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2022, Vol., No.56

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  • 1.

    A Study of Language behavior of expressions in ‘Negirai (appreciation)’: A Public opinion survey on national language

    KIMDongkyu | 2022, (56) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper analyzes expressions with “Negirai (appreciation)” intention in modern Japanese language. In the case of “working for me,” the “Thanks” type expression is most often used. This would have been switched to a “Thanks” type of expression. For those who “worked together,” the “Otsukaresama (Thank you for your hard work)” type expression is most often used. It is thought that this is a result of the establishment of the meaning and usage of the “Otsukaresama” type expression. The expression used is also affected by whether the other party is one’s superior or inferior. For the inferior person, the “Gokurousama (Thank you for your hard work)” type expression is used. From the viewpoint of the passage of time, it was found that the “Gokurousama” type expression tends to decrease, and the “Otsukaresama” type expression as well as the “appreciation” type expression tends to increase. A similar survey was conducted on Korean learning Japanese. In the case of “working for me,” the “Thanks” type expression was 100%. If “worked together” is superior, the “Koseng (Hardship)” type expression is used. If the other party is inferior, the “Sugo (Toil)” type expression is used.
  • 2.

    On the Kana Notations of Group Xiao (效) in Mako-Inkyo

    Meng Yao , Lee, Kyong Chul | 2022, (56) | pp.29~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we studied the principle of Left and Right phonetic notations of Mako-Inkyo compared with Go’on・Kan’on. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The first rhyme Hao (豪) appear as -au type in Go’on・Kan’on, and appears as -o・-ou types in Labial; however, both Go’on and Kan’on were written -au type in Mako-Inkyo. 2) The second rhyme Yao (肴) appear as -eu type in Go’on, and appears as -au・-o types in Labial・Dental; however, Go’on was described only as -jau type in Mako-Inkyo. 3) The third rhyme Xiao (宵) appear -eu type in Go’on・Kan’on; however, it was described as -jau type in Mako-Inkyo. 4) The fourth rhyme Xiao (蕭) appear -eu type in Go’on・Kan’on; however, it was described as -jau type in Mako-Inkyo.
  • 3.

    The Soseki that I saw through the letter A review on the exchange of Shiki

    kim hwal-ran | 2022, (56) | pp.45~67 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper examined the life and death of Shiki and Soseki, as well as their friendship and passion for literature over 13 years. Soseki and Shiki, who recognized each other’s literary talents as classmates during their preliminary period at Tokyo University, exchanged Haiku corrections and various literary reviews through a letter. The two, who both liked Rakugo and writing letters, were together for the rest of their lives—enough to share their daily lives through letters. The relationship, which began at the age of 22, had them spending a short time together until the age of 35, leaving a great mark on modern Japanese literature and enjoying an era as literary companions. Shiki lived a short life of 35 years, but he launched a Haiku innovation movement to instill new energy into the modern Haiku literary circle. Soseki has been called Daemunho enough and has been also called the Shakespeare of Japan for writing novels steadily for 12 years, and is still loved by several citizens as a national writer. Soseki and Shiki fought against long-standing diseases and always crossed the boundary between life and death, but reformed literature and left a gem-like article until death due to their passion for literature. Even after a long time, their great achievement remains unforgettable with the epistle they left, which is still loved by many people.
  • 4.

    A transition of the concept of Denki Shōsetsu from 1945 to the 1970s

    Park, Kitae | 2022, (56) | pp.69~97 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study illuminates a transition of the concept of “Denki Shōsetsu” from 1945 to the 1970s. After World War II, for some time since 1945, the concept of “Denki Shōsetsu” had been defined as a turbulent story with imagination. However, as a term, “Denki Shōsetsu” had been replaced by “Romance” until the mid-1960s; “Denki Shōsetsu” was perceived as a “decayed” concept. In the late 1960s, due to the Fantasy and Bizarreness boom, the original concept of “Denki Shōsetsu” became generalized, and some works of ”Denki Shōsetsu” of the pre-war era were republished. Around 1971, born in the field of science fiction, “Denki Romance” became gradually recognized as the mainstream of ‘Denki Shōsetsu’ instead of “Jidai Shōsetsu.” A transition of the concept of ”Denki Shōsetsu” resulted from an influence of public culture, an organization of genealogy and methods through complete works and newspapers, along with the influence of Science Fiction novels. However, it is worth noting that all the concepts during the transition have one same or key feature, namely, a “turbulent story.”
  • 5.

