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2008, Vol., No.27

  • 1.

    The Incorporation of East Asia into the World System and the Change of Korean Society in the Late 19th Century

    Wonho Ha | 2008, (27) | pp.1~46 | number of Cited : 0
    The main purpose of this study is to understand the structure of outside pressure. The East Asia society was forced to modernize in the latter of the 19th century. In this changing time we must observe the enemies of outside pressure that impose in three contries of the East Asia. Japan was less outside pressure at modernization process than China by time. Japan established a modern country forced Korea's open door. The relationship between Korea and China traditionally was the tribute system, but treaty with the Korea and Japan was modernistic treaty. So, Korea was placed in complex international relation, the tribute system and modernistic international relation. China tried to make Korea a colony under a pretext of the traditional tribute system. The Western impact forced to change East Asian society, and three countries needed a new ideology for the modern system- Dondoseogi(東道西器) of Korea, Jungcheseoyong (中體西用) of China, Hwahonyangjae(和魂洋才) of Japan. The ideology of modernization in East Asian countries resembles because it was based on Confucian culture, but the contents were different depending on the historic situation of the three countries. Korean society into the world system went through the process of rapid change. Farmers were the economic conditions are worsening, and had resisted the foreign forces in the political and economic aggression.
  • 2.

    The Open Ports and Late Qing Formation of 'Nation-state' Conceptions -Focus on Birth of Modern 'Chinese National History' as National History-

    Chunbok Lee | 2008, (27) | pp.47~85 | number of Cited : 6
    Late Qing birth of ‘Chinese National History(中國史)' as National History(國家史 or 國史) was closely related with the process of the nation-state building in modern China since the concept of the modern ‘Nation-state' of the western world was first introduced during the 10 years of the beginning of the 20th century(Xinhai(辛亥) Revolution period) Based on this understanding, this essay places its focus on the formation of ‘nation-state' and the birth of ‘Chinese National History(or Chinese History study)' -both of which are crucial in understanding modern Chinese history, at the same time attempting to examine a historiographical side of ‘the genealogy of National History. Historical backdrop of the appearance of ‘Chinese National History' is closely linked to the breakdown of the traditional Chinese word-view(天下觀) and new formation of nation-state concepts. As they felt the collapse of the Chinese world-view, the racial extinction and national fall very imminent, late Qing intellectuals tried hard to seek an alternative. They finally accepted ‘nation-state' theories as a new political community appeared. However, considering that late Qing historians' ‘nation-state' concepts came from the diverse and mutually different sources like J,J. Rousseau's ‘social contract theory' and J.K. Bluntschli's ‘state theory', it's natural that Qing intellectuals' 'nation- state building' models were divided in two kinds. The process of nation-state building and the formation of national identity which appeared in late Qing period interrelated with the birth of 'Chinese National History(or New History studies)'. The 'New History studies', which in the beginning of the 20th century, criticized the Chinese traditional history studies, provided the basic system and directivity of 'Chinese National History' as 'National History'. It did this through 'history revolution' and 'history reform' advocated by historians which accepted modern conceptions of 'people' and 'state', etc. In the new structure of 'National History' were included national name 'China' instead of dynasty names, national History name 'Chinese National History' instead of Dynastic history. and additional writing and publishing of 'Chinese National History', and so on. History involves a common memory, and its structure can be determined from the genealogical evidence. This genealogy of national history related to the origin of modern nation-state was usually an invention of late Qing age. Nationalist historians then transformed the Yellow Emperor into the earliest ancestor of the Chinese nation, and then transformed persons of pre-modern into modernized national heros. However, the Yellow Emperor and national heroes in the pre-modern age was reconstructed and embellished by the historians who accepted the modern western concepts of the 'people' , 'nation state' and so on. In fact, their national histories mirrored their national-state consciousness formed in the 20th century.
  • 3.

