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2016, Vol.19, No.

  • 1.

    Phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide, exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, and the composites: an overview

    Donghwan Cho | Lawrence T. Drzal | 2016, 19() | pp.1~11 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In efforts to characterize and understand the properties and processing of phenylethynylterminated imide (LaRC PETI-5, simply referred to as PETI-5) oligomers and polymers as a high-temperature sizing material for carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites, PETI-5 imidization and thermal curing behaviors have been extensively investigated based on the phenylethynyl end-group reaction. These studies are reviewed here. In addition, the use of PETI-5 to enhance interfacial adhesion between carbon fibers and a bismaleimide (BMI) matrix, as well as the dynamic mechanical properties of carbon/BMI composites, are discussed. Reports on the thermal expansion behavior of intercalated graphite flake, and the effects of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) on the properties of PETI-5 matrix composites are also reviewed. The dynamic mechanical and thermal properties and the electrical resistivity of xGnP/PETI-5 composites are characterized. The effect of liquid rubber amine-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) (ATBN)-coated xGnP particles incorporated into epoxy resin on the toughness of xGnP/epoxy composites is examined in terms of its impact on Izod strength. This paper provides an extensive overview from fundamental studies on PETI-5 and xGnP, as well as applied studies on relevant composite materials.
  • 2.

    Adsorption of lisinopril and chlorpheniramine from aqueous solution on dehydrated and activated carbons

    El-Said I. El-Shafey | Haider A. J. Al-Lawati | Wafa S. H. Al-Saidi | 2016, 19() | pp.12~22 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Date palm leaflets were used as a precursor to prepare dehydrated carbon (DC) via phosphoric acid treatment at 150°C. DC, acidified with H3PO4, was converted to activated carbon (AC) at 500°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. DC shows very low surface area (6.1 m2/g) while AC possesses very high surface area (829 m2/g). The removal of lisinopril (LIS) and chlorpheniramine (CP) from an aqueous solution was tested at different pH, contact time, concentration, and temperature on both carbons. The optimal initial pH for LIS removal was 4.0 and 5.0 for DC and AC, respectively. However, for CP, initial pH 9.0 showed maximum adsorption on both carbons. Adsorption kinetics showed faster removal on AC than DC with adsorption data closely following the pseudo second order kinetic model. Adsorption increases with temperature (25°C–45°C) and activation energy (Ea) is in a range of 19–25 kJ mol/L. Equilibrium studies show higher adsorption on AC than DC. Thermodynamic parameters show that drug removal is endothermic and spontaneous with physical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Column adsorption data show good fitting to the Thomas model. Despite its very low surface area, DC shows ~70% of AC drug adsorption capacity in addition of being inexpensive and easily prepared.
  • 3.

    Carbon rich fly ash and their nanostructures

    Numan Salah | Sami S. Habib | Zishan H. Khan and 3other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.23~31 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Carbon rich fly ash was recently reported to have compositions that are ideal for use as a precursor and catalyst for carbon nanotube growth. This fly ash powder is mostly composed of pure carbon, predominantly present as sp2. In this work, the effect of sonication time on the morphology and structural properties of carbon rich fly ash particles is reported. The obtained results show that ultrasound treatment is an effective tool for producing ultrafine particles/fragments with higher porosity, which might be suitable for the adsorption of gasses. Moreover, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) of this fly ash were produced in parallel using the ball milling technique, and were evaluated as reinforcements for epoxy based composites. These CNPs have almost spherical shapes with particle sizes of around 30 nm. They were found to have strong C=O carbonyl group bonds, which might be generated during the ball milling process. The tensile testing results of a fly ash CNP reinforced epoxy composite showed significant improvements in the mechanical properties, mainly in the stiffness of the polymer. The stiffness value was increased by around 23% of that of neat epoxy. These CNPs with chemically active groups might also be useful for other applications.
  • 4.

    Effects of electrochemical oxidation of carbon fibers on interfacial shear strength using a micro-bond method

    Dong-Kyu Kim | An Kay-Hyeok | 방윤혁 and 3other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.32~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In this work, we studied the effects of electrochemical oxidation treatments of carbon fibers (CFs) on interfacial adhesion between CF and epoxy resin with various current densities. The surface morphologies and properties of the CFs before and after electrochemical-oxidation-treatment were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and single-fiber contact angle. The mechanical interfacial shear strength of the CFs/epoxy matrix composites was investigated by using a micro-bond method. From the results, electrochemical oxidation treatment introduced oxygen functional groups and increased roughness on the fiber surface. The mechanical interfacial adhesion strength also showed higher values than that of an untreated CF-reinforced composite.
  • 5.

