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2009, Vol., No.30

  • 1.

    Flood Control Policy and Dredging Projects in the Capital during the Joseon Period

    이상배 | 2009, (30) | pp.1~36 | number of Cited : 7
    Joseon’s policy on flood control in its capital, Seoul, aimed to improve water flow through the capital and included the construction of a rain gauge during the reign of King Sejong, establishment of a watermark to read the water level of the Cheonggyecheon(Stream), prohibition of lumbering in the mountain and reclamation, stream dredging, and the building of levees. Among these, stream dredging was the one the Joseon Dynasty paid more attention to. A large-scale dredging of the Cheonggyecheon that penetrates Seoul was carried out during the reigns of King Taejong, Yeongjo, Sunjo, and Gojong. The dredging operation during the reign of King Taejong marked as the largest stream channel deepening project at that time as it employed over 50,000 soldiers for a month. The stream, which had been left intact, was dredged to accommodate the sewage facility and expanded to build new embankments and a durable stone bridge, which established the capital’s infrastructure that could improve the lives of its residents. It was a landmark project that should be regarded highly as it was a civil engineering work for the improvement of the infrastructure of Seoul as the capital and served as a model for the sewage projects of local regions. The dredging work during the reign of King Sejong included all the tributaries of the Cheonggyecheon, completing the project carried out during the reign of King Taejong, the father of King Sejong. The dredging and embankment project during the reign of King Yeongjo was the largest single construction project and an outcome of the cooperation between the public and private sectors for the noble cause of people’s welfare. The project was completed in 57 days from Feb. 18 to Apr. 15, with a large workforce including 150,000 people recruited from five provinces across the nation and 50,000 paid laborers and an investment of 35,000 nyang and 2,300 bags of rice. It laid the foundation for the future dredging operations and triggered the installment of the Office of Dredging for institutional support them. Stream excavation projects continued throughout the Joseon Dynasty, including an annual small-scalework during the reign of King Jeongjo, a large-scale work during the reign of King Sunjo, and a roughly two-month operation during the reign of King Gojong. However, all these dredging operations were based on those during the reign of King Yeongjo. In this respect, it is safe to say that King Taejong and King Sejong laid the groundwork for Joseon’s future dredging policy and King Yeongjo institutionalized it. Public works was an important national policy as it consolidated the national foundation in the Joseon period. Especially, the dredging policy served as a criterion for the assessment of the king’s virtue and was linked directly with agricultural productivity, a basis for the national economy. The public works undertaken in Seoul, the political, economic, and cultural center of the nation, were considered more important as they required a large workforce and served as model for local construction works. Accordingly, the dredging projects in the capital drew much attention from the government and continued throughout the Joseon Dynasty. As part of the ongoing urban planning project, the dredging operations in the capital completed during the reigns of King Taejong and King Sejong and lasted for some 200 years. They were further developed to serve as the model of the national flood control project during the reign of King Yeongjo. In conclusion, the public works including dredging operations in the capital in the Joseon period were geared toward improving people’s lives and consolidating Seoul as the capital of the nation for national peace.
  • 2.

    River Control Policy and Projects Focused on Han Dynasty

    정창원 | 2009, (30) | pp.37~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Economists of modern societies recognize close relationship between social overhead capital(SOC) investment and development, growth of local area including state development progress. Thus, SOC is one of major factors for evaluation of a country's competitiveness and development level. SOC plays important role in development of a nation and the standard of living of its people. Therefore, SOC facilities are directly linked to a nation's industrial competitiveness and they are must-have facilities when it comes to state governance and maintenance. Historically, in each stage of ancient empires, modern states, imperialism and colonialism, construction and operation of certain SOC facilities must have been required to meet the demands of the particular stage's governance. Mankind has been not only using the natural resources but also improving the nature. With these nature improvements, human races tried to streamline governing of their nations. These were recorded in the pages of history as various types of SOC investment. Natural environment closely assimilates into military, politics, economy situation and SOC is functioning in promoting this process. Construction of SOC facilities in history is a good example of nature improvements by mankind. Particularly, when a strong state establishes, governing organization of the country actively participate in SOC investment as a way of state management and most of times, these investments were appeared as massive civil engineering works. Ancient empires followed the same procedures. In accordance with overall situation of the era, certain investment for public facility construction is required to the government or leading organization and it causes various changes to the society. By analyzing public facility construction of the generation, we can observe historical meanings in terms of cultural and social environment of the era which was necessary at that time. In this chapter, we will study major river control projects and relevant policies insisted and executed by various figures of Han Dynasty to analysis how public facility construction worked in the process of state governance and management in ancient Chinese empire. Investment for public facility construction takes large part of administration and management of a modern society these days as well. For these reasons, by analyzing types, effects and understanding of the governing party as per SOC facility construction in each stage (ancient empires, modern states, colonial period) of a state, we can observe what kinds of relationship is existing between SOC construction and nation management and governing and that is the purpose of this study.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Backgrounds of Constructing Aqueducts in the City of Rome during the Republic

    Kim Kyung Hyun | 2009, (30) | pp.79~108 | number of Cited : 5
    In the city of Rome, four aqueducts were constructed during the Republic. Modern historians tend to think that these aqueducts were built to provide the growing population with fresh water. The reason they think so is because they believe that the construction of aqueducts represented the increase of the population and the growth of cities. However, the explanation which states that aqueducts were built to provide people with water is not based on researches about the aqueducts themselves. Rather, it is based on the circumstantial situation of that era and the biased modern views about aqueducts. Apart from the fact that the water from the Aqua Anio Vetus and the Aqua Tepula were not fit for drinking, we need to focus on the fact that no historical source tells us about why aqueducts were built(the only exception to this is the Aqua Marcia). The fact that fresh water supplies were provided to the sharply increasing population would have acted as a huge political merit. Thus ancient historians wouldn't have failed from referring it. In other words, the fact that there is no reference explaining why aqueducts were built points at the fact that aqueducts were built for purposes different from what we would normally think. The Aqua Anio Vetus and the Aqua Tepula seem to have been constructed to the benefit of the privileged class who owned farms in the outskirt of Rome or bathes, and not to provide the people with fresh water. I do not intend on arguing that the public aqueducts were built solely for the benefit of the privileged class. As Frontinus stated, the Aqua Marcia was built because the growth of the city required a large supply of water. We cannot deny that the construction of aqueducts intend to provide the city and its people with the continually increasing need for water. However, we should refrain from applying this particular statement about the Marcian aqueduct to all the other aqueducts. Ignoring the characteristics of each aqueducts and applying the 'bigger city + larger population = more aqueducts' rule disturb us from understanding why each aqueduct was built. There is also no need to assume that the public aqueducts were built for the one reason. It is more likely that aqueducts were built because of many different reasons. It could have been for the privileged class as the Aqua Anio Vetus and the Aqua Tepula or for economical reasons as in the case of the Aqua Appia. In addition, the long arguments about the Aqua Marcia and the antipathy regarding the Aqua Appia show us the possibility that political stakes lay in the construction of aqueducts. Therefore, the assumption that the four aqueducts representing the growth and the development of Rome in the Republic should be discarded. We should consider that they were the outcome of the complex mixture of the necessity of water, the benefit of the privileged and other economical, political reasons. In other words, the four aqueducts in the Roman Republic were not architectural structures placed to solve the need for water, but historical structures holding the political, