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pISSN : 1976-4251 / eISSN : 2233-4998

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2011, Vol.12, No.4

  • 1.

    A review: controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Myung Gwan Hahm | Daniel P. Hashim | Robert Vajtai and 1other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.185~193 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have developed into one of the most competitively researched nano-materials of this decade because of their structural uniqueness and excellent physical properties such as nanoscale one dimensionality, high aspect ratio, high mechanical strength,thermal conductivity and excellent electrical conductivity. Mass production and structure control of CNTs are key factors for a feasible CNT industry. Water and ethanol vapor enhance the catalytic activity for massive growth of vertically aligned CNTs. A shower system for gas flow improves the growth of vertically aligned single walled CNTs (SWCNTs) by controlling the gas flow direction. Delivery of gases from the top of the nanotubes enables direct and precise supply of carbon source and water vapor to the catalysts. High quality vertically aligned SWCNTs synthesized using plasma enhance the chemical vapor deposition technique on substrate with suitable metal catalyst particles. This review provides an introduction to the concept of the growth of vertically aligned SWCNTs and covers advanced topics on the controlled synthesis of vertically aligned SWCNTs.
  • 2.

    Carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaic cells

    김태훈 | SEUNG JAE YANG | 박종래 | 2011, 12(4) | pp.194~206 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have attracted a great deal of interest for the development of high-efficiency, flexible, and low-cost solar cells. Due to the complicated structure of OPV devices, the electrical properties and dispersion behavior of the carbon nanomaterials should be controlled carefully in order for them to be used as materials in OPV devices. In this paper, a fundamental theory of the electrical properties and dispersion behavior of carbon nanomaterials is reviewed. Based on this review, a state-of-the-art OPV device composed of carbon nanomaterials, along with issues related to such devices, are discussed.
  • 3.

    Effect of few-walled carbon nanotube crystallinity on electron field emission property

    정해득 | 이종혁 | 이병갑 and 6other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.207~217 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    We discuss the influence of few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWCNTs) treated with nitric acid and/or sulfuric acid on field emission characteristics. FWCNTs/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) thin film field emitters were fabricated by a spray method using FWCNTs/TEOS sol one-component solution onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. After thermal curing, they were found tightly adhered to the ITO glass, and after an activation process by a taping method,numerous FWCNTs were aligned preferentially in the vertical direction. Pristine FWCNT/TEOS-based field emitters revealed higher current density, lower turn-on field, and a higher field enhancement factor than the oxidized FWCNTs-based field emitters. However, the unstable dispersion of pristine FWCNT in TEOS/N,N-dimethylformamide solution was not applicable to the field emitter fabrication using a spray method. Although the field emitter of nitric acid-treated FWCNT showed slightly lower field emission characteristics, this could be improved by the introduction of metal nanoparticles or resistive layer coating. Thus, we can conclude that our spray method using nitric acid-treated FWCNT could be useful for fabricating a field emitter and offers several advantages compared to previously reported techniques such as chemical vapor deposition and screen printing.
  • 4.

    Synthesis of well-aligned thin multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the silicon substrate and their field emission properties

    Huajun Yuan | Dong Hoon Shin | 김바울 and 1other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.218~222 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition using a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) additive onto Al/Fe thin film deposited on Si wafers. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the as-grown carbon products were thin MWCNTs with small outer diameters of less than 10 nm. H2S plays a key role in synthesizing thin MWCNTs with a large inside hollow core. The well-aligned thin MWCNTs showed a low turn-on voltage of about 1.1 V/μm at a current density of 0.1 μA/cm2 and a high emission current of about 1.0 mA/cm2 at a bias field of 2.3 V/μm. We suggest a possible growth mechanism for the well-aligned thin MWCNTs with a large inside hollow core.
  • 5.

    Effect of additional heat-treatment temperature on chemical, microstructural, mechanical, and electrical properties of commercial PAN-based carbon fibers

    Donghwan Cho | 윤성봉 | 조채욱 and 1other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.223~228 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    In this present work, the effect of additional heat-treatment (AHT) in the range from 1800oC to 2400oC on the chemical composition, morphology, microstructure, tensile properties,electrical resistivity, and thermal stability of commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers was explored by means of elemental analysis, electron microscopy, Xray diffraction analysis, single fiber tensile testing, two-probe electrical resistivity testing,and thermogravimetric analysis. The characterization results were in agreement with each other. The results clearly demonstrated that AHTs up to 2400oC played a significant role in further contributing not only to the enhancement of carbon content, fiber morphology, and tensile modulus, but also to the reduction of fiber diameter, inter-graphene layer distance,and electrical resistivity of “as-received” carbon fibers without AHT. The present study suggests that key properties of commercial PAN-based carbon fibers of an intermediate grade can be further improved by proprietarily adding heat-treatment without applying tension in a batch process.
  • 6.

