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2009, Vol., No.29

  • 1.

    A Reconsideration of the History of the Typography Development -From superiority of technology to varieties of culture -

    Nam, Young | 2009, (29) | pp.1~37 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Typography was invented independently in East Asia and Europe. However, the ripple effect was significantly different in East Asia and Europe. There have been various explanations that try to clarify whether the difference was caused by technological or cultural differences. Until now, most of the explanations about Eastern typography have come up with simplified conclusions, refering only to the backwardness of Eastern typography or the conservative character of Eastern society. Previous studies tended to compare East Asia and Europe in the simple time frame, leading the conclusion that "the ripple effect was small in Eastern society as their typography was primitive and Eastern culture tended to be conservative." The purpose of this study is to suggest that we can explain why East Asian and European typographies brought out different social effects on each society only when we understand such differences between East Asia and Europe as the tradition of ancient Eastern xylography, distinctive features of ancient Eastern culture, and characteristics of materials for paper and its production procedures. When we carry out comparative study of East Asian and European printing technologies, it is necessary to take comprehensive social and cultural approach not just to "superiority or inferiority of printing technology", but also to "varieties of printing culture."
  • 2.

    Cheonan and Cheonansamgeori in the Chosun Dynasty

    Kyungsoo Kim | 2009, (29) | pp.39~82 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Cheonan, located in the middle of Korean peninsula, was the center of the transportation and communication of the nation from the traditional era. Its transportational importance was more enlarged when Chungnam and Kyungnam Railway Line were constructed during the Japanese ruling period and Kyungbu Railway Line and Kyungbu Highway were finished constructing during the modernization of Republic of Korea. Through these transportational function and feature, Cheonan has developed its main role as politically, militarily, economically, socially and culturally leading center in the nation. We could also conform that Cheonan was one of the most important areas of the nation geographically and militarily when we see Wanggun installed Cheonandodokbu during his reunification process in the post three states era. The social status of Cheonan in the Chosun Dynasty can be traced by the list of sungsijo(origin of the families), Samasi exam passers and their native places in the Sejongsillokjiriji and the distribution of their last names and the list of the people who were commemorated in the temple which is written in Yungsungji. As a result, we can see that Cheonan was sustained mainly by the Jeonju Lees, the Andong Kims, the Poongsan Hongs and some other family groups through their restraint and balance. The road has been the most important factor to connect goods, culture and people not only in the traditional era, but still in the modern society. For its central location of the nation, Cheonan was the city inevitably to pass by from Seoul to Samnam and Samnam to Seoul. Therefore we can say that the meaning and value of Cheonan, especially Cheonansamgeori (the intersection of three streets in Cheonan) as the center of communication is very remarkable. It is the historical tradition, symbol and meaning of Cheonansamgeori that has to be stepping stone to make vision of present and future, beyond simple recognition of the past. We have to revive the dynamic feature of Cheonan as the center of transportation and the political, economical, social and cultural identity of Cheonansamgeori. We also need to find out the way of future development of Cheonan.
  • 3.

    A Study on Rental Housing and Price in Chinese City, Song Dynasty

    Bok-Hyun Cho | 2009, (29) | pp.83~130 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Kaifeng(開封) and Hangzhou(杭州) has enormous population which is composed of diverse classes such as Gongrens(宮人), relatives of emperor, officers, militaries, merchants, handicraftsmen, Kehus(客戶), religionists, lessor, usurers and so on. According to historical documents, there was landlord who dedicated to other people property of housing; furthermore there was soaring housing price. This leasing service had various prices range from 10 Wen(文) to 10 Guan(貫). Compare to current consumer’s price, if they had earned 15 Guan(貫) in month, this is enough for a family consist of 10 persons. Dianzhaiwu(店宅務) which has managed more than 20,000 Jian(間) of housing services –this measurement is high ratio in Kaifeng(開封)- is constructed from the founding of Song dynasty. Rental fee was 400~500 Wen(文) in Zhenzong(眞宗) and Renzong(仁宗) period; moreover this price has been raised 5 Guan(貫) in Shenzong period. Rental fee has manipulated by hierarchy, consequently deviation of housing fee differed greatly. Most of high hierarchy was official and military Kehu(客戶) and merchant (even government) leased other’s house. There were several characteristics of arrangement of housing fee. The price was high when if the person has leased by higher class. Also the price in Kaifeng(開封) was higher than other small city. A landlord had enormous benefits for rental fee; otherwise the needy had to pay their housing fee from their poor income. However this demonstrates the fact that the needy supported their life with paying their housing fee. Also lower leveled officer could keep their living with paying housing fee. Furthermore high leveled officer had abundant living even they rented luxurious house. According to Engel’s Law, landlords have lower Engel values than tenants.
  • 4.

