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pISSN : 1976-4251 / eISSN : 2233-4998
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2023, Vol.33, No.4

  • 1.

    Preparation and electrochemical characteristics of waste-tire char-based CFX for lithium-ion primary batteries

    Ha Naeun , Jeong Seo Gyeong , Lim Chaehun and 4 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1013~1018 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, we investigate the opportunity of using waste tire char as a cathode material for lithium-ion primary batteries (LPBs). The char obtained by carbonizing waste tires was washed with acid and thermally fluorinated to produce CFX. The structural and chemical properties of the char and CFX were analyzed to evaluate the effect of thermal fluorination. The carbon structure of the char was increasingly converted to CFX structure as the fluorination temperature increased. In addition, the manufactured CFX-based LPBs were evaluated through electrochemical analysis. The discharge capacity of the CFX reached a maximum of 800 mAh/g, which is comparable to that of CFX-based LPBs manufactured from other carbon sources. On the basis of these results, the use of waste tire char-based CFX as a cathode material for LPBs is presented as a new opportunity in the field of waste tire recycling.
  • 2.

    Nano-engineered prepreg manufacturing: control of capillary rise of resin into VACNTs’ forests

    Le Anh Tuan , Govignon Quentin , Rivallant Samuel and 1 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1019~1025 | number of Cited : 0
    The incorporation of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) between composites plies has been said to enhance the through-thickness strength, and it can also decrease the risk of interply delamination and reduce crack initiation. Thanks to these high mechanical performances, nano-engineered hybrid composites are seen as promising for highly demanding structural reinforcement applications. This paper is part of a study that focuses specifically on the methodology for transferring VACNTs onto a prepreg surface while maintaining their initial vertically aligned morphology. The chosen method involved bonding the VACNTs’ forest through capillary impregnation of the forest by the prepreg’s resin. Key parameters for an effective transfer and to achieve a partial capillary rise of the resin into the VACNTs will be discussed here.
  • 3.

    Effects of nitrogen plasma treatments on hydrogen storage capacity of microporous carbon at room temperature and its feasibility as a hydrogen storage material

    So Soon Hyeong , Ha Seongmin , Min Chung Gi and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1027~1034 | number of Cited : 0
    For the commercialization of hydrogen energy, a technology enabling safe storage and the transport of large amounts of hydrogen is needed. Porous materials are attracting attention as hydrogen storage material; however, their gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) at room temperature (RT) is insufficient for actual use. In an effort to overcome this limitation, we present a N-doped microporous carbon that contains large proportion of micropores with diameters below 1 nm and small amounts of N elements imparted by the nitrogen plasma treatment. The N-doped microporous carbon exhibits the highest total GHSC (1.59 wt%) at RT, and we compare the hydrogen storage capacities of our sample with those of metal alloys, showing their advantages and disadvantages as hydrogen storage materials.
  • 4.

    One-step copper electroplating of carbon nanotube buckypaper using optimized electrolyte with additive chemicals

    Çakmakçı Nilüfer , Shin Myunggyu , Jung Huiyeon and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1035~1043 | number of Cited : 0
    Nowadays, variable materials have been investigated to find alternative lightweight conductors instead of copper because copper has a relatively high density. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most suitable materials as an alternative conductor to Cu, thanks to its high conductivity. In addition, CNT has many other great properties, such as low density, high strength, and high ampacity. However, individual CNT loses some of its performance after the assembly process. Therefore, CNT materials have been electroplated with copper to achieve lighter conductors. In this study, CNT buckypaper (CNTBP) is fabricated using a multi-walled carbon nanotube and copper electroplated using optimizing electrolyte with the help of additive chemicals such as accelerator and suppressor. Furthermore, the effect of hydrochloric acid in the electrolyte on the electroplating of CNTBP is observed. The results show that HCl in electrolyte enhances the effectiveness of additive chemicals and provide a well-plated CNTBP@Cu composite. The composite in this study is expected to be used in various areas.
  • 5.

