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2021, Vol., No.54

  • 1.

    An Analysis of Linguistics Questions in the Secondary School Japanese Teacher Recruitment Exams: 2014 - 2021

    Kim Mi Ok | 2021, (54) | pp.7~25 | number of Cited : 0
    This study conducted an item analysis of the linguistics questions in the 2014–2021 recruitment exams for secondary school Japanese teachers. The frequency of the linguistics questions was examined by year, subfield, and question format. The results showed that the frequency of linguistics questions has increased over the past five years, and the 2021 exam included the highest number till date. Most of the linguistics questions concerned phonology/morphology and syntax/semantics that tested the examinees’ analytical skills. The questions in the 2021 exam seemed more difficult than previous exams because they included topics from sociolinguistics and semantics that might not be familiar to examinees and did not clarify the unfamiliar linguistic terms used in the questions. Linguistics education in the current secondary school teacher education program does not cover the linguistic knowledge required by the current recruitment exam, suggesting the need to change either the program or the exam.
  • 2.

    Proposal on Scenes Showing the Difference in the Way of Thinking between Koreans and Japanese -Focusing on appreciative linguistic behavior-

    KIM TAE HEE | 2021, (54) | pp.27~47 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study selected scenes in which different values ​​and ways of thinking between Koreans and Japanese are revealed in Japanese appreciative linguistic behaviors when they speak. Then, such scenes were produced as illustrations, and a class plan using the illustrations was proposed. The functions of Japanese appreciative linguistic behaviors were classified into a 'functions as a response to beneficial situations' and a 'function for closing conversations'. Each of these functions was examined based on a review of previous studies, and it was revealed that the Japanese language uses more expressions of apology in the scenes of appreciation than the Korean language does, that there are many cases where the expression of gratitude and apology are used together in the scenes of gratitude. In addition, it was presented that while the Korean language has a variety of expressions that make you feel intimate with the other person, the Japanese language has many formal expressions. Through this review of previous studies, scenes that Korean learners should pay attention to were selected to produced 11 illustrations. Classes using these illustrations are expected to help students understand the difference values and ways of thinking between Japanese and Korean. The future research task is to introduce the teaching plan proposed in this study into actual classes and report the results in detail.
  • 3.

    Sentence Pattern and Usage of Adjective Predicative Construction for Idoukankei

    Haehwan Park | 2021, (54) | pp.49~69 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is a study of the sentence pattern and usage in Japanese adjective predicative sentences that express Idoukankei. The adjectives that express the meaning of Idoukankei include the original adjective hitosii (“to be equal”) and the transferred adjectives chikai and tooi (“near” and “far,” respectively). These two types of adjectives differ in many ways, such as how they are used in sentence pattern and the characteristics of their usage. The overall results of the analysis are as follows. (1) Hitosii has two uses: “judgment of similarity based on comparative criteria” and “judgment of sameness.” The main sentence patterns of the former were “N2ha・ga+N1ni+A” and “N3ni+N2ha・ga+N1ni+A”; for the latter, they were “N1ha・ga+A,” “N2ha・ga+N1to+A,” and “N2ha・ga+N1ni+A.” (2) The main usage of chikai and tooi was: “judgement of movement based on comparison criteria.” The main sentence patterns of this usage were “N2ha・ga+N1ni+A,” ‘N2ha・ga+N1to+A,” and “N3ni+N2ha・ga+N1ni・kara+A.” (3) The usages “judgment of similarity based on comparative criteria” for hitosii and “judgement of movement based on comparison criteria” for the phrase “chikai, tooi” shared many similar characteristics, including the number of different categories in the sentence, use of postposition, subject of the judgment, and replacement of the noun phrases themselves (or the order). However, there was no single-category sentence in these usages. (4) The usage “judgment of sameness” for hitosii indicates the comparison of multiple objects. The main sentence patterns were single-category sentences in which hitosii replaced the noun phrase itself and two-category sentences in which the order changed such that the subject was not being judged. (5) As the main usage of the postposition, ni and kara represented the criteria for judgment and to the object of the judgment.
  • 4.

