Graphene, a carbon crystal sheet of molecular thickness, shows diverse and exceptional properties ranging from electrical and thermal conductivities, to optical and mechanical qualities. Thus, its potential applications include not only physicochemical materials but also extends to biological uses. Here, we review recent experimental studies about graphene for such bioapplications. As a prerequisite to the search to determine the potential of graphene for bioapplications, the essential qualities of graphene that support biocompatibility,were briefly summarized. Then, direct examples of tissue regeneration and tissue engineering utilizing graphenes, were discussed, including uses for cell scaffolds, cell modulating interfaces, drug delivery, and neural interfaces.
Carbon fibers (CFs) have high service temperature, strength, and stiffness, and low weight. They are widely used as reinforcing materials in advanced polymer composites. The role of the polymer matrix in the composites is to provide bulk to the composite laminate and transfer load between the fibers. The interface between the CF and the resin matrix plays a critical role in controlling the overall properties of the composites. This paper aims to review the synthesis, properties, and applications of polymer matrices, such as thermosetting and thermoplastic resins.
Size-sorted graphene nanoplatelets are highly desired for fundamental research and technological applications of graphene. Here we show a facile approach for fabricating size-sorted graphene oxide (GO) nanoplatelets by a simple centrifugal method using different dispersion solvents. We found that the small-sized GO nanoplatelets were more effectively separated when dispersed in water or dimethylformamide (DMF) than in an alkali aqueous solution.
After several iterations of the centrifugation, the sizes of GO in the supernatant solution were mostly several micrometers. We found that the GO area was not strongly correlated with the C-O content of the GO dispersed in water. However, the size-sorted GO nanoplatelets in DMF showed different C-O content, since DMF can reduce GO nanoplatelets during exfoliation and centrifugation processes.
Isotropic pitch fibers were stabilized and carbonized for preparing carbon fibers. To optimize the duration and temperature during the stabilization process, a thermogravimetric analysis was conducted. Stabilized fibers were carbonized at 1000, 1500, and 2000°C in a furnace under a nitrogen atmosphere. An elemental analysis confirmed that the carbon content increased with an increase in the carbonization temperature. Although short graphitic-like layers were observed with carbon fibers heat-treated at 1500 and 2000°C, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed no significant effect of the carbonization temperature on the crystalline structure of the carbon fibers, indicating the limit of developing an ordered structure of isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers. The electrical conductivity of the carbonized fiber reached 3.9 × 104 S/m with the carbonization temperature increasing to 2000°C using a four-point method.
We investigated the effects of parametric synthesis conditions of catalysts such as sintering temperature, sorts of supports and compositions of catalysts on alignment and length-control of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using catalyst powders. To obtain aligned CNTs, several parameters were changed such as amount of citric acid, calcination temperature of catalysts,and the sorts of supports using the combustion method as well as to prepare catalyst. CNTs with different lengths were synthesized as portions of molybdenum and iron using a chemical vapor deposition reactor. In this work, the mechanisms of alignment of CNTs and of the length-control of CNTs are discussed.
Effects of the amount of nickel powder (Ni) in Ni-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid filler systems on the conductivity(or resistivity) and thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) of filled high density polyethylene were studied. Increases of the resistivity and TCR with increasing Ni concentration at a given hybrid filler content were observed. Using the fiber contact model,we showed that the main role of Ni in the hybrid filler system is to decrease the interfiber contact resistance when Ni concentration is less than the threshold point. The formation of structural defects leading to reduced reinforcing effect resulted in both a reduction of strength and an increase of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the composite film; these changes are responsible for the increases of both resistivity and TCR with increasing Ni concentration in the hybrid filler system.
This study investigated a developed process for producing a composite bipolar plate having excellent conductivity by using coal tar pitch and phenol resin as binders. We used a pressing method to prepare a compact of graphite powder mixed with binders. Resistivity of the impregnated compact was observed as heat treatment temperature was increased. It was observed that pore sizes of the GCTP samples increased as the heat treatment temperature increased. There was not a great difference between the flexural strengths of GCTP-IM and CPR-IM as the heat treatment temperature was increased. The resistivity of GPR700-IM, heat treated at 700°C using phenolic resin as a binder, was 4829 μΩ·cm which was best value in this study. In addition, it is expected that with the appropriate selection of carbon powder and further optimization of process we can produce a composite bipolar plate which has excellent properties.
In this study, an electro-catalyst of Pt nanoparticles supported by polypyrrole-functionalized graphene (Pt/PPy-reduced graphene oxide [RGO]) is reported. The Pt nanoparticles are deposited on the PPy-RGO composite by chemical reduction of H2PtCl6 using NaBH4. The presence of graphene (RGO) caused higher activity. This might have been due to increased electro-chemically accessible surface areas, increased electronic conductivity, and easier charge-transfer at polymer-electrolyte interfaces, allowing higher dispersion and utilization of the deposited Pt nano-particles. Microstructure, morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed successful deposition of Pt nano-particles, with crystallite size of about 2.7 nm, on the PPy-RGO support film. Catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation in fuel cells was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. The fundamental electrochemical test results indicated that the electro-catalytic activity, for methanol oxidation, of the Pt/PPy-RGO combination was much better than for commercial catalyst.
In this study, PtRu nanoparticles deposited on binary carbon supports were developed for use in direct methanol fuel cells using carbon blacks (CBs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The particle sizes and morphological structures of the catalysts were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the PtRu loading content was determined using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The electrocatalytic characteristics for methanol oxidation were evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry with 1 M CH3OH in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution as the electrolyte. The PtRu particle sizes and the loading level were found to be dependent on the mixing ratio of the two carbon materials.
The electroactivity of the catalysts increased with an increasing MWCNT content,reaching a maximum at 30% MWCNTs, and subsequently decreased. This was attributed to the introduction of MWCNTs as a secondary support, which provided a highly accessible surface area and caused morphological changes in the carbon supports. Consequently, the PtRu nanoparticles deposited on the binary support exhibited better performance than those deposited on the single support, and the best performance was obtained when the mass ratio of CBs to MWCNTs was 70:30.
In this study, we present a more electrochemically enhanced electrode using activated carbon (AC)-sulfur (S) composite materials, which have high current density. The morphological and micro-structure properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Quantity of sulfur was measured by thermogravimetric analysis analysis. The electrochemical behaviors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. As a trapping carbon structure, AC could provide a porous structure for containing sulfur. We were able to confirm that the AC-S composite electrode had superior electrochemical activity