    Preparation and application of graphene oxide nanocomposites loaded with enzymes and liposomes

    Yu Yifan , Wang Ruyuan , Li Meilin and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1045~1055 | number of Cited : 0
    The present studies explored the possibility of immobilizing phosphocholine (PC) liposomes on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) which was pre-adsorbed with two kinds of enzymes, horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase. The transmission electron microscope images showed that the PC liposomes adsorbed onto the GO surface kept integrity. By using 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)-encapsulated liposomes, a one-step colorimetric assay for glucose was developed. In the presence of glucose, the GO nanocomposites catalyzed the cascade enzymatic reaction producing colorimetric signals directly. Under the optimal conditions, the GO nanocomposites produced linearly increased colorimetric signal with increased concentrations of glucose ranging from 50 to 500 µM. The detection limit was 33 µM. The GO nanocomposites also exhibited good selectivity for the detection of glucose and were able to detect glucose in human serum.
  • 6.

    Green synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications of Centella asiatica-derived carbon dots

    Thokchom Bothe , Bhavi Santosh Mallikarjun , Abbigeri Megha B. and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1057~1071 | number of Cited : 0
    Medicinal plant-derived carbon dots are eco-friendly and possess therapeutic properties. Among the medicinal plants studied throughout the world, Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. is known for its medicinal values, especially its neuroceutical and cogniceutical properties. This work discusses the green synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) using C. asiatica leaves as the carbon source via fast and cost-effective microwave-assisted method, and its physico-chemical characterization via UV–visible, fluorescence and FTIR spectrometry, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, SAED, EDX and zeta potential analyses. The study revealed quasi-spherical CDs having size ~ 3–6 nm, polycrystalline nature, and presence of various functional groups like –COOH, –H, =CH2 and C–O–C with UV absorption peaks at 213 and 322 nm. Interestingly, the C. asiatica-derived CDs exhibited blue fluorescence under UV with maximum emission wavelength of 460 nm when excited at 400 nm. Further, these CDs were evaluated for their biological applications, which uncovered their potential in therapeutics such as antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at a dose of 10 μg, strong antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 165.28 and 128.48 μg mL−1 in DPPH and H2O2 assays, respectively, and profound anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 106.20 μg mL−1 in protein denaturation assay. The CDs were also assessed for cytotoxicity using whole blood cells and were found to be safe for in vitro administration. Thus, the C. asiatica-derived CDs can be exploited for their potent biomedicinal properties.
  • 7.

    Influence of post-heat treatment over structural network and mechanical properties of carbon (C)-incorporated CVD TiCN thin-film coating

    Das Soham , Guha Spandan , Ghadai Ranjan Kr. | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1073~1094 | number of Cited : 0
    In this experimental work, a p-type c-Si (100) substrate with 8 × 8 × 2 mm dimension was taken for TiCN thin-film coating deposition. The whole deposition process was carried out by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The Si substrate was placed within the CVD chamber at base pressure and process pressure of 0.75 and 500 mTorr, respectively, in the presence of TiO2 (99.99% pure) and C (99.99% pure) powder mixture. Later on, quantity of C powder was varied for different set experiments. The deposition of TiCN coating was carried out in the presence of N2–H2–TiCl4–CH3CN gas mixture and 600 ℃ of fixed temperature. The time for deposition was fixed for 90 min with 10 and 5 ℃ min−1 heating and cooling rate, respectively. Later on, heat treatment process was carried out over these deposited TiCN samples to investigate the changing characteristics. The heat treatment was carried out at 800 ℃ within the CVD chamber in the absence of any gas flow rate. The morphological properties of heat-treated samples have been improved significantly, evidence is observed from SEM and AFM analyses. The structural analysis by XRD has been suggested, upgradation in crystallinity of the heat-treated film as it possessed with sharp and higher intensity peaks. Evidence has been found that the electrochemical properties are enhanced for heat-treated sample. Raman spectroscopy shows that the intensity of acoustic phonon modes predominates the optic phonon modes for untreated samples, whereas for heat-treated samples, opposite trends have been observed. However, significant degradation in mechanical properties for heat-treated sample has been observed compared to untreated sample.
  • 8.

