+N2to+N1ga+A」.
  • 2.

    On the Conditions of Spray Paint Hypallage —The Relevancy of meanings of Verb ‘nuru’ and Noun Phrase—

    Shin Yishick | 2020, (52) | pp.31~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I discuss the properties of meaning about the relation of noun phrase and verb ‘nuru’ in the spray paint hypallage. There are sentences like as ‘?bataa-de pan-o nuru’ that aren’t able to alternate with ‘-de -o nuru’ in the spray paint hypallage. In other to know why the alternation isn’t caused, we have to examine the noun phrase of ‘o’ and ‘de’ in the type of ‘-de -o nuru’ sentence. Moreover, we have to analyze the properties of meaning of the ‘-ni -wo nuru’ sentence about being possible to alternate with the ‘-de -o nuru.’ For this purpose, this paper will illustrate the noun phrases of ‘o’ like as ‘bataa(butter)’ that isn’t able to be chosen the direct object of verb ‘nuru.’ Then, it will be illustrated that the noun phrases of ‘de’ are [material] which cause visible change in the sentence of ‘-de -o nuru.’ Finally, it will be known that the verb’s meaning which can alternate between ‘-ni -o nuru’ and ‘-de -o nuru’ is the ‘appearance formation’ in this hypallage.
  • 3.

    Evaluation of Considerate Speech of Korean Learners of Japanese

    lee kil yong | 2020, (52) | pp.49~70 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research analyses the evaluation of considerate speech of Korean Learners of Japanese language. One group of 4 native speakers, specialized in Japanese Language Teaching, and another of 15 Korean college students learning Japanese were asked to evaluate the degree of consideration (hairyo) of Korean learners’ speech. The results found for each group are the following: (1)Both the researchers’ group and the students’ group evaluated requests for agreement, refusal and apologies as “considerate utterances”. However, while the researchers’ group negatively evaluated the use of “noda” form by learners who have higher proficiency, the students’ group negatively evaluated the sudden switch from Japanese to Korean language. (2)Only a few common points were observed between the evaluation of the two groups. These common points refer to “modesty”, honorific expressions and honorific titles. (3)The qualitative analysis of the evaluation shows that the following points were poorly evaluated: use of the mother language, use of expressions of respect (honorifics) and, also, paralinguistic behavior such as laugh and silence. Looking at the overall evaluation of both groups, we observe that the object of these evaluations was linguistic forms that are often emphasized in Japanese language teaching, such as utterances of refusal, modesty and apologies. Elements such voice tone, laugh, silence and code switching are not given the same importance. Therefore, we believe that these elements were less considered by the evaluators.
  • 4.

    A study of 「A noun that has feelings+aru」

    chun sung yong | 2020, (52) | pp.71~85 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    There are two Japanese words for HAVE, 「aru」 and 「iru」. These two words are fairly frequent basal phrases. Therefore, Japanese education in Korea is mentioned in the beginning in basic Japanese or first-class Japanese. Most people say 「aru」 is used when object and things exist and 「iru」 is used when humans and animals exist. However, if you look at the Japanese language used in Japan in practice, it does not apply and this explanation is often not explained at all. In this study, examples written in Japanese works were demonstrated by the following. The first is when you think of a noun that has feelings as the meaning of ownership, such as 「aniwa kodomoga hutari arimasu」. The second is when you introduce new characters in old stories or novels, such as 「mukasi, mukasi, aru tokoroni, oziisanto obaasanga arimasita。」. The third is when you write「aru」as the predicate of a noun that has feelings. This is the case where some of the characteristics of the members of a group of people are extracted and expressed. The fourth is when the (human) relationship between a person is expressed in conceptual terms. And the fifth is when we treat a noun that has feelings as a product. The last is that 「aru」 is used as a predicate of a noun that has feelings when a person explains or informs the existence of his or her own (current) to the other person.
  • 5.