    Study on urea precursor effect on the electroactivities of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets electrodes for lithium cells

    Ki-Yong Kim | Jung Yongju | Kim Seok | 2016, 19() | pp.40~46 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Nitrogen-atom doped graphene oxide was considered to prevent the dissolution of polysulfide and to guarantee the enhanced redox reaction of sulfur for good cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. In this study, we used urea as a nitrogen source due to its low cost and easy preparation. To find the optimum urea content, we tested three different ratios of urea to graphene oxide. The morphology of the composites was examined by field emission scanning electron microscope. Functional groups and bonding characterization were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry in an organic electrolyte solution. Compared with thermally reduced graphene/sulfur (S) composite, nitrogen-doped graphene/S composites showed higher electroactivity and more stable capacity retention.
  • 6.

    Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the fracture behavior of a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic-modified epoxy matrix

    H.J. Carrillo-Escalante | A. Álvarez-Castillo | A. Valadez-González and 1other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.47~56 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    In this study, the fracture behavior of a thermoplastic-modified epoxy resin reinforced with continuous carbon fibers for two levels of fiber-matrix adhesion was performed. A carbon fiber with commercial sizing was used and also treated with a known silane, (3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxysilane) coupling agent. Toughness was determined using the double cantilever test, together with surface analysis after failure using scanning electron microscope. The presence of polysulfone particles improved the fracture behavior of the composite, but fiber-matrix adhesion seemed to play a very important role in the performance of the composite material. There appeared to be a synergy between the matrix modifier and the fibermatrix adhesion coupling agent.
  • 7.

    Yield enhancement of matrix precursor in short carbon fiber reinforced randomly oriented carbon/carbon composite

    Thakur Sudesh Kumar Raunija | Sharad Chandra Sharma | Anil Verma | 2016, 19() | pp.57~65 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Isroaniso matrix precursor synthesized from commercially available petroleum pitch was stabilized in air. The influence of oxygen mass gain during stabilization on the yield of matrix precursor was studied. Additionally, the influence of pressure on the yield of the stabilized matrix precursor in a real system was studied. The fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), yield, yield rate, and yield impact were used to check the effect of stabilization and pressure on the yield of the matrix precursor and the end properties of the composite thereafter. The results showed that the yield increased with stabilization duration up to 20 h whereas it decreased for stabilization duration beyond 20 h. Further results showed that the stabilized matrix precursor for a duration of 5 h could withstand almost two-fold greater hot-pressing pressure without resulting in exudation as compared to that of a 1 h stabilized matrix precursor. The enhanced hot-pressing pressure significantly improved the yield of the matrix precursor. As a consequence, the densification and mechanical properties were increased significantly. Further, the matrix precursor stabilized for a duration of 20 h or more failed to provide proper and uniform binding of the reinforcement.
  • 8.

    Waste coffee grounds-derived nanoporous carbon nanosheets for supercapacitors

    Min Hong Park | Young Soo Yun | Se Youn Cho and 2other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.66~71 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The development of nanostructured functional materials derived from biomass and/or waste is of growing importance for creating sustainable energy-storage systems. In this study, nanoporous carbonaceous materials containing numerous heteroatoms were fabricated from waste coffee grounds using a top-down process via simple heating with KOH. The nanoporous carbon nanosheets exhibited notable material properties such as high specific surface area (1960.1 m2 g–1), numerous redox-active heteroatoms (16.1 at% oxygen, 2.7 at% nitrogen, and 1.6 at% sulfur), and high aspect ratios (>100). These unique properties led to good electrochemical performance as supercapacitor electrodes. A specific capacitance of ~438.5 F g–1 was achieved at a scan rate of 2 mV s–1, and a capacitance of 176 F g–1 was maintained at a fast scan rate of 100 mV s–1. Furthermore, cyclic stability was achieved for over 2000 cycles.
  • 9.

    Pitch-based carbon fibers from coal tar or petroleum residue under the same processing condition

    김지영 | uisu_im | 이병록 and 3other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.72~78 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Spinnable pitches and carbon fibers were successfully prepared from petroleum or coal pyrolysis residues. After pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO), slurry oil, and coal tar were simply filtered to eliminate the solid impurities, the characteristics of the raw materials were evaluated by elemental analysis, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS), and so on. Spinnable pitches were prepared for melt-spinning carbon fiber through a simple distillation under strong nitrogen flow, and further vacuum distillation to obtain a high softening point. Carbon fibers were produced from the above pitches by single-hole melt spinning and additional heat treatment, for oxidization and carbonization. Even though spinnable pitches and carbon fibers were processed under the same conditions, the melt-spinning and properties of the carbon fiber were different depending on the raw materials. A fine carbon fiber could not be prepared from slurry oil, and the different diameter carbon fibers were produced from the PFO and coal tar pitch. These results seem to be closely correlated with the initial characteristics of the raw materials, under this simple processing condition
  • 10.