    The Use of the Exclamation Point in the Catch Copy of Japanese Newspaper Advertisement

    Song, Sook-Jeong | 2021, (54) | pp.71~90 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper compares and analyzes the use of the exclamation point in the catch copy (headline or slogan) in Japanese newspaper advertisements. First, although the exclamation mark is not used in formal Japanese writing, it is common in casual writing, fiction, and manga. Some researchers have argued that since the exclamation point is a forceful form of punctuation, it should be considered “masculine” in form. However, an analysis of a questionnaire suggested that most native Japanese speakers regard the exclamation point as neutral. This explains its frequent appearance in advertising copy, as advertising uses neutral expressions without personal pronouns or masculine/feminine contextual expressions because ads target a broad range of readers. The exclamation mark’s neutral nature makes it inoffensive to all genders. In addition, an examination of exclamatory sentences in the context of Japanese newspaper advertisements (context and background) in which advertisers seek to maximize their message showed that just adding exclamation marks to create emphatic monologues or dialogues was not sufficient. Readers were more moved by judicious selection and arrangements of words than by punctuation.
  • 5.

    Learners’ use of the adverb yoku: degree and frequency

    CHANG Heeju | 2021, (54) | pp.91~110 | number of Cited : 0
    This study investiagted the use of the adverb yoku to modify a verb and proposed a teaching guide for its use and meaning, using unnatural examples from the International Corpus of Japanese as a Second Language (I JAS). The I JAS was created using spoken language collected from native and non-native Japanese speakers’ talking tasks. Based on previous studies’ analyses of yoku, we classified the adverb yoku examples into those connoting degree, frequency, and meaning. When we compared Korean learners’ usages with those of native Japanese speakers, we found that examples of degree were used in sentences expressing an essence (e.g., well) or comparing actions (e.g., better), and examples of frequency were used in sentences referring to accidental occurrences (e.g., much, often). Unnatural examples involving yoku were used to connote degree in sentences that referred to accidental occurrences and not single actions. Unnatural examples involving yoku were also used to connote frequency in sentences with negative predicates. Korean learners used 23 different instances with different meanings such as “many” and “easily.” In addition to these findings, this study suggests some effective ways to teach students about using the adverb yoku.
  • 6.

    The Meanings and Usages of Tokorohe

    Hwang Younsil | 2021, (54) | pp.111~130 | number of Cited : 1
    This study describes the derivation paths leading to the development of the conjunctive particle tokorohe. The main findings are as follows. First, as a noun, tokorohe functions as a complement that represents the spatial direction or destination of the motion represented by the predicate—that is, “place.” Second, the meaning of tokoro can be abstract, so tokorohe can present the temporal situation in which the event occurs. As the meaning of tokoro changes, its function changes from that of a complement in a sentence to a conjunctive particle that fulfills the grammatical function of connecting clauses. Third, in some contexts, tokorohe can acquire the meaning of an “addition or accumulation of a new event.” The events connected by tokorohe (the events of the subordinate and the main clause) are not usually coincidental situations but situations that share similarities. Tokorohe can express not just an event’s current temporal phase, but its situation before new circumstances are added (something just happened or is about to happen). Syntactically, it typically takes the form of “X tokorohe Y {node / kara / non-finite verb form} Z.” Tokorohe’s meaning is similar to noni and ueni, which represent additions or accumulations. To summarize, tokorohe can represent a spatial direction (place), and as the meaning of tokoro changes, its function changes from that of a complement in a sentence to a conjunctive particle expressing the temporal situation of an event and implying the addition or accumulation of a new event (something just happened or is about to happen).
  • 7.