    Enhanced mechanical properties of anti-corrosive concrete coated by milled carbon nanofiber-reinforced composite paint

    Song Jeong-Sang , Kwac Lee-Ku , Kim Hong-Gun and 1 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1095~1104 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, a milled carbon nanofiber-reinforced composite paint was prepared to enhance the anti-corrosive properties of concrete structures. Shorter-length (40 μm) milled carbon fibers (MCFs) showed an increased viscosity relative to longer MCFs (120 μm) owing to their 2 weeks (the decrease was especially strong in the acid solution). A carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced composite paint showed similar results in uniform distribution in the epoxy resin. The latter showed a decrease in viscosity owing to agglomerative movement in the epoxy resin. The surface hardness and tensile strength of the composite paint linearly increased as the carbon nanofiber loading was increased by up to 7.2 wt% in the epoxy resin, and slowly decreased after soaking in a sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide solution for to those of the MCFs, whereas CNTs dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in advance and mixed with resin showed lower hardness values than those without dispersion in IPA at the same loading. The mechanical properties such as the Shore D hardness and tensile strength of the MCF-reinforced composite paint increased significantly, resulting in a slower surface degradation of the composite paint concrete in a sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solution.
  • 9.

    Facile microwave treatment of activated carbons and its effects on hydrocarbon adsorption/desorption behaviors

    Lee Jin-Young , Lee Hye-Min , Kim Byung-Joo | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1105~1114 | number of Cited : 0
    Evaporative emission generated through the fuel supply system of a gasoline automobile is prevented into the atmosphere through an activated carbon canister system. In this study, the oxygen functional group of activated carbon was controlled using a simple gas phase treatment to improve evaporative emission reduction performance, and the adsorption/desorption performance of evaporative emissions was evaluated according to microwave heating conditions. Microwave heating was used to remove the oxygen functional group of the activated carbon efficiently. Microwave heating was found to remove oxygen functional groups in a short treatment time (1–7 min). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to investigate modifying the oxygen functional group of the activated carbon. Using N2/77K adsorption/desorption isotherm, the textural properties of the activated carbon according to microwave heating conditions were examined. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) equation was used to calculate the specific surface area of the activated carbon, and the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) equation was used to calculate the micropore volume of activated carbon. Microwave heating effectively increased the butane working capacity, which is the neat adsorption capacity of activated carbon, from 7.12 g/100 ml to a maximum of 8.04 g/100 ml.
  • 10.

    Tungsten-based activated carbon matrix for the catalytic oxidation of model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pharmaceutical VOCs from wastewater

    Natarajan Prabhakaran , Chandrababu Prathyusha , Karmegam Patchai Murugan and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1115~1132 | number of Cited : 0
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a paramount factor in air pollution of the environment. VOCs are vastly present in the wastewater discharged by the pharmaceutical industries. As it is evaporative in nature, it enters the environment spontaneously and causes air pollution, global warming, acid rain and climate change. VOCs must be treated before discharging or any other aerobic methods using an efficient catalyst. As the catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase is facile compared to the gas phase, this study investigated on catalytic liquid-phase oxidation of VOCs in model and real pharmaceutical wastewater. The model compounds of toluene-, ethylbenzene- and chlorobenzene-contaminated waters were treated separately along with the VOCs present in real pharmaceutical wastewater using a tungsten-based carbon catalyst. The tungsten was impregnated on the low-cost activated carbon matrix as it has good selectivity and catalytic property toward VOCs for facile catalytic operations. The metal catalysts were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and scanning electron microscopy with elemental and mapping analysis. The treatability was monitored by total organic carbon, ultra-violet spectroscopy and high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The tungsten-impregnated activated carbon matrix (WACM) has a catalytic efficiency toward toluene by 85.45 ± 1.78%, ethylbenzene by 93.9 ± 1.16%, chlorobenzene by 85.9 ± 2.26% and pharmaceutical VOCs by 85.05 ± 1.73% in 20 treatment cycles. The results showed that WACM worked efficiently in VOCs treatment, preventing the environment from air pollution. Furthermore, liquid-phase oxidation could easily be implementable on an industrial scale.
  • 11.

