Recently, with continuous developments in the field of materials science, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a promising material with excellent electrical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which play important roles in most fields. Researchers have achieved considerable progress with graphene. Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer that has been studied intensively owing to its specific formation, high chemical resistance, and excellent physical properties. These outstanding properties have led to its universal use in applications such as textile fabrics, tissue engineering, medicine and health, coatings, and paints. By combining the advantages of GO and CS, different types of promising materials can be obtained. This review discusses the preparation of GO-CS fibers, hydrogel and aerogel, and the applications of GO-CS nanocomposites. In addition, directions for future research on graphene material composites are discussed.