Several studies have been conducted regarding “hodo” in ancient languages and comparisons with expressions like “kurai”. However, previous research has not focused on the differences between “hodo” and “hodoni” or their use in modern Japanese language. This paper analyzes “hodo” and “hodoni” used after the verbs in modern Japanese, using practical sentences, with an aim to examine the similarities and differences between “hodo” and “hodoni.” The analysis results can be summarized as follows.
First, the meaning of “hodo” can be divided into the two cases: ① the case of degree and ② the case of proportional change.
Second, while the meaning of “hodoni” can be divided into the three cases: ① the case of degree, ② the case of proportional change, and ③ the case of cause, the analysis shows that 223 individual words of front verbs are used in “hodo” or “hodoni,” and only nine are used in both. Comparative studies verify that in principle only verb predicates could be used for the predicate of “hodoni.” In summary, “hodo” is used 5.5 times more frequently than “hodoni” in quantity, and both “hodo” and “hodoni” have the case of degree and the case of proportional change in a quality perspective. Therefore, we conclude that “hodo” is widely used in modern Japanese language as “hodo” has more types of front verbs and predicates than “hodoni.”