Sustainable biomass-derived porous carbons demonstrate excellent capacitive properties owing to their heteroatom-rich nature and distinct textural feature. Herein, a series of nitrogen-/phosphorus-/oxygen-containing microporous carbons (CWW-N/P/O-MPCs) have been successfully fabricated by etching in H2O2 solution, pre-treatment of camphor wood wastes with KOH solution and subsequent carbonization. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the typical microporous carbon (CWW-N/P/O-MPCs-0.5) exhibits a remarkably high specific capacitance of 245 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1, corresponding to an impressively large volumetric capacitance of 208 F m−3, and excellent long-term stability over 10,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the optimal combination of heteroatom groups and ultrafine micropores.
Epoxy resin, which demonstrates a shape memory effect, is reinforced by chopped carbon fibers (CCFs) to improve the thermal and mechanical properties. The interfacial interactions between 2-mm-long CCFs and epoxy make an impact on not only molecular motion but also the physical behaviors of CCFs/epoxy composites. In particular, shape recovery ability of CCFs/epoxy composites is enhanced with an increase in thermal conductivity generated by crossing CCFs in the epoxy system, although CCFs/epoxy composites containing small amounts of CCFs, such as 1 or 3 phr (parts per hundred rubber), show slower recovery rates than those of raw epoxy specimens due to the difficulty of making heat bridges in composites. With these results, it is confirmed that for specific time-dependent purpose, the shape recovery vector of CCFs/epoxy can be controlled using the amount of CCFs.
Highly active, stable and low-cost noble metal-free electrocatalysts are essential for production of hydrogen. However, preparation of such catalysts is still highly challenging so far. In this work, the Mo2C–carbon nanomaterials have been prepared by controlled thermal technique. By controlling concentration of the reactants in the experimental condition, the Mo2C–carbon nanomaterials have been fabricated, which leads to decreases in contact resistance b/w Mo2C–carbon nanomaterials and graphitic carbon atoms. As a result, the Mo2C–carbon nanomaterial electrode shows remarkable activity for hydrogen evolution reactions with a small onset overpotential of 95 mV, a Tafel slope of 62 mV dec−1, an high exchange current density of 0.32 mA cm−2, good stability during long-term 1000 cycles and exhibits long-term durability for several days. This study opens a new method for the preparation of highly active non-noble electrode for production of hydrogen from water splitting.
This study focused on the development of Fe–Co/kaolin catalyst by a wet impregnation method. Response surface methodology was used to study the influence of operating variables such as drying temperature, drying time, mass of support and stirring speed on the yield of the catalyst. The catalyst composite at best synthesis conditions was then calcined in an oven at varied temperature and time using 22 factorial design of experiment. The catalyst with optimum surface area was then utilized to grow carbon nanofiber (CNF) in a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor. Both the catalyst and CNF were characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the influence of operating variables on the yield of catalyst, the results showed that an optimum yield of 96.51% catalyst was obtained at the following operating conditions: drying time (10 h), drying temperature (110 °C), stirring speed (100 rpm) and mass of support (9 g). Statistical analysis revealed the existence of significant interactive effects of the variables on the yield of the catalyst. The HRSEM/XRD/BET/TGA analysis revealed that the particles are well dispersed on the support, with high surface area (376.5 m2/g) and thermally stable (330.88 °C). The influence of operating parameters on the yield of CNF was also investigated and the results revealed an optimum yield of 348% CNF at the following operating conditions: reaction temperature (600 °C), reaction time (40 min), argon flow rate (1416 mL/min) and acetylene/hydrogen flow rate (1416 mL/min). It was found from statistical analysis that the reaction temperature and acetylene/hydrogen flow rates exerted significant effect on the CNF yield than the other factors. The contour and surface plots bi-factor interaction indicated functional relationship between the response and the experimental factors. The characterization results showed that the synthesized CNF is thermally stable, twisted and highly crystalline and contain surface functional groups. It can be inferred from the results of various analyses that the developed catalyst is suitable for CNF growth in a CVD reactor.
Comparisons between bare carbon (CPs) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CPs) synthesised using hydrothermal reaction are carried out. It was found that hydrothermal reaction of citric acid yields graphene-like sheets, while the nitrogen doping using ethylenediamine resulted in amorphous polymeric ball-like hydrocarbons devoid of any aromatic rings. Although the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate the presence of carbon–carbon double bonds (C=C), and the ground states of both materials are very deep (> 7.8 eV) as measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. This indicates the conjugation is very short. This is supported by the fact that both materials are UV blue emitting peaking at 375 nm probably originating from C=C.
