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2021, Vol., No.55

  • 1.

    A study of the diverse functions and meanings of “nanimo”

    Kim,Young-Min | 2021, (55) | pp.7~26 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study identifies the meaning and variety of the functions of “nanimo” regarding its negative expression in modern Japanese language. In past research, various aspects and characteristics of “nanimo” as negative expressions have not been thoroughly investigated. This study surveys examples from several resources such as BCCWJ and is able to identify the distinctions of “nanimo” in response to negative expressions, including its meaning and functions. First, the findings identify two distinct meanings of “nanimo” in negative expressions; an inward and an outward meaning, with their own distinct characteristics that are not compatible each other. Second, the meanings and functions of “nanimo” are sorted into several categories such as a quantitative, adverbial, dual, exclamatory, and emphasis application. Finally, negative expressions not responding to “nanimo” are also discussed. This research identifies expressions without reasons such as “~wake ga nai,~hazu ga nai,” expressions, which described phenomena or discovery like “~ga nai,” and where “nanimo” is not used with negative adjectives. Furthermore, in case of positive expressions, “nanimo” is not used together. Additionally, when evaluations of audience is included in one’s expression, “nanimo” is not used.
  • 2.

    A Case Study of Communication through KakaoTalk Bulletin Board in Online Tourism Japanese Classes

    Kim Yoon-hee | 2021, (55) | pp.27~45 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper involves the adoption of KakaoTalk’s Bulletin Board to increase communication efficiency with learners in online Tourism Japanese classes held during the COVID-19 era. An analysis is conducted on the role of the instructor using responses from 33 learners, after one semester of using the bulletin board. The findings indicate the following. First, the instructor plays the role of a supervisor, facilitator, and provider of supplementary materials. Second, Frequency of the announcements posted on the KakaoTalk bulletin board was examined and ranked. The order is as follows, General Notice(Class-related)>Assignment Details>Review> Audio File Attachment>Online Class Guide>List Of Assignment Submissions>General notice(School Life). Third, Learners were asked objective test questions about their use of the KakaoTalk bulletin board. Results rank in the order, Convenience>Finding Desired Content, Learning & Participation management>Memorization, Review>Self-directed Learning. Fourth, Learners were asked subjective test questions about their use of the KakaoTalk bulletin board. Results rank in the order, Learning & Comprehension>management>Review>Accessibility> supplementary materials. Fifth, For excellent learners in group A, the KakaoTalk bulletin board was used as a tool to enhance ‘Review’ and ‘Learning & Comprehension’, which is different from below average learners in group B, who used the bulletin board as a tool to boost ‘Supervision’ and ‘Learning & Comprehension’.
  • 3.

    Analysis on “hodo” and “hodoni” used after verbs in modern Japanese

    BAHNG, YOON HYUNG | 2021, (55) | pp.47~61 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Several studies have been conducted regarding “hodo” in ancient languages and comparisons with expressions like “kurai”. However, previous research has not focused on the differences between “hodo” and “hodoni” or their use in modern Japanese language. This paper analyzes “hodo” and “hodoni” used after the verbs in modern Japanese, using practical sentences, with an aim to examine the similarities and differences between “hodo” and “hodoni.” The analysis results can be summarized as follows. First, the meaning of “hodo” can be divided into the two cases: ① the case of degree and ② the case of proportional change. Second, while the meaning of “hodoni” can be divided into the three cases: ① the case of degree, ② the case of proportional change, and ③ the case of cause, the analysis shows that 223 individual words of front verbs are used in “hodo” or “hodoni,” and only nine are used in both. Comparative studies verify that in principle only verb predicates could be used for the predicate of “hodoni.” In summary, “hodo” is used 5.5 times more frequently than “hodoni” in quantity, and both “hodo” and “hodoni” have the case of degree and the case of proportional change in a quality perspective. Therefore, we conclude that “hodo” is widely used in modern Japanese language as “hodo” has more types of front verbs and predicates than “hodoni.”
  • 4.