    The Opening of Taiwan Treaty Ports and Economic Transition, 1861~1895 -An Essay for Revision of Double Dependency Theory-

    문명기 | 2008, (27) | pp.87~140 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    There have been two different theories as for understanding Taiwan's economic transition since the opening of treaty ports(1860). The one is so called Theory of Chinese Merchant's Decline, which insists that the main cause of Taiwan Economies Decline was due to economic domination by foreign merchants(洋商). The other is doble dendency theory, which regards that under the double economic pressure by foreign merchants and mainland merchants(華商), Taiwan's indigenous economy grew considerably to the contrary of everybody's anticipation. I prerfer the latter theory to the former, but there also is some room for consideration in doble dendency theory, because the theory gives us an impression that Taiwan's economy was equally influenced by foreign merchants and mainland merchants, which is not true entirely. Through my own elementary research, I came to conclude that although Taiwan's indigenous economy was influenced by foreign merchants and mainland merchants alike, there are some evidence that foreign merchants enjoyed lion's share and mainland merchants' staus was not the same as foreign merchants at all. Therefore We can revise and enhance the doble dendency theory by proposing the concept of Differential Double Dependency, which means that foreign merchants secured the command of Taiwan's economy subatantially, and mainland merchants's role was secondary. In conclusion, basically I agree with doble dendency theory, but I also think that Taiwan Economy during the treaty port period can be more accurately described by Differential Double Dependency, which empahsize the coexistence of 'development' and 'dendency'.
  • 4.

    National seclusion and openness : The Contradiction and Revolution the Japanese modernization process shows

    유지아 | 2008, (27) | pp.141~165 | number of Cited : 5
    The 19th century Japan which led the opening of a port and the Meiji Restoration is the time when the modern world that West Europe capitalism goes into Asia. In addition, it is the time the Japanese internal Bakuhu system loses the dominance in the time, and to demand a shift to the new times. Japan was going to grope for a breakthrough by the new national formation to turn on the Meiji Restoration in the situation of such `troubles from within and without'. It can look for the point that Japan prepared the modernization with deepening of contradiction of the Bakuhu system in the early modern times by development of Japanese urbanization and commercialization in the early modern times.  For example, it is the Zyoukamachi(castle town) residence of a samurai and a merchant and the development of monetary economy by this, the development of the agricultural production power which is remarkable from the latter half in the 17th century and The Sankinkoutaithe(The daimyo's alternate-year residence in Tokyo systems) brought effect which promoted information interchange have been pointed out in an internal development factor to prepare the modernization. However, after all it is Western pressure to be a chance to be direct for the Japanese modernization.  In other words it had begun to be collapsed international order of the early modern times of the East Asia that was able to include Japan by Opium War from 1839 to 42 years by an opportunity, and movement of the international order formation that was new by an effort to form a nation while each East Asia country was opposed to external pressure in the latter half in the 19th century was developed rapidly. A trial for new national creation was connected by such a process and brought a result to say the Meiji Restoration. The historical view to evaluate the Meiji Restoration and the Japanese modernization is a successful thing, continues without cease since it is rised Japan modernization theory. It point out that was able to succeed in industry in non-Western states though industry did not grow wild as inherent development until last years of Bakuhu. And it point out for the reason that the modernization at the economic infrastructure compares it with the modernization at the different infrastructure, and it is given that it had ability to organize to 'accuracy in it electric wave possibility having been high, a Japanese person having had motivation accommodating industry as a culture electric wave and the government by the `From the topt'. But an important point is put for success of the industry and the independent maintenance among such an evaluation mainly, and various contradiction and tangles think attention to have to be able to incline for the reproduced point while such a success keeps a traditional element on the back side. Rapid industry by the leadership of the government is the deepening of the poverty and wealth difference, the formation of the financial combine company in the city and inferior trouble motion environment, the tenant farming of the landed farmer in the farm village of the factory worker was brought the tangle that was in the promotion of the poor farmer and deepening of a financial combine of a farmer by it and people of trouble motion, hostility for the tycoon and the antipathy. However, the nation places more weight on promotion of the industry and suppressed a demand of the people for the equality. Therefore, a change and contradiction coexist in a modernization process through the Japanese Meiji Restoration.
  • 5.