    A study on the meaning and usage of 「~nikui」「~zurai」「~gatai」

    HAN KYU AN | 2020, (52) | pp.87~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper examines the meaning and usage of the expressions「~nikui」「~zurai」「~gatai」, which connect to a verb and state difficulties in carrying out an action. A usage analysis of BCCWJ confirms that verbs connecting with「nikui」 include non-volitional verbs as well as volitional verbs, and that verbs with specific, concrete meanings can also come before it. Previously, it was thought that「~zurai」 cannot connect with non-volitional verbs, but it proves to be false and 「~zurai」connects with diverse verbs. Another expression「~gatai」was also known to be unable to connect with non-volitional verbs, which has also turned out to be false. Non-volitional verbs, with some limitations, can come before 「~gatai」 and it was found that verbs describing human mental activities most frequently connect with the expression. The analysis of the meaning and usage of 「~nikui」「~zurai」「~gatai」 focuses on the causes or sources of difficulties in taking the action described by the verb. 「~nikui」 can be divided into objective(physical, situational, physiological) causes and subjective(psychological) causes. In case of 「~zurai」,we can classify it into objective(physical(corporal), physical(material), situational) causes and subjective(psychological) causes. In particular, it is found that physical causes and objective situations suggested by 「~zurai」 do not accompany mental and physical pain or displeasure, regardless of the etymology of 「~zurai」. Meanwhile, 「~gatai」 usually connects with verbs involving human mental activities. The study also confirms that it expresses the narrator’s subjective judgment that the extent or degree of a subject is prohibitively alarming, and mostly used in idiomatic expressions, literal expressions, and formal settings.
  • 6.

    A Study on Natsume Soseki’s 『Ten Nights of Dreams』 —The deep landscape of existence that Soseki using the dream method—

    Kim Nan Hee | 2020, (52) | pp.111~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The works of Natsume Soseki are unique in that they utilize “dreams” as an important literary method and, therefore, feature a multitude of dreams. In keeping with this,『Ten Nights of Dreams』consists of ten different forms of dreams. This paper investigates『Ten Nights of Dreams』in connection with the deep landscape the author has buried deep in his unconscious mind. It can be seen that projected within is the theory of the flow of consciousness, intuition, and the continuation of time, a theory that was formulated by William James and Henri Bergson. The research methodology that this dissertation adopts is the theory of the unconscious of shadow, anima, and archetype, which are the main concepts of Jungian psychology. This paper looks into the deep landscape rooted in his mind that Soseki expresses by making use of dreams and dividing it into five different motifs: (1) a being bound in time (1) Eros and Thanatos (3) distrust of paternity (4) art and acts of art, and (5) the “mismatch” of men and women. In order to reveal his own deep unconscious mind, Soseki tried a unique ecriture experiment, known as a “dream method.” The dream is what portrays one’s unconsciousness. The writer thinks that the shadow sitting deep in the mind can be expressed more consciously than an actual dreams by taking the form of, and in a manner of speaking, masquerading as a dream. Soseki is an author who has discovered that literature, dreams, and life are alike. As such, it can be concluded that he straightforwardly reveals his own existence by means of a dream.
  • 7.

    A Comparative Study on Hayao Miyazaki’s “The Spiriting Away of Sen and Chihiro” and the Korean folk tale “Simcheongjeon”

    Kim HwaYoung | 2020, (52) | pp.131~148 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Sen and Chihiro was made by Hayao Miyazaki, who is a master director in the Japanese Animation fields. It was released in Japan in 2001 and with the title of The Spiriting Away of Sen and Chihiro in Korea the following year. This movie received rave reviews from critics and won support and praise from various audiences thanks to the exquisite harmony of its heart-moving plots and music. This animation consists of a few stories, which are undergoing strange experiences based on the story that a young daughter saves her foolish parents. It is hugely interesting that the plot of the movie and Korean folk tale, Simcheongjeon are just alike. Chihiro’s experiences in Yuya are very similar to Simcheong’s in the underwater palace of the Sea God. Also, that the Water serves as a medium can be the similarity between two works. Through a comparative study of these two works, this thesis will redefine the works of Hayao Miyazaki.
  • 8.