    Waka Expressions and Space in Man’yōshū

    Ku Jeong Ho | 2021, (55) | pp.63~79 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study surveys Waka in terms of the concepts of visible and invisible space. Some Waka is written with either a visible or an invisible spatial setting, and some have both spatial settings. The different spatial settings reflect the author’s generational mood or style. This study clarifies the definitions of visible and invisible space and tries to interpret Man’yōshū 8–12 from the perspective of the definitions. The analysis identifies the fact that Waka commonly uses visible space. Zōka and Sōmon in Volumes 8 and 10 are the specific visible space where the main body of the Waka is presented. “Waka as the direct expression of one’s mind” in Volumes 11 and 12 does not specify a particular visible space, but a space where the main body of the Waka has emerged. Finally, Jōka emerges as “Waka in the form of metaphorical expression of objects.” In most cases, these Waka contain spatial aspects and use Jokotoba to describe the real scenes in one’s view.
  • 5.

    mperialism Paradigm in Takeki Owada’s World Changga of Geography Education

    Kyungsoo Park | 2021, (55) | pp.81~100 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Owada’s World Changga of Geography Education(1900.10) was found to have focused more on the Japanese government’s internal and external policy directions than on the educational level of world geography. This is seen to be “Enlightening for Civilization and Modernization” and “National Edification Aimed at Advanced Empires,” with an emphasis on Western powers represented by the United States, Britain, France, Germany, and Russia. It presented a vision for growth and development as Western powers have for their citizens (especially teenagers), as an epic focusing on the development of scientific civilization. Owada was indeed a literary scholar faithful to the “social role of the literary man” according to the national policies of the time. His Changga were widely spread among students and the general public, and greatly influenced the formation of the modern Japanese spirit. The World Changga of Geography Education which enabled people to imagine and virtually experience the unknown world, and advertised the Japanese government’s foreign policies by suggesting a paradigm of Japanese imperialism. This was the way literary scholar Owada enlightened his own people.
  • 6.

    The Consumption of Utamakura in Daiei of the Insei-period -Focusing on Daiei of the Utamakura Narumigata-

    sangmin, Lee | 2021, (55) | pp.101~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores when Utamakura Narumi of Tokaido was included in the waka, whether the intention of Utamakura was formed and established, the discovery of Utamakura brought about by the change of times, and the reality of the Utamakura. The study confirmed how Utamakura influenced the waka. At first, “Narumi” was sung as part of Koi-uta and Zotoka because it is easy to put “naru” and “urami” on “Narumi no Ura.” However, as “Narumi” prospered as a syuku on the Tokaido and the number of people visiting the site of “Narumi” increased. The vague lagoon scenery that appeared due to the drying up of the sea starting from “Horikawa Hyakushu” took the form of “Narumigata.” Thereafter, in order to match the most suitable scenery to the waka when singing “Narumi-gata,” they tried to connect materials such as Suzumushi, Ajimura, and crane, which are easily associated with the Engo of “Narumi.” I confirmed the attempts of the waka at that time. Finally, plovers, which have been popular as a seaside attraction similar to lagoons, offshores, and beaches, have been added to the scenery of “Narumigata.” In the cold winter of Shin Kokin Wakashū, the scenery of the staggered “Narumi-gata” begins to take root as the scenery of the Utamakura “Narumi” in the title. Furthermore, “Narumi-gata” was selected as the Dai of “Saisho Shitennoin Shoji Waka,” and the sense of urgency in traveling across the tide-dried “Narumigata,” that is, the reality of Utamakura and the feeling of travel, has been added. It came to determine the true meaning of “Narumi” in the Daiei and travelogues since ancient times.
  • 7.