    Adsorptive removal of atmospheric pollutants over Pyropia tenera chars

    Heejin Lee | Rae-su Park | Hyung Won Lee and 7other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.79~88 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    As a replacement for activated carbon, biochar was synthesized and used for the adsorptive removal of formaldehyde and nitrogen oxide. Biochar was produced from the fast pyrolysis of the red marine macro alga, Pyropia tenera. The P. tenera char was then activated with steam, ammonia and KOH to alter its characteristics. The adsorption of formaldehyde, which is one of the main indoor air pollutants, onto the seaweed char was performed using 1-ppm formaldehyde and the char was activated using a range of methods. The char activated with both the KOH and ammonia treatments showed the highest adsorptive removal efficiency, followed by KOH-treated char, ammonia-treated char, steam-treated char, and non-activated char. The removal of 1000-ppm NO over untreated char, KOH-treated char, and activated carbon was also tested. While the untreated char exhibited little activity, the KOH-treated char removed 80% of the NO at 50°C, which was an even higher NO removal efficiency than that achieved by activated carbon.
  • 11.

    The effect of the spinning conditions on the structure of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers by Taguchi method

    Zhao Jiang | Ting Ouyang | Xiangdong Yao and 1other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.89~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Taguchi’s experimental design was employed in the melt spinning of molten mesophase pitch to produce carbon fibers. The textures of the obtained carbon fibers were radial with varied crack angles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and polarized optical imaging. The diameter, crack angle, preferred orientation, and tensile modulus of the produced samples were examined to investigate the influence of four spinning variables. The relative importance of the variables has been emphasized for each characteristic. The results show that thicker carbon fiber can be obtained with a smaller entry angle, a higher spinning temperature, a reduced winding speed, and an increased extrusion pressure. The winding speed was found to be the most significant factor in relation to the fiber diameter. While it was observed that thicker carbon fiber generally shows improved preferred orientation, the most important variable affecting the preferred orientation was found to be the entry angle. As the entry angle decreased from 120° to 60°, the shear flow was enhanced to induce more ordered radial alignment of crystallite planes so as to obtain carbon fibers with a higher degree of preferred orientation. As a consequence, the crack angle was increased, and the tensile modulus was improved.
  • 12.

    KOH-activated graphite nanofibers as CO2 adsorbents

    Hui Yuan | Long-Yue Meng | PARK SOOJIN | 2016, 19() | pp.99~103 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Porous carbons have attracted much attention for their novel application in gas storage. In this study, porous graphite nano-fiber (PGNFs)-based graphite nano fibers (GNFs) were prepared by KOH activation to act as adsorbents. The GNFs were activated with KOH by changing the GNF/KOH weight ratio from 0 through 5 at 900°C. The effects of the GNF/ KOH weight ratios on the pore structures were also addressed with scanning electron microscope and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. We found that the activated GNFs exhibited a gradual increase of CO2 adsorption capacity at CK-3 and then decreased to CK-5, as determined by CO2 adsorption isotherms. CK-3 had the narrowest micropore size distribution (0.6–0.78 nm) among the treated GNFs. Therefore, KOH activation was not only a significant method for developing a suitable pore-size distribution for gas adsorption, but also increased CO2 adsorption capacity as well. The study indicated that the sample prepared with a weight ratio of ‘3’ showed the best CO2 adsorption capacity (70.8 mg/g) as determined by CO2 adsorption isotherms at 298 K and 1 bar.
  • 13.

    Effects of heat treatment time on aromatic yield of pyrolysis fuel oil-derived pitches

    Hye Kyoung Shin | Min-Kang Seo | 방윤혁 and 1other persons | 2016, 19() | pp.104~106 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) is a petroleum residue oil obtained from naphtha cracking centers in the petroleum refining process. It has received much attention due to such advantages as its high aromaticity, low sulfur content, low toluene-insoluble content, and low cost [1-4]. PFO is especially suitable for the manufacture of pitch, which is a precursor of several carbon materials [5-7]. PFO can be converted into pitch through heat reaction treatment. The conditions of the PFO heat reaction play a very important role, as they can influence the chemical structures of the produced pitch [8-10]. Currently, researchers are studying pitch extraction from PFO using various methods and conditions.
  • 14.

    Thermoelectric properties of carbonaceous solids

    Francesco Miccio | 2016, 19() | pp.107~111 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The application of thermoelectric measurements to characterize carbonaceous materials, such as graphite and chars, can be helpful for monitoring the chemical/physical evolution of the material during gasification, which occurs upon steps of gas diffusion and heterogeneous chemical reactions at moderate and high temperature. The present article reports on an experimental study on the application of thermoelectric measurements for qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization of carbonaceous materials, such as graphite and chars, also in course of high temperature chemical conversion.