    Baek Nam-Woon's Argument For ‘Coalition New Democracy’ and classless unity nation-state

    kim In sik | 2008, (27) | pp.167~216 | number of Cited : 9
    Baek Nam-Woon proposed the concept and the term of ‘Coalition New Democracy’ as his idea to build a new Chosun. Having examined all existing forms of democracy including liberal democracy, social democracy, proletarian democracy as well as Eastern Europe's people's democracy and Mao Zedong's New Democracy, he declared clearly that all such systems of democracy could not be applied to Chosun. ‘Coalition New Democracy’ can be characterized as an advocacy for building a ‘classless unity nation-state' that is free of class confrontation among all members of the society by organizing a proletarian democratic regime in coalition with some conscientious members of the propertied class (landowners and bourgeoisie), and thereby completing a New Democracy that achieves national as well as social liberation.
  • 6.

    The Study of Confucian Classics During the Song Dynasty and the Pre Qin History Research -Take Zhu Xi’s Collection of Poetry for Example-

    王瑞傑 | 2008, (27) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 0
    This article with Book of Odes(詩經)for example chooses Zhu Xi ‘s Collection of Poetry(詩集傳)to discuss. The reason that chooses Collection of Poetry,is mainly because it was the book that the gentleman person studied Book of Odes primer later the Southern Song Dynasty; secondly, in the compiling of official Confucian classics or the civil academic study, Zhu Xi's book also had rather important status, up to now, even if the people of our time arrange the poetry annotations of the Book of Odes , all have also scraped together about the credible view of the Zhu Xi’s book. Therefore, through author’s studying insight, this article hopes that can know the application value of Zhu Xi’s Collection of Poetry in taking pre Qin history researcht, to cause the people of our time to utilize Book of Odes as the historical data, can as far as possible reduce the error.
  • 7.

    How did TVA come into being? -demystifying TVA-

    김우민 | 2008, (27) | pp.243~284 | number of Cited : 0
    TVA has been acknowledged as a powerful symbol of New Deal era since its official beginning in 1933. Especially in the Asian countries afflicted with the sad history of cold war and forced modernization, it has had more powerful symbolic meaning. But from 1980s, we could witness the emergence of new studies with a critical approach. The new scholars have different social, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. More recently, in some valuable researches, the impact of the TVA over the world development (especially after 1945) was debated. This paper wants to adopt that new perspective. The author, who has tried to find the continuity of American technological discourse between Progressive and New Deal era domestic intellectual development and Cold War Era modernization theory and overseas policy, chose TVA as his first starting point. And the author says that this paper constitutes only the beginning of that long study. First, the author tries to trace historical and intellectual roots of TVA. Especially , Tennessee Valley region, before 1933, had been a place of grave concern to many people interested in its development. It had been a battlefield of many conflicting groups. Above all, the coming of electricity in late 19th century gave a turning point in its development history. And, after the Great War, the Southern Farmers attracted by fertilizer saw their dream come true there. The auto industry magnate Henry Ford made the poor Southern states a nation-wide focus. But, we could also see the persistent and consistent Progressives like Pinchot and the senator Norris struggle to protect the region from many voracious appetite of private utilities and other dangers. In the twenties, the Republican government tried to lease the Muscle Shoals and its facilities to private sector. But, at the same time, there appeared a consensus that Tennessee Valley should be controlled by a public institution. Secondly, the author deals with the New Deal era. The inauguration of FDR strengthened the Progressives' position. Furthermore, the Democratic government facing economic emergency took that area development as a big government priority. For that purpose, the new president hired three famous figures as the directors of newly launched TVA. The author analyzes their(actually two of them) intellectual background and belief. They had some points in common-they lived in a secular reform age and had a driven personality. They had their own convictions. And there were differences between them. A. E. Morgan was a man of ideal and tried to use TVA as one of his social experiments, while D. E. Lilienthal saw it as a battlefield against the public utilities. Their clash left an indelible imprint on the history of TVA. With this historical understanding in mind, we can approach the context of the cold war diffusion of TVA projects and try to understand the historical implication of TVA in analysing the mutation of the American liberalism and reform tradition in the early 20th century.