    Analysis of Waka in Koborienshu’s Letters

    Lim Chan Soo | 2021, (55) | pp.127~145 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    While Koborienshu was the greatest architect and interior designer of his time, he was also extremely passionate about Waka. He worshiped the medieval poet, Teika and after learning from one of his descendants, Tameyori, himself wrote Waka, Kyoka, and Haikai, together with other poets with whom he had tea meetings. Koborienshu also recited Waka to mourn a dead friend; imitated 47 classical pieces of Kyoka on a trip to Kyoto; and wrote Haikai and Renku, interacting with cultured men. In addition, in 48 of the 148 letters, he poured out his feelings through Waka, Haikai, and others. The Waka in his letters followed the classical pattern, which represented his attitude of reciting the phrases of classical pieces as they were. Many of the songs were rooted in Kokinshu. It was also characterized by the use of homonyms to investigate the multiplicity of meanings. In his travel books, the overall composition followed the form of Tosanikki, but the written songs were markedly influenced by Isemonogatari. Besides, one can find his deep passion for classical Waka from his act of borrowing Waka phrases on tea ceremony tools and the use of the place name of Utamakura.
  • 8.

    Study on the origins and aspects of career women in Pre-war Japanese literature -Focusing on Akirame by Tamura Toshiko-

    Eunkyung Choi | 2021, (55) | pp.147~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the origins and aspects of the representative occupations of women in the 1910s, “Actress” and “Female Writer,” through Akirame by Toshiko. The occupations belonged to a particular minority class of “career women” at the time. There were fewer “career women” before the war, so this was unprecedented. Unlike for men, gender-discriminatory gender norms are seen in the inclusion of “woman” in the job name. Until now, theater companies and literary circles have been the stage for men. Being active as a woman in theater and literary groups can be said to reflect some of the changed aspects of modern Japan and its new women. Akirame portrayed women who gave up college education halfway and tried to make a living by being “female writers” and “actresses.” Writer Toshiko as well as women in general say that the women in Akirame want to live as themselves, while dreaming of “self-reliance” through having a job. It is an expression of their will to live as women, and it heralds a new era in which professional women will be active.
  • 9.

    The representation of a “Japanese woman” in film: An analysis of Memoirs of a Geisha

    Kim HwaYoung | 2021, (55) | pp.165~181 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines the images of Japanese women in film by analyzing the movie, Memoirs of a Geisha. The movie was originally written by a Japanese person, but the screenwriter and director were American. The original title was “Memories of Sayuri,” but it was changed to “Memoirs of a Geisha,” revealing a perspective on life from Sayuri’s perspective, but placed in a specific position called “Geisha.” This perspective can be clearly seen in the phrases and colors used to denote the heroine. Sayuri is compared to “water,” which symbolizes sexuality and the maternal aspects of women. The Mizuage ceremony emphasizes women’s sexuality. The maternal aspect is also connected with the image of water as it is connected with Sayuri’s sacrifice for men. Lastly, Memoirs of a Geisha and Sakuran both have female protagonists in the special position of geishas and courtesans, and they express the image of women through color. However, when Sayuri and Higurashi are beginning their lives, Higurashi is active, meaning that the red kimono refers to her passion, while gray color given to Sayuri represents the image of Japanese women westerners already have, such as sadness and sacrifice.
  • 10.

    The Establishment and Background of Japanese TV Animation Production Committees -The formation of OVA and fandom (Otaku)-

    JEON TAEHO | 2021, (55) | pp.183~205 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study aims to clarify the background, process, and why “production committees,” the main financing method for Japanese video content, became established in TV anime in the early 1990s. The production committee method was introduced to TV animation in the early 1990s, creating a new trend. Behind this was the emergence of anime fans, who appeared rapidly in the 1980s, the emergence of VCRs, which was a new medium, and the establishment of a market centered on package sales aimed at fans. Thereafter, the fan-centered TV anime industry that sells videos became established in the early 1990s when the TV animation market stagnated temporarily after the collapse of the economic bubble. Thus, the method of raising the funds for production costs for TV anime began to shift from “selling things” to “selling the work itself.” Existing studies of production committees were limited to industrial research due to their emphasis on risk avoidance. The present study is significant in that it focuses on the media and socioeconomic aspects, specifically the media and fandom-centric sales strategies.