    Transparent and flexible carbon dots/polymer scaffold for deep UV photodetection applications

    Gopi Pavithra , Ponnusamy Kathirvel | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1133~1143 | number of Cited : 0
    This work reports the fabrication of a flexible Photodetector (PD) using Carbon Dots (CDs)/Polymer composite for Deep UV (DUV) photodetection. The CDs have been prepared using a simple and inexpensive heating process. The syncretic studies reveal the disordered graphitic core with surface functional groups and the excitation-dependent character of CDs. The synthesized CDs are stabilized via Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) through a synergistic effect and investigated for different compositions (2–10 weight %) of CDs. The CDs/PVA composites shows improved absorbance at 208 and 335 nm compared to pure CDs owing to the bonding between them. This advantageous property of high absorption and photo response in the DUV region is utilized by employing CDs/PVA composite as a photo-sensing layer on the ITO-coated PET substrate in the PD. The performance of the PD was measured under dark, short (254 nm) and long (365 nm) UV region. Among all the compositions, 4% CDs/PVA PD exhibits superior performance in terms of high photo-to-dark current ratio (IPh/Id), responsivity and detectivity. The PD functioning and other parameters are discussed in detail and reported.
  • 12.

    Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of porous carbon adsorbents derived from waste biomass for CO2 capture

    Mallesh Dosali , Swapna Shobanaboyina , Rajitha Paka and 3 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1145~1160 | number of Cited : 0
    In this work, subabul wood biomass was used to prepare carbon adsorbents by physical and chemical activation methods at various carbonization temperatures. The properties of the carbon adsorbents were estimated through characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X–ray photo electron spectroscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, CHNS-elemental analysis and N2 adsorption studies. Subabul-derived carbon adsorbents were used for CO2 capture in the temperature range of 25–70 °C. A detailed adsorption kinetic study was also carried out. The characterization results indicated that these carbons contain high surface area with microporosity. Surface properties were depended on treatment method and carbonization temperature. Among the carbons, the carbon prepared after treatment of H3PO4 and carbonization at 800 °C exhibited high adsorption capacity of 4.52 m.mol/g at 25 °C. The reason for high adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was explained based on their physicochemical characteristics. The adsorbents showed easy desorption and recyclability up to ten cycle with consistent activity.
  • 13.

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on durian-peel-based activated carbon for phenol removal

    Igbmno Major Jane , Khalid Mohammad , Raju Gunasunderi and 5 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1161~1170 | number of Cited : 0
    This study investigated durian (Durio zibethinus) peels to produce powdered activated carbon (DPAC). The influence of process variables such as carbonization temperature, activation time, contact time, CO2 flow rate, and adsorption dosage was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A six-factor and two levels Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the parameters. The independent variables were activation temperature (°C), duration (min), CO2 flow rate during the activation process (L/min), irradiation of adsorbent (kGy), irradiation duration (min), and adsorbent dosage (g) while phenol removal (mg/L) was the dependent variable (response). Following the observed correlation coefficient values, the design was fitted to a quadratic model (R2 = 0.9896). The optimal removal efficiency (97.25%) was observed at an activation temperature of 900 °C, activation time of 30 min, CO2 flow rate of 0.05 L/min, irradiation dose of 100 kGy, contact time of 35 min and adsorption dosage of 0.75 g. The optimal DPAC showed a BET surface of 281.33 m2/g. The removal efficiency was later compared with a commercially available activated carbon which shows a 98.56% phenol removal. The results show that the durian peel could be an effective precursor for making activated carbon for phenol removal, and irradiation can significantly enhance surface activation.
  • 14.