In this study, commercial activated carbons (ACs) were upgraded by different activation methods, and the gases generated during the activations were defined and quantified. The chemical activation commonly applied for upgrading ACs uses complex reactions, involving pyrolysis, physical, and chemical reactions. The ACs based on wood materials were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 physisorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The patterns and composition of the generated gases were analyzed by gas chromatography and X-ray diffraction; high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was also used to characterize the activated carbon. The AC was mostly decomposed to CO2 by pyrolysis and physical activation, while CO was mainly detected during chemical activation from the K2CO3 produced by the reactions between CO2 and K2O. The detected amounts of generated gases were differed at various KOH ratios and residence times. The highest surface area obtained in this study was 2000 m2/g at the optimum ratio of AC and KOH (1:2).
The carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs–COOH) were used as adsorbent for the separation of flavonoids (naringin and rutin) from bitter orange peel. The influence of the parameters such as, pH values, contact time, and desorption conditions was investigated. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography. After separation and desorption process, the eluent was injected for chromatography analysis. Under the optimal conditions, experimental results showed that the extraction efficiency of rutin was higher than naringin and other compounds. Moreover, the desorption percentage of flavonoids was calculated 83.6% after four cycles. This research confirmed that this method for separation of flavonoids is simple and less cost. In addition, the separated flavonoids can be used as antioxidant for the future applications.
To prepare activated carbon with a high specific surface area, oxygen functional groups (OFGs) that can serve as useful electron donors during KOH activation were treated with nitric acid and incorporated into activated carbon. OFGs are incorporated differently according to the surface characteristics of starting materials. Up to 22.46% OFGs are incorporated into wood-based activated carbons (WACs), the C=O, COOH contents was 1.90, 17.05%, respectively. Whereas up to 12.82% OFGs are incorporated into coconut shell-based activated carbons, the C=O, COOH contents was 4.12, 6.15%, respectively. The OFGs used for increasing the specific surface area are the carbonyl group, and as the content of the functional group increases, the carbonyl group spreads to the carboxyl group. The specific surface area of activated carbons increased by 10–68% with an increase in the carbonyl group up to 6% (maximum point of carbonyl group). On the other hand, the specific surface area for WACs increased when the carboxyl group was 10% or below, but decreased by 6–15% when it increased to 10% or excess.
In this paper, nitrogen (N)-doped ultra-porous carbon derived from lignin is synthesized through hydrothermal carbonization, KOH activation, and post-doping process for CO2 adsorption. The specific surface areas of obtained N-doped porous carbons range from 247 to 3064 m2/g due to a successful KOH activation. N-containing groups of 0.62–1.17 wt% including pyridinic N, pyridone N, pyridine-N-oxide are found on the surface of porous carbon. N-doped porous carbon achieves the maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of 13.6 mmol/g at 25 °C up to 10 atm and high stability over 10 adsorption/desorption cycles. As confirmed by enthalpy calculation with the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, an adsorption heat of N-doped porous carbon is higher than non-doped porous carbon, indicating a role of N functionalities for enhanced CO2 adsorption capability. The overall results suggest that this carbon has high CO2 capture capacity and can be easily regenerated and reused without any clear loss of CO2 adsorption capacity.
Structural characterization of pyrolysis fuel oil (PFO) was conducted via 1H NMR and 13C NMR to elucidate its molecular structure and evaluate the feasibility of using PFO as a raw material for mesophase pitch synthesis. The average structural parameters were calculated based on the data from elemental analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. The resultant structural features of PFO were compared with those of fluidized catalytic cracking-decant oil (FCC-DO). Based on the calculated parameters, we proposed average molecular models of PFO and FCC-DO. The molecular model of PFO showed that it had an aromatic structure consisting of three aromatic rings and one naphthenic ring fused with one pericondensed and two catacondensed aromatic carbons, as well as a short alkyl side chain (with only a methyl group). This structural feature of PFO demonstrated that it is highly favorable for use as a raw material for mesophase pitch synthesis. The empirical findings in this study provide an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure of PFO as well as FCC-DO and can offer insights for future research on the utilization of PFO and other petroleum heavy oils.