    A Study on Discourses which besieged the Concept of Chinese Modern 'Nation' in late Qing -Focusing on the Concept of Cultural 'Ethnic' and Political 'Nation'-

    Chunbok Lee | 2009, (29) | pp.131~174 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This essay focused on various discourses related to the conception of 'Nation' in late Qing of China through synthetic examination on the concept of cultural 'ethnic' and political 'nation', or relationship of state. The late Qing era of China considered on the research was traditional World-system of China collapsing from the impact of Western civilization and the period that nation-state concept of modern switched was needed. And the conceptions of meeting the trend of the day swiftly flew from Western civilization, however, as the late Qing's intellectuals used together with and in conjunction with the terms and definitions, such as 'race,' 'people,' 'nation,' 'ethnic,' 'state,' 'rights,' and 'sovereignty,' had even not current researchers as well as Chinese at that time convey the definite meaning of the new terms. In order to solve these problems, This essay uses the conceptual analytical frame which is called a concept of cultural 'ethnic' and political 'nation', then tried to approach about accommodating process of the concept of cultural 'ethnic' political 'nation', and the late Qing intellectuals's recognition on 'nation' and 'people', and late Qing Chinese's various discourses which besieged the cultural 'ethnic' with the perspective of a conceptional history. As result of this research, even though the concept of 'Clan class(族類)' frequently mentioned in traditional period of China is familiar with the concept of cultural 'ethnic,' after modern period, I could find that the concept like 'nation-state' including cultural 'ethnic' and political 'nation' did not exist at that time. In addition, I confirmed that Chinese from time to time used mixed terms on 'ethnic' and 'people' or 'ethnic' of cultural 'ethnic' was used by 'people of clan' and 'ethnic' in accommodating process of the concept. But they distinguished cultural 'ethnic' from political 'nation' and introduced them as well. Furthermore, Chinese intellectuals defined as different the concept of cultural 'ethnic' and political 'nation' after 1903 and the late Qing intellectuals on the concept of cultural 'ethnic' presented the cultural factors; ancestry, pedigree, language, religion, custom, practice, and history. On contrary they on the concept of political 'nation' mentioned the concepts like 'territory,' 'sovereignty,' 'state,' and 'right'. Finally, I focused on revolutional group and reformative group during the period of XINHAI(辛亥) Revolution and analyzed the perspective of both groups on modern 'nation,' 'state,' and 'people.
  • 5.

    Ch'ien Mu's Study about Chinese Historiography and his Consciousness of Anxiety

    김택중 | 2009, (29) | pp.175~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    From beginning of 20th century in China had been suffered from relentless threat and distress from not only domestic disintegration but also aggressive western attacks. Faced of the crisis upon China, Chinese civilization to be destroyed with loss of confidence were out of line. At this point, Ch'ien Mu(錢穆, 1895~1990) said "it is shame that there is no national pride and sovereignty among Chinese." As working on the subject of Chines history, he pursued Chinese people to restore national pride and preserve their cultural properties as spirits in them. To study Chinese history, Ch'ien Mu emphasized the uniqueness of Chinese history. He thought the process is significantly different between the western history and the Chinese history. He indicated that the ultimate soul intention in Chinese history was embodying in peace. Represents, the most comprehensive concept of peace in Chinese history from ancient time he asserted that the Chinese political system and social structure seeking for reasonable, rational, equal, harmonize, emotion etc. Based on this conviction, he criticized the theory of that China had been feudal, monarchy and the darkness society which claimed by scholars in large numbers since the 19th century. In addition, Ch'ien Mu tried to reconstruct the uniqueness of Chinese history and the Chinese patriotism with a confidence. Futhermore with his spring-blooded enthusiasm, as he accomplished Kuo-shih ta-kang(國史大綱), he led people to bear noble patriotic mind. As a result it brings many patriotic people standings up for saving their own country. To conclude, all of Ch'ien Mu`s life was devoted for restoring national noble pride from collapsed, and devastated country. More to emphasize, Ch'ien Mu himself carried the corroborating Chinese consciousness of anxiety which is a allegiance to endeavor his own duty on preserving the national sovereignty and highly enlightened Chinese culture throughout his relentless study, which subject was Chinese history.
  • 6.