    A review of carbon-based materials and their coating techniques for biomedical implants applications

    Hassan Sadia , Nadeem Aroosa Younis , Qaiser Hafsah and 4 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1171~1188 | number of Cited : 0
    Carbon-based materials have emerged as an excellent class of biomedical materials due to their exceptional mechanical properties, lower surface friction, and resistance to wear, tear, and corrosion. Experimental studies have shown the promising results of carbon-based coatings in the field of biomedical implants. The reasons for their successful applications are their ability to suppress thrombo-inflammatory reactions which are evoked as an immune response due to foreign body object implantation. Different types of carbon coatings such as diamond-like carbon, pyrolytic carbon, silicon carbide, and graphene have been extensively studied and utilized in various fields of life including the biomedical industry. Their atomic arrangement and structural properties give rise to unique features which make them suitable for multiple applications. Due to the specificity and hardness of carbon-based precursors, only a specific type of coating technique may be utilized for nanostructure development and fabrication. In this paper, different coating techniques are discussed which were selected based on the substrate material, the type of implant, and the thickness of coating layer. Chemical vapor deposition-based techniques, thermal spray coating, pulsed laser deposition, and biomimetic coatings are some of the most common techniques that are used in the field of biomaterials to deposit a coating layer on the implant. Literature gathered in this review has significance in the field of biomedical implant industry to reduce its failure rate by making surfaces inert, decreasing corrosion related issues and enhancing biocompatibility.
  • 15.

    Synthesis of graphene quantum dots from organic dye for the biosensor application

    Li Qiuyan , Fu Jinrun , Chen Weifeng and 3 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1189~1196 | number of Cited : 0
    How to effectively deal with the polluted water by the pollutant of organic dyes is the world problem. It is of great significance if the organic dyes in the polluted water can be directly turned into the useful materials through a facile approach. Herein, the water which contains the common organic dye, Reactive red 2 (RR2), has been chosen to be the model to synthesize graphene quantum dots (GQDs) by a facile route. The comprehensive characterizations, including TEM (HRTEM), XPS, Raman, PL and UV–Vis. spectra, have been performed to confirm the structures and explore the properties of the synthesized GQDs. Meanwhile, the excellent PL properties and low biotoxicity of the GQDs confer them with the potential applications in the biological fields. When the GQDs are excited by the wavelength of 360 nm, the maximum emission is achieved at 428 nm. It is well demonstrated that the synthesized GQDs are able to detect the Al3+ which causes multiple diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, kidney disease, and even cancer. The detection range is from 90 to 800 μM, which is different from the reported kinds of the literature. Therefore, this work not only provides an economical and environmental route on solving the universal problem from organic dyes, but also facilitates to advancing the synthesis and application of GQDs.
  • 16.

    Electrochemical field-effect bio-transistor based on a multi-scale electronic nanomesh of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Lee Seung-Woo , Cheon Ki-Sung , Lee Hyunseok and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1197~1204 | number of Cited : 0
    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) has gained significant interest as a transducer in various electrochemical sensing devices due to their unique structure, compatibility with biomolecules, and excellent electronic properties. As-prepared SWNTs are usually a mixture of semiconducting and metallic ones. Despite of the higher content of semiconducting components in mixed SWNTs, metallic properties are predominantly expressed due to the bundling issue of the SWNT during the fabrication process, limiting the applicability to bio-transistor application. Here, we present a multi-scale semiconducting electronic film of SWNTs as a transducing platform for electrochemical field-effect-transistor (eFET) suitable for the sensitive detection of subtle biological modulation. A genetically engineered filamentous M13 phage showing strong binding affinity toward SWNTs on its body surface was used as a biological material, allowing us to fabricate a large-scale transparent semiconducting nanocomposite. As the relative ratio of SWNT to M13 phage decreases, the on–off ratio of SWNT electronic film increases by 1200%. To show broad applicability, the multi-scale SWNT nanomesh-based eFET is applied for monitoring a variety of biological reactions in association with enzymes, aptamers, and even cyanobacteria. The biomimetic electronic material system with the capability of transducing biological responses at a large scale over a broad dynamic range holds excellent promise for biosensors, biofuel cells, and environment monitoring.
  • 17.