    A Study on Yukio Mishima’s Onnagata -Focusing on Gender and Sexuality Issues-

    PARK SOOJUNG | 2022, (56) | pp.99~118 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Yukio Mishima’s novel Onnagata (1957) is an important literary work that represents Mishima’s interest in Kabuki. Mangiku, the main character of this novel, is a male actor who plays female roles in Kabuki, that is, Onnagata. Masuyama, an observer of Mangiku, is intoxicated with the charm of Mangiku, who crosses the boundary of gender. The narrator in this work focuses on Masuyama and defines Mangiku’s gender. Previous studies have not offered sufficient reviews of Masuyama till date. However, this paper analyzed, in detail, how Masuyama recognizes and names Mangiku’s gender. As a result, it was found that Masuyama derives femininity from the appearance of Mangiku behind the stage, regardless of Mangiku’s gender identity, and calls Mangiku “her,” a female pronoun, after knowing about Mangiku’s same-sex love. This confusion between gender roles and sexual orientation represents a contradiction to the sexuality expressed by Onnagata, and the gender norm of heterosexuality is latent in the background. Moreover, Onnagata received relatively lesser attention among Mishima’s novels depicting male homosexuality. However, it can be said that it is worthy of re-evaluation. This is because Mishima also applied a number of motifs of his representative works, Confessions of a Mask (1949) and Forbidden Colors (1951-1953), to Onnagata. Therefore, Onnagata needs to be discussed in relation to these preceding texts.
  • 6.

    The Southern Experience as a turning point for the poet Kotaro Jinbo -Focusing on the “Southern Poetry Collection”-

    Sorimachi, Masumi | 2022, (56) | pp.119~141 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article examines the life of the poet Kotaro Jinbo, focusing on his collection of Southern Poems, while considering his dispatch to Singapore as a conscripted literary agent as a turning point in his life. Kotaro Jinbo is considered to be the opposite of Masuji Ibuse, who was also conscripted to Singapore. While Ibuse was anti-war and anti-establishment, Jinbo is said to have been an active supporter of Japan’s “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” ideology. This assessment, however, does not take into account the fact that Jinbo was a poet, but judges him solely for his role as President of the Shonan Japan Academy, which taught Japanese in the region. However, in order to appropriately evaluate Jinbo, it is necessary to follow him and pay attention to his activities as a poet before and after his posting to Singapore. This article examines the poetry and discourses of the poet Kotaro Jinbo, before and after his conscription, and examines how the experience of conscription affected him.
  • 7.

    Arranged marriage and household system of Japan described in “Angel” -Participation of readers extended to the colonies-

    Seo-Yeong Shin | 2022, (56) | pp.143~165 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study examines that Yokomitsu's novel “Angel,” which revolves around the issues of marriage and divorce, is deeply rooted in the Japanese household system. The “Angel” is the only Yokomitsu novel to be serialized in the colonial daily newspapers GyeongseongIlbo and Taiwan Daily Newspaper against a background of Gyeongseong. The characters in “Angel” agonize over the problem of arranged marriages between families. It was argued that the agony of these characters serves as a guide to help readers understand the novel and induces them to expand their participation to the colonies. In addition, attention was paid to the fact that “Angel” was published at a time when discussions on women’s marriage and social activities became more publicized. Furthermore, there was an attempt to clarify the double meaning of Gyeongseong at the time of the Sino-Japanese War, which is related to arranged marriage and induces the participation of colonial readers. As a result, the Japanese household system, centered on the head of the family, spread beyond Japan to the Japanese colonial state, thus promulgating the idea of ​​family nationalism, in which the emperor, the head of the Japanese state, and the people became one. Yokomitsu uses a character named Akashi, who was expelled from Japan's household system, as a guide to recognize the contradictions of Japan’s household system to readers living in colonies. This is why “Angel” should have been serialized in newspapers of colonial countries, and not Japan.
  • 8.

    A city in Radicalism with Japanese poets in the 1960s

    Rheem, Yong-Tack | 2022, (56) | pp.167~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The 1960s was a period of topical transition from post-war poetry to modern poetry in the 1950s. In a period of turbulence, most representatively the “Fight of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty,” poets who appeared in the 60s released their poetical energy actively through their choice and concentration of language. The atmosphere of the 60s, or the so-called “radical (radicalism),” can simply be perceived by the names of representative poetical magazines, such as 󰡔Bouso󰡕, 󰡔X󰡕, 󰡔Kyouku󰡕, and 󰡔Doramukan󰡕. The prosody pursued by them comes down to the poetry of the linguistic subject from the existing subject of the poet. Specifically, poetry is naturally composed only of lingual media, and in this process, it pursues surreal techniques that travel across both the normal and abnormal through infinite growth in vocabulary, a sense of originality, and free association. This stands out in the poems related to the city. You can hardly find cities as daily living spaces for existing ordinary people; they are described as complex symbolic spaces where death and life—and despair and hope—intersect. For poets in the 1960s, cities were a great poetic subject and theme for their new rhetoric and “language experiments.”
  • 9.