    Structural evolution and kinetic study of high isotacticity poly(acrylonitrile) during isothermal pre-oxidation

    Li Zhang | Yongqiang Dai | Yi Kai and 1other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.229~235 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Isotactic polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with triad isotacticity of 0.53, which was determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, using dialkylmagnesium as an initiator, was successfully synthesized. Isothermal treatment of iso-PAN was conducted in air at 200, 220, 250 and 280oC. Structural evolutions and chemical changes were studied with Fourier transformation infrared and wide-angle X-ray diffraction during stabilization. A new parameter carbon nanofiber = I2240cm -1/ (I1595cm -1+f*I1595cm -1) was defined to evaluate residual nitrile groups. Crystallinity and crystal size were calculated with X-ray diffraction dates. The results indicated that the nitrile groups had partly converted into a ladder structure as stabilization proceeded. The rate of reaction increased with treatment temperature; crystallinity and crystal size decreased proportionally to pyrolysis temperature. The iso-conversional method coupled with the Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods were used to determine kinetic parameters via differential scanning calorimetry analysis with different heating rates. The active energy of the reaction was 171.1 and 169.1 kJ/mol, calculated with the two methods respectively and implied the sensitivity of the reaction with temperature.
  • 7.

    Influence of oxyfluorination on activated carbon nanofibers for CO2 storage

    Bae, Byeong Cheol | KIM JONGGU | Im Ji Sun and 2other persons | 2011, 12(4) | pp.236~242 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The oxyfluorination effects of activated carbon nanofibers (OFACFs) were investigated for CO2 storage. Electrospun CFs were prepared from a polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide solution via electrospinning and heat treatment. The electrospun CFs were chemically activated in order to generate the pore structure, and then oxyfluorination was used to modify the surface. The samples were labeled CF (electrospun CF), ACF (activated CF), OFACF-1 (O2:F2 = 7:3), OFACF-2 (O2:F2 = 5:5) and OFACF-3 (O2:F2 = 3:7). The functional group of OFACFs was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The C-F bonds formed on surface of ACFs. The intensities of the C-O peaks increased after oxyfluorination and increased the oxygen content in the reaction gas. The specific surface area, pore volume and pore size of OFACFs were calculated by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and density functional theory equation. Through the N2 adsorption isotherm, the specific surface area and pore volume slightly decreased as a result of oxyfluorination treatment. Nevertheless, the CO2 adsorption efficiency of oxyfluorinated ACF improved around 16 wt% due to the semi-ionic interaction effect of surface modificated oxygen functional groups and CO2 molecules.
  • 8.

    Performance of modified graphite as anode material for lithium-ion secondary battery

    Hua Zheng | Myung-Soo Kim | 2011, 12(4) | pp.243~248 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Two different types of graphite, such as flake graphite (FG) and spherical graphite (SG),were used as anode materials for a lithium-ion secondary battery in order to investigate their electrochemical performance. The FG particles were prepared by pulverizing natural graphite with a planetary mill. The SG particles were treated by immersing them in acid solutions or mixing them with various carbon additives. With a longer milling time, the particle size of the FG decreased. Since smaller particles allow more exposure of the edge planes toward the electrolyte, it could be possible for the FG anodes with longer milling time to deliver high reversible capacity; however, their initial efficiency was found to have decreased. The initial efficiency of SG anodes with acid treatments was about 90%, showing an over 20%higher value than that of FG anodes. With acid treatment, the discharge rate capability and the initial efficiency improved slightly. The electrochemical properties of the SG anodes improved slightly with carbon additives such as acetylene black (AB), Super P, Ketjen black,and carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the cyclability was much improved due to the effect of the conductive bridge made by carbon additives such as AB and Super P.
  • 9.

    Effects of oil absorption on the wear behaviors of carbon/epoxy woven composites

    LEEJAEHA | Jae S. Lee | Rhee Kyong Yop | 2011, 12(4) | pp.249~251 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Carbon/epoxy woven composites are prominent wear-resistant materials due to thestrength,stiffness, and thermal conductivity of carbon fabric. In this study, the effect of oilabsorption on the wearbehaviors of carbon/epoxy woven composites was investigated. Wear tests were performed ondry and fully oil-absorbed carbon/epoxy woven composites. The worn surfaces of the test specimenswere examined via scanning electron microscopy to investigate the wear mechanisms of oil-absorbed carbon/epoxy woven composites. It was found that the oil absorption rate was 0.14% when the carbon/epoxy woven composites werefully saturated. In addition, the wear properties of the carbon/epoxy woven composites were found to beaffected by oilabsorption. Specifically, the friction coefficients of dry and oil-absorbed carbon/epoxy woven composites were 0.25-0.30 and 0.55-0.6, respectively. The wear loss of the oilabsorbed carbon/epoxy woven composites was 3.52 × 10-2 cm3, while that of the dry carbon/epoxy woven composites was 3.52 × 10-2 cm3. SEM results revealedthat the higher friction coefficient and wear loss of the oil-absorbed carbon/epoxy woven composites can beattributed tothe existence of brokenand randomly dispersed fibers due to the weak adhesion forces between the carbon fibers and the epoxy matrix.
  • 10.

    Effect of crystallinity on the electrochemical properties of carbon black electrodes

    유혜민 | 허건영 | PARK SOOJIN | 2011, 12(4) | pp.252~255 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Carbon-based electric double-layer capacitors are being evaluated as potential energy-storage devices in an expanding number of applications. In this study, samples of carbon black (CB) treated at different temperatures ranging from 650°C to 1100°C were used as electrodes to improve the efficiency of a capacitor. The surface properties of the heat-treated CB samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of the heat-treatment temperature on the electrochemical behaviors was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and in galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity of the CBs increased as the heat-treatment temperature increased. In addition, the specific capacitance of the CBs was found to increase with the increase in the heat-treatment temperature. The maximum specific capacitance was 165 F·g-1 for the CB sample treated at 1000oC.