    Porous carbon derived from waste corrugated paper with KOH-NaOH mixture and its adsorption property for methylene blue

    Yang Mannan , Fang Changqing , Su Jian and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1205~1215 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, waste corrugated paper was used as carbon precursor with KOH-NaOH mixture (mole ratio was 51:49 and the melting point is 170 °C) as activator to prepare porous carbon at different reaction temperature and different mass ratio of KOH-NaOH mixture/waste corrugate paper fiber. The micro-morphology, pore structure information and composition of porous carbon were analyzed, and the formation mechanism of pores was investigated. The effect of activator amount and pyrolysis temperature on the morphology and structure of porous carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of porous carbon was evaluated with the methylene blue as model pollutant. The effect of adsorbent amount, adsorption time and temperature on the adsorption performance of the porous carbon were analyzed. The maximum specific surface area is 1493.30 m2·g−1 and the maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue is 518 mg·g−1. This study provides a new idea for efficient conversion and utilization of waste paper.
  • 18.

    Kinetic evaluation and study of gold-based nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as an alkaline phosphatase inhibitor in serum and pure form

    Mohammed Samar Naser , Al-Rawi Khalid F. , Mohammed Ahmed Mishaal | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1217~1229 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesised using green chemistry to decorate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made from walnut shells transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy and fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy were used to diagnose MWCNTs and AuNPs. MWCNT-COOAu, MWCNT-COO and MWCNT-Au were diagnosed by Raman, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and FESEM. The effect of AuNPs, MWCNT-COO, MWCNT-COOAu and MWCNT-Au on pure and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity was studied in vitro using the enzyme-substrate 4-nitrophenyl disodium orthophosphate. For pure enzymes, Vmax slightly increased as the concentration of MWCNT-Au, MWCNT-COOAu and MWCNTCOO increased, whereas the Vmax values decreased as the concentration of AuNPs increased. The inhibition type for all NPs varied. For serum ALP enzyme, the Vmax values for Au-based NPs decreased as the concentration of NPs increased. The Vmax values exceeded the standard value at the concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 ppm for MWCNT-Au and MWCNT-COOAu, whereas the Vmax values increased over the standard value for all concentrations of AuNPs.
  • 19.

    Analysis of the amorphous SiInZnO/Ag/amorphous SiInZnO multilayer structure as a next-generation transparent electrode using essential macleod program simulation

    Park So Yeon , Lee Sang Yeol | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1231~1239 | number of Cited : 0
    Essential macleod program (EMP) was used to optimize the transmittance of the transparent conducting layers in an oxide-metal-oxide structure. For EMP simulation, the optical coefficient of the material was extracted using an ellipsometer. Following the simulation studies, oxide-metal-oxide samples were fabricated experimentally, and their optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Multilayer SiInZnO/Ag/Siinzno (S/A/S) structures were grown on glass substrates using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) sputtering at room temperature. Due to the occurrence of destructive interference at the metal and oxide interface, the S/A/S structure exhibited excellent optical properties. As the thickness of the top and bottom oxide layers was increased, the transmittance spectrum was red-shifted due to partial wave interference at the Ag interface. Change in thickness of the top oxide layer had a greater effect on the transmittance than that of the bottom oxide layer. This was due to the difference in refractive index occurring at each interface. Change in Ag thickness shifted the absorption edge in the short wavelength region. Whereas electrical properties, such as sheet resistance and carrier concentration, were found to be dependent on thickness of the sandwiched metal layer. An excellent figure of merit of 63.20 ×10−3Ω−1 was obtained when the thickness of the Ag layer was 11 nm, and the top and bottom oxide layer thickness were 45 and 60 nm, respectively. These values suggest promising optoelectronic properties and are encouraging for future transparent electrode applications.
  • 20.