    Miyazawa Kenji’s frame of mind as teacher and its relevance for playwright of the time

    park kyoung yeon | 2020, (52) | pp.149~179 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The about 4 years of teaching was the period when Kenji got fascinated over the interests of his own while teaching various subjects. Though teaching he was able to make use and display his interests and capabilities in geology, pedology, botany, mathematics, astronomy, English, and so on. It was during this period when he was prolific in writing as well as got interested in playwrights. This research examines the teacher Kenji’s frame of mind on the basis of playwrights he wrote to be put on the stage together with his students. It investigates the process of him becoming a peasant activist from a teacher through examining the four playwrights「Hunger Camp」,「Square of Poran」,「Plant Doctor」, 「Daneyamagahara’s Night」 representing his consciousness and inner world after having become a teacher. Reflecting the phases of the times, 「Hunger Camp」 describes the dilemma which soldiers faced and that medals stand for and emphasizes the importance of productive agricultural activities as well as seeks after their means over nonproductive wars. 「Square of Poran」 contrasts Dr. Yamaneko, the symbol of the urban culture, with the youth through the banquet as a mise-en-scène. A peasant’s speech paves a way to discovering the true value of peasants, agriculture, and the mother nature. 「Plant Doctor」 emphatically expresses Kenji’s helplessness through a plant doctor. In spite of the doctor’s mistakes caused by impotence, peasants are contrastively good-natured. 「Daneyamagahara’s Night」 describes the hero’s conflicts between development and conservation of the nature at the age of disposal, expresses concerns over developments of the nature leading to disastrous consequences of its destruction and empathy into the nature. In all the four playwrights mentioned above, Kenji emphasizes the importance of peasants and agriculture through a variety of stage sceneries reflecting the phases of 1920’s. The importance, furthermore, is directed to the nature’s grandeur and gratitude to God. This paper reveals the characteristics of Kenji’s playwrights set in the phases of the time, his consciousness revealed as a teacher, his euphemistic depiction of the reality that wars cannot sustain life, and a fresh interpretation of dramatis personae and reality of the time.
  • 9.

    A study on ‘Kunigunino-tokorodokoro-na’ of Nōin-utamakura —through comparison with the books of Nōin-hōshi and Utamakura of Chokusen-waka-shū—

    UM KYOHEUM | 2020, (52) | pp.181~199 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The dissertation is about a quantitative analysis on Utamakura from ‘Kunigunino-tokorodokoro-na’ which is a part of Nōin-utamakura by poet Nōin-hōshi in the Heian-era. Although the Nōin-utamakura is one of the Nōin-hōshi’s writing, it has been criticized due to obscure contents and the process of formation. There are 688 items of Utamakura in 62 countries including duplicates, ‘Kunigunino-tokorodokoro-na’, in Nōin-utamakura ; and the objective is to ascertain the common features among it, Gengen-shū and Nōin-hōshi-shū by Nōin-hōshi, and Waka from Chokusen-waka-shū through conducting a comparative analysis. In comparison with Gengen-shū, 23 items in 12 countries correspond and 32 items in 13 countries correspond to Nōin-hōshi-shū. The use of Utamakura has been designated as the poet characteristic of Nōin-hōshi. Nōin-utamakura, Gengen-shū, and Nōin-hōshi-shū share the common points that Utamakura takes the major part of among them; however, a prudent approach is needed in their contents. Following after, 202 items in 37 countries correspond in comparison to Waka which use Utamakura from Chokusen-waka-shū. The common features with Sandai-shū, that Nōin-hōshi might check in his lifetime, are meaningful; but after its period Chokusen-waka-shū also increased its importance in common. Based on these results, it is able to determine the character of Nōin-utamakura including analysis on different parts of Nōin-utamakura.
  • 10.