    Case Study on Anxiety Experienced by Japanese Wives in Korea Due to Korea-Japan Relations -Focusing on the Situation in 2019-

    Oikawa Hiroe | 2021, (54) | pp.131~168 | number of Cited : 0
    This article examined the anxiety of Japanese wives in Korea (63 research collaborators) who are were raising children, discussing the specific content of how they perceive the “worst relations between Japan and South Korea after the war,” which took place in 2019. Through the research, the paper focused on the factors causing this feeling. Considering the events in 2019, a total of 95.2% of the respondents confirmed that they were anxious, which is an unusual situation compared to 58.7% who answered that they felt anxious because of their life in Korea so far. The most common specific contents were “Is there something bad for my child? My child may have said something bad at school.” (90.4%), “It may be harder for Japanese to live in South Korea.” (39.6%), and “These worsening relations between Japan and South Korea would cause concern for Japanese parents and relatives” (36.5%). This paper examined the relationship between these specific contents of anxiety and factors that cause anxiety. The following three factors were considered as anxious factors: the reaction of the Koreans around, the influence of the media, and the presence of knowledge about the modern history of Korea and Japan. As a result of the analysis and consideration focusing on what their anxiety, the following two ways to handle the situation were identified. The first way is to have a sense of balance without being influenced by the media, it was found that there were many people who were trying to grasp the relationship. The second way is there were not a few people who were actively trying to learn the modern history of Korea and Japan from the psychology of protecting children.
  • 8.

    A study of Sadness Depicted in Bijin-ga

    milim Lee | 2021, (54) | pp.169~189 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis focuses on Tsunetomi’s intense and impressive painting Double Ssuicide and Shohaku’s A Ppicture of a Bbeauty, A typical example of the succession method of Japanese visual culture and love and betrayal depicted in paintings was examined. The image of pain and sorrow of a woman leading to death due to this was considered. As a result, the prostitute, who plays a traditional sex role required by the Confucian society and men, created a new image of becoming a ghost of death. In general, ukiyoe and School of Maruyama depict women as having idealized beauty, whereas the femininization of Tsunetomi and the beauty of Shohaku discussed in this thesis demonstrate their uniqueness and match the works of Japanese paintings from the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, which are transforming into a new female image with continuity. It can be said that these works refer to the beautification tradition in the beautification genre, where further development of the subject repetition and series is impossible, clearly further showing the differences. In particular, it can be said that the work showed a wealth of possibilities beyond traditional painting techniques in terms of the diversity and expression methods of beautification subjects.
  • 9.

    A Short study on wealth succession described in the Tosei Kanemochi Katagi written in the Edo era

    KOH YOUNG RAN | 2021, (54) | pp.191~205 | number of Cited : 0
    This study sought to understand wealth succession during the Edo era described in the Tosei Kanemochi Katagi. I analyzed the main characters about the men of wealth to appreciate that there were two types of wealthy men in the Tosei Kanemochi Katagi. The first type of wealthy men were people who inherited capital from their parents. The second type of wealthy men were the new capitalists who earned money wealth through their own efforts and wisdom. We learn that Kiyu’s intention was to depict the new economic circumstances where people only consider the result of earning money, not the ethical way of creating wealth.
  • 10.

    Imperial family taboo and inconvenience of expression -From the viewpoint of Kenzaburou Oe’s 『Seventeen』duology & Shichirou Hukazawa’s 『Furyu mutan』

    Shim SooKyung | 2021, (54) | pp.207~227 | number of Cited : 0
    Kenzaburou Oe published “Seventeen” and “Seijisyounen Sisu(Political boy dies)” based on the murder of the Asanuma Socialist Party chairman in 1960, but “Seijisyounen Sisu” was censored from printing for a long time due to a right-wing protest. A 17-year-old boy who was dissatisfied with the Shichirou Fukazawa's “Furyu mutan(The Tale of an Elegant Dream)” broke into the president's home at Chuokoron-sha, killed the housekeeper, and seriously injured his wife. As a result, “Furyu mutan" was also censored for a long time. For this reasons, these two works are sometimes referred to as lese majesty literary works, but in the 2010s, the two works were printed(“Furyu mutan” is an e-book in 2011, “Seijisyonen Sisu” is a paper book in 2018). This study compared Kenzaburo Oe’s “Seventeen” and “Seizisyonen Sisu” with Shichirou Fukazawa’s “Furyu mutan”, and discussed the incidents and fetter of expression related to both works, and the difference and meanings of the emperor’s discourse in both works. This study also analyzed the ambivalent feelings towards the Japanese emperor Postwar.
  • 11.