    Oxidation behaviour and residual mechanical properties of carbon/carbon composites

    Han Meng , Zhou Chuwei , Silberschmidt Vadim V. and 1 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1241~1252 | number of Cited : 0
    Carbon/carbon composites are widely used in re-entry engineering applications thanks to their excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, but they are easily oxidized in the oxygenated atmosphere. It is important to research their residual mechanical properties influenced by oxidation behaviour, in order to ensure the in-service safety. A microscale degradation model is proposed to predict the oxidation behavior based on the mass conservation and diffusion equations, the derived equivalent steady recession rate of composite is employed to evaluate the residual mechanical properties of the oxidized composite theoretically. A numerical strategy is proposed to investigate the oxidation mechanism of this composite. The differences in the degradation rate between the fiber and the matrix resulted in the steady state and an unchanged shape of the front. Residual mechanical properties of composite with three different domains of oxidation were simulated with a multiscale coupled model. The numerical results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of this composite decreased by 24–32% after oxidation for 30 min at 850 °C. Oxidation also caused the stress redistribution inside components, with the stress concentration diminishing their load-bearing capacity. The local areas of increased stress in the pyrocarbon matrix provided new ways for diffusion of oxygen into the pyrocarbon matrix and fibers.
  • 21.

    Performance of CNT-CNP aerogel as electrode in capacitive deionization system

    Tabrizi N. Salman , Taleghani M. Salehi | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1253~1263 | number of Cited : 0
    In this study, hybrid aerogels containing carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were synthesized via sol–gel method using resorcinol/formaldehyde precursors through a hydrolysis-condensation reaction mechanism. Porous carbonaceous structures were achieved by freeze-drying of the organic gels followed by controlled carbonization under an inert gas. The samples were characterized by various techniques such as FTIR, BJH, FESEM, CV, and EIS. The specific surface area and total pore volume of the aerogel sample were measured to be as high as 452 m2/g and 0.782 cm3/g, respectively, thus enhancing the electric double-layer formation. Electrochemical tests on the samples showed a large specific capacitance (212 F/g) and an excellent cyclic stability over 3000 cycles. Performance of the synthesized structures was subsequently assessed as electrodes in a capacitive deionization (CDI) process. At the operating conditions of 1.6 V voltage, flow rate of 20 mL/min, and NaCl concentration of 1000 mg/L a promising adsorption capacity around 42.08 mg/g was achieved.
  • 22.

    Coffee grounds derived sulfur and nitrogen dual-doped porous carbon for the cathode material of lithium‑sulfur batteries

    Wen Yating , Wang Xiaobin , Huang Jingyi and 3 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1265~1278 | number of Cited : 0
    The development of functional carbon materials using waste biomass as raw materials is one of the research hotspots of lithium-sulfur batteries in recent years. In this work, used a natural high-quality carbon source—coffee grounds, which contain more than 58% carbon and less than 1% ash. Honeycomb-like S and N dual-doped graded porous carbon (SNHPC) was successfully prepared by hydrothermal carbonization and chemical activation, and the amount of thiourea used in the activation process was investigated. The prepared SNHPC showed excellent electrochemical energy storage characteristics. For example, SNHPC-2 has a large pore volume (1.85 cm3·g−1), a high mesoporous ratio (36.76%), and a synergistic effect (S, N interaction). As the cathode material of lithium-sulfur batteries, SNHPC-2/S (sulfur content is 71.61%) has the highest specific capacity. Its initial discharge-specific capacity at 0.2 C is 1106.7 mAh·g−1, and its discharge-specific capacity after 200 cycles is still as high as 636.5 mAh·g−1.
  • 23.

    Synthesis of carbon materials with extremely high pyridinic-nitrogen content and controlled edges from aromatic compounds with highly symmetric skeletons