    The “Forced mobilization” of the Japanese Military “comfort women” system shown in the documents of the war crimes trials against Japan —Focusing on the Tokyo Trial materials—

    KANG KYUNGJA | 2020, (52) | pp.201~221 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to prove the "coerciveness" of the Japanese "comfort women" system by selecting and analyzing "comfort women" materials in the war crimes trials against Japan. Through the Kono statement(1993), the Japanese government acknowledged "military involvement" and the "coerciveness"of the Japanese "comfort women" system. However, the current Abe government, claiming to inherit the Kono statement, is trying to blur "comfort women" issues by repeatedly questioning the "Forced mobilization" of the Japanese "comfort women" system. Thus, this paper tries to prove the "Forced mobilization"of the Japanese "comfort women" system by gathering the Japanese war crimes trials materials, including bills of indictment, written judgments, and statements of witnesses, and by checking and analyzing the original texts. As a result, it proved the "coerciveness" of the "comfort women" system in a narrow sense, the "forced mobilization" of kidnappings of comfort women, which the Abe government denies.
  • 11.

    A study on the hair style of women in beauty genre paintings during the Edo period.

    milim Lee | 2020, (52) | pp.223~239 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    It is undeniable that for women, the head is worth burning up all of their own vitality, regardless of age, region, class, occupation and age. The Edo period is the time when In the history of Japanese women, Japan, Japan, has bloomed most beautifully. Not only that, but it is also a special time when various measures were sought to make their black hair more beautiful. Prostitute was part of the role of creating the beauty of the Japanese hair until the middle and late years with an unbound sense of the times. And it was Yakusha, or the actor, who was in charge of the other part. When the beauty of a young boy became popular due to the popularity of the play(Wakasyukabuki-若衆歌舞伎), it was Wakasyu(若衆髷) that upgraded the beauty of her Ironically, the places of the two Big Bad Places in the Edo period, and a theater became the birthplace of popular culture. The people who succeeded this development were none other than the merchant class in Edo period , which was helped by the economic recovery(Chonin-町人). In this study, more than 300 types of hair styles were created in the Edo period, and as of now, Japanese hair, which is actively used in traditional arts or non-day-to-day fields.
  • 12.

    Yanagi Muneyoshi and Joseon Folk Crafts

    Lee Byung Jin | 2020, (52) | pp.241~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Yanagi first visited Joseon in 1916, about 100 years ago. At the time, he traveled to Joseon and China, a 27-year-old young man who was forcibly incorporated into imperial Japan. Through the absolute cooperation and teachings of Japanese assassin and Takumi, who were produced during the trip to Korea, Yanagi discovered the beauty of Joseon crafts, and at the same time continued to express respect for the Korean people who produced it. It appeals to the need for understanding. For Yanagi, I would like to consider what folk crafts of Joseon mean and what problems he left behind through his activities in Joseon.  Yanagi sees that the establishment of reality, a philosophical ground demand, can be proved through the aesthetic experience of art. He argues that nature and art are philosophical ideas. Such a strong interpenetration of Yanagi’s religious and artistry secures legitimacy to turn away from the reality scattered around him by releasing opposing concepts and praising the free world in which they unite. In the era when Japan was immersed in the imperialism of colonization, Yanagi was committed to the construction of the Shirakaba Art Museum, the Joseon National Art Museum, and the Japanese Folk Art Museum in Japan and Joseon, and through the Hall of Fine Arts presented by him. Focus on the realization of the ideal of art and religion as the Trinity. This was to restore the oriental values ​​lost in the process of modernization. Through the aesthetic experience gained from the conceptual medium of Joseon crafts, he crossed the East and the West and asserted a universal philosophy in Pian’s aesthetic world beyond the political conflict between Japan and Korea.