    A Study of the National Strategy of Imperial Japan -The Politics of the Body and the People in the 1920s-

    Hakjun Kwon | 2022, (56) | pp.185~211 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper aimed to clarify the implications of the imperial encouragement of sports and its historical development, as well as its role and function, focusing on the sports and physical education physical management policies of imperial Japan in the 1920s. In Japan, this was manifested in the 1920s as a public management policy mediated by sports and physical education. The reasons for trying to manage Japanese citizens through sports and physical education included the unstable state of the country, the sense of crisis caused by the advent of the imperialist era as well as the colonial expansion of the Western powers, Japan’s isolation from the rest of the world owing to World War I, and the development of liberal social movements. The state’s interest in sports and physical education and full-fledged physical management was manifested in the active encouragement of sports by the Imperial Family, as seen in the creation of the Meiji Shrine Games and the presentation of the Emperor’s Cup and various other Imperial Cups at sports events. These policies were part of the strategy of opening up the imperial family and attempting to create a new relationship between them and the people. These activities are thought to have functioned strategically as a device to strengthen public consent to the national order and to promote a sense of unity with the state. From the 1920s, sports and physical education became a national policy with the strong support of the imperial family, while functioning as one of the vital devices to shape the nation.
  • 10.

    Cultural translation of Kimchi in Japan: Focusing on the social and economic structure and network of Japanese Kimchi and Zainichi Korean

    PARK KEUNMO | 2022, (56) | pp.213~234 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper aims to examine the process of food culture transfer and convergence in the local community through Kimchi, a well-established food in Japan, in the context of meeting food culture and translation through cultural negotiations. This paper does not only focus on food culture itself, but will also look into the historical, societal, and economic background surrounding food, as well as the network of actors intertwined within such backgrounds. Through this process, the intention is to investigate the elements interrelated in the process of translating food culture, and the cultural bargaining processes linked to these factors that lead to translation of food culture. This paper attempts to approach the Zainichi Korean, an indispensable subject related to Kimchi establishing itself Japan. To this end, I would first like to examine the power inequality caused by the background of colonialism at the time and the historical context in which Kimchi was developed for the Zainichi Korean. Thereafter, this paper will discuss the social and economic context as well as cultural bargaining within the same, leading to the establishment of a network with various actors in the process of Kimchi integrating into Japanese society.
  • 11.

    A study of Sharaku’s Yakusha painting

    milim Lee | 2022, (56) | pp.235~252 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    I have considered the Kansai Region, Tsutaya, the notable publisher and the circumstances of the surrounding publishing industry in this paper, amidst the cultural background which generated expressions through pictures similar to actors drawn by Sharaku. As a result, Sharaku had a deep connection with the Edo Kabuki industry. The facial depiction of Kabuki actors by Sharaku was also made by focusing on the relationship between the appearance and personality of the actor in his own unique way, regardless of the flowerbed or style of painting at the time. In this paper, we considered the relationship between the fashion of metoposcopy, which can be referred to as the origin of Sharaku’s interest in the trends of publisher Tsutaya, and the publishing industry along with its work at the time. It is probable that Tsutaya and Sharaku shared the common interest to produce a large drawing of an actor’s upper body- Okubi-e in the wake of the epidemic of metoposcopy that occurred in both Kyoto and Edo at the time.
  • 12.

    The naval forces in Takagi and Amakusa areas and Zen monk Daichi and Azibaldo during the rebellion of the North and South Court of Japan

    yiyoung | 2022, (56) | pp.253~274 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    During the rebellion of the North and South Court of Japan, Takagi and Amakusa were closely related to the Kikuchi clan, a key armed force in the Seiseifu (征西府), Kyushu’s Southern Dynasties. Kikuchi clan was trying to control the local families, as a member of the southern side through the religious activities of Daichi, the Zen monk. Daichi’s leadership was acknowledged due to his locality, religiosity, and political status. After Daichi’s death, a boy called Azibaldo by the Goryeo soldiers replaced him. The origin of his leadership lies in his family members being noblemen and aristocrats, along with their excellence at martial arts and possessing good command abilities.
  • 13.

    藤塚鄰における≪歳寒図≫の意味 The meaning of ‘Wintery days’ for Fujitsuka Chikashi

    Izumi Chiharu | 2022, (56) | pp.275~296 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This paper recognizes and dissects “Wintry Days” that Kim Jeonhu I (1786-1856) drew to illuminate the values of Fujitsuka Chikashi (1879-1948). Fujitsuka is a professor of Keijō Imperial University, and “Wintry Days” dates back to 1932 to 1944, and I possessed it. On considering a case of 3, a show in 1932, a research paper written in 1936, and the celebration of the 60th birthday in 1939, the following were revealed: 1. was an excellent research material and the story with which 2 can sympathize, and “Wintry Days” was a target of a medium and 3 learning for Fujitsuka. It can be said not a just research material target, but he empathized, and that “Wintry Days” was the special existence with which you can sympathize for Fujitsuka.