    Taguchi Taisei , Gohda Syun , Gotoh Kazuma and 2 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.1279~1301 | number of Cited : 0
    Selective doping of pyridinic nitrogen in carbon materials has attracted attention due to its significant properties for various applications such as catalysts and electrodes. However, selective doping of pyridinic nitrogen together with controlling skeletal structure is challenging in the absence of catalysts. In this work, four precursors including four fused aromatic rings and pyridinic nitrogen were simply carbonized in the absence of catalysts in order to attain mass synthesis at low cost and a high percentage of pyridinic nitrogen in carbon materials with controlled edges. Among four precursors, dibenzo[f,h]quinoline (DQ) showed an extremely high percentage of pyridinic nitrogen (96 and 86%) after heat treatment at 923 and 973 K, respectively. Experimental spectroscopic analyses combined with calculated spectroscopic analyses using density functional theory calculations unveiled that the C-H next to the pyridinic nitrogen in DQ generated gulf edge structures with controlled pyridinic nitrogen after carbonization. By comparing the reactivities among the four precursors, three main factors required for maintaining the pyridinic nitrogen in carbon materials with controlled edges, such as (1) high thermal stability of the pyridinic nitrogen, (2) the presence of one pyridinic nitrogen in one ring, and (3) the formation of gulf edges including pyridinic nitrogen to protect the pyridinic nitrogen by the C-H groups on the gulf edges, were revealed.
  • 24.

    Recent advance of single atom-based photocatalysts for energy conversion and environmental purification

    Niu Yaling , Yue Chengcai , Li Shuqi and 4 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.957~972 | number of Cited : 0
    Developing the high-performance semiconductor photocatalytic materials is an eternal topic under the background of the current energy and environment requirements. In recent years, single-atom photocatalysts (SAPCs) have been brought a lot of attention in energy conversion and environmental purification because of their unique characteristics and properties, including the unique coordination patterns, outstanding atomic utilization, quantum confinement effects, high catalytic activity, etc. Hence, this critical review focuses on the summarized various synthetic methods and the recent important applications of SAPCs, including photocatalytic H2 evolution (PHE) from water splitting, photocatalytic CO2 reduction, photodegradation of organic pollutants, etc. The prospects and challenges for future research topics of SAPCs with excellent activity and stability for various photocatalytic applications are prospected at the end of this review. We sincerely expect that this critical review can promote deep-level insight into the SAPCs subject for the future significant applications in other fields.
  • 25.

    Research progress and the prospect of CO2 hydrogenation with dielectric barrier discharge plasma technology

    Zhang Ziyi , Ding Honglei , Zhou Qi and 6 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.973~987 | number of Cited : 0
    In recent years, people are increasingly interested in CO2 hydrogenation to produce value-added chemicals and fuels (CH4, CH3OH, etc.). In the quest for an efficient treatment in CO2 methanation and methanolization, several technologies have been practiced, and DBD plasma technology gain attention due to its easily handling, mild operating conditions, strong activation ability, and high product selectivity. In addition, its reaction mechanism and the effect of packing materials and reaction parameters are still controversial. To address these problems efficiently, a summary of the reaction mechanism is presented. A discussion on plasma-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation including packing materials, reaction parameters, and optimizing methods is addressed. In this review, the overall status and recent findings in DBD plasma-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation are presented, and the possible directions of future development are discussed.
  • 26.

    Recent advances of Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode for rechargeable zinc-based batteries

    Ding Kunpeng , Jiang Tian , Peng Jian and 6 other persons | 2023, 33(4) | pp.989~1012 | number of Cited : 0
    Rechargeable zinc-based batteries (RZBs) with the advantages of high safety, low cost, abundant resources and environmental friendliness, are considered as advanced secondary battery systems that can be applied to large-scale energy storage. As an important cathode material for RZBs, NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) possesses three-dimensional and large-scale ion channels that facilitate the rapid diffusion of Zn2+, and has a higher average operating voltage compared with other vanadium-based compounds, thus exhibiting the possibility of realizing RZBs with high energy density. However, NVP still has some problems, such as poor electronic conductivity and spontaneous dissolution in aqueous solution. The sluggish kinetics of Zn2+ (de)intercalation in NVP and dendritic growth on the Zn anode also contribute to the poor rate performance and short cycle life of the batteries. In this review, optimization strategies for the electrochemical performance of RZBs with NVP as cathode are systematically elaborated, including modification of NVP cathode and optimization of electrolyte. Several mainstream energy storage mechanisms and analysis methods in this battery system are sorted out and summarized. On this basis, the development direction of NVP–RZB system is further prospected.