    A Study of vocabulary and nuances in the expression “Syu-katsu Sen-ryu”

    Takao Ito | 2021, (54) | pp.229~246 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to highlight the nuances and imagery in each term by analyzing the vocabulary of the expression, “Syu-katsu Senryu,” one of Senryus’ the public model. First, in the survey of frequent vocabulary terms, we identified the following word as being frequently used: “syukatsu (end of life planning)”, and its related terms such as “will”, “portrait of the deceased person”, and “grave”, as well as vocabulary related to family, such as “wife”, “husband”, and “grandchild.” Next, as a result of observing the meaning in the expression focusing on the most common terms, various and multi-faceted imagery emerged. For example, “syukatsu” is typically interpreted as a “preparatory activity to face the last chapter of one’s life.” However, some people describe “syukatsu” as being a “search for oneself”, while others describe it as a “Fighting Spirit Prize sent to oneself.” In addition, in the case of the “wife”, the unique characteristics of ‘syukatsu senryu’ were identified, such as providing different impressions from the imagery used in other public models of Senryu and the like. Through these results, it was possible to analyze rich and diverse imagery of each term which is difficult to identify through dictionary interpretation alone.
  • 12.

    A Study of the Transformation of the “children"s story” described in two languages -From 1910s to 1920s: Focus on Korean elementary schools and Japanese language textbooks published by the Japanese Governmen -General of Chosun-

    Mikyong Jang | 2021, (54) | pp.247~265 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Japanese language was the first language for Korean Children children during Japanese colonial occupation. Hangul was a second language because of the “bilingual” textbook. In the 1910s, the Korean Language Textbook was created to teach Korean and Chinese languages to Korean children at a time when the Japanese language was commercialized as an official Korean language. The textbook contains a version of the hung bu legend and The Old Man with the wen. In the 1920s, the Korean Language Textbook featured traditional fairy tales, Aesop’s fables, and the Simcheong legend. A large part of the Japanese language textbook had popular Japanese traditional folktales, such as Momotaro and Flower Grandfather. According to the classification of the fairy tales described in the Korean, the 1910s genre took the following format: characters, general fairy tales, Aesop’s fables, traditional tales, and myths, in that order. However, in the 1920s, the genre followed this orde: Aesop’s fables, general fairy tales, and characters. According to the classification of fairy tales described in Korean, the 1910s tales were characterized by the following in the order: general fairy tales, characters, folktales, and Aesop's fables. while the 1920s saw the following: characters, Aesop’s fables, and myths which were translated into the order of folktales. The contents of the general fairy tale featured mostly Japanese children or adults rather than Korean children.
  • 13.

    A Study on Sin and Forgiveness in Ayako Miura’s Freezing Point: Sorrow of the Enlightened

    Choi SoonYook | 2021, (54) | pp.267~291 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to analyze the stream of consciousness presentation of characters and attempts to depict human sorrow and forgiveness of sin through the recognition of sin expressed in the novel, Freezing Point. The article seeks to determine if The Jesus' commandment,󰡒Love your enemies,󰡓quoted from Bible can be practiced or not. When a human being loves his/her enemy it presupposes forgiveness but this raises the question Can a human being really forgive his/her enemy? Ayako Miura seeks to convince the reader that God is the authority of forgiveness. The process is as follows the Sin is revealed before God, and then there is recognition of sin when the existence of God is revealed. Miura defines sin as a human being failing to convince himself of his sin and forgetting the existence of God, then falling into a self-centered person. If a human being could realize his sin, he would feel sad and roubled. God would then grant forgiveness to those who feel sad and regretful. Human beings would reconcile with each other and convince each other of the existence of God. In the last scene part in this novel, Yoko, while gazing at the drift ice which seemed to have been dyed red by the sunset, sinks in thought of about the existence that could truly forgive her sin. In the end, Miura seems to be appealing to the reader to realize that only the existence of God can convince the recognition of sin, sorrow, and forgiveness, urging theo reader to pursue absolute love, which is the essence of God.