    Sino-Soviet Negotiation in 1945 and Intervention of the United States

    정형아 | 2009, (29) | pp.205~242 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin decided the secret agreement about participation in the Pacific war at Yalta. This paper considered the intervention of the United States about the Sino-Soviet Negotiation based on that agreement. The United States intend to put an end to the Pacific war as soon as possible through Soviet Army󰡑s participation, and the Soviet Union wanted to acquire some privileges in Manchuria. They talked the details about this at Yalta, but kept secret to Chiang Kai-Shek until June 15. The United States urged Chinese Government negotiate with Stalin in Moscow, therefore T. V. Soong who was representative of Chinese Government had conferences with Stalin. The nature of the conference was informed to the United States by Ambassador to the Soviet Union Harriman every time finished the conference. the United States Government took a policy of noninvolvement in the Sino-Soviet Negotiation, during the First round of the Moscow talks. But when the Soviet Union demanded some right in Dairen that would be threat the open-door policy, the United States intervened and called upon the soviet Union not to put inordinate demands. We can understand this attitude of the United States was on the basis of the profit of their own country.
  • 7.

    Rural Reconstruction Work in Korea

    장규식 | 2009, (29) | pp.243~249 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    이 영문자료는 서울, 함흥, 광주 일대의 마을들을 대상으로 한국 YMCA에서 전개한 농촌재건사업 보고서이다. YMCA 농촌사업은 천도교 조선농민사의 운동과 더불어 일제하 부르주아 민족주의 계열의 농촌ㆍ농민운동을 대표하는 운동이었다. 한국 YMCA가 종래의 도시 중심적, 중산층 중심적 성격에서 탈피하 여 전체 인구의 8할 이상이 거주하는 농촌사회의 기층 대중 속에 뿌리를 내리기 위해 농촌사업에 착수한 것은 1925년이었다. 이 해 YMCA는 연합회 내에 농촌부를 신설하고, 간이교육의 실시와 삼각 농우회의 조직 등을 비롯한 농민교육ㆍ농촌계몽운동을 전개하였다. 그리고 1928년 예루살렘 국제선교대회 이후에는 전국을 중앙ㆍ호남ㆍ관북ㆍ관서ㆍ영남지방의 5개 권역으로 나누어 사업조직을 정비하고, 산업신용조합을 중심으로 하는 협동조합의 조직에 주력하는 한편, 기독교계 연합으로 농촌사업협동위원회를 조직하여 전국 주요 거점지역에서 이론과 실습을 겸한 10일 단위의 농사강습회를 개최하였다. 이어 YMCA는 정신의 소생, 생활의 조직, 농사개량을 내용으로 하는 농촌사업 3대강령을 발표하면서 1932년 서울 신촌에 3개월 코스의 농민수양소를 개설하여 농촌지도자 양성운동을 시작하였다. 이 영문자료는 5쪽 분량의 짤막한 보고서이지만, 10년간에 걸쳐 전개된 YMCA 농촌사업의 전모를 잘 보여준다. 보고서는 한국농촌의 경제적 여건과 YMCA에서 펼친 농촌사업을 개관한 뒤, 농촌사업의 책임자와 프로그램에 대해 정리를 하고, 북미YMCA 국제위원회 농촌선교 담당자들의 코멘트와 1933-35년도의 예산을 덧붙이고 있다. 보고서가 쓰여진 시점이 농촌진흥운동을 앞세운 일제 당국의 간섭과 적극신앙단사건을 둘러싼 YMCA의 내분, 그리고 세계적 불경기로 인한 북미YMCA의 지원 감소로 YMCA 농촌사업이 사실상 막을 내리려 하던 때라는 점에서, 이 자료는 마무리 단계에 접어든 YMCA 농촌사업의 모습을 함축적으로 보여주고 있다. 특히 11개 항목에 걸친 농촌사업 프로그램의 개괄은 YMCA 농촌사업의 전모를 한 눈에 파악할 수 있는, 이 자료의 백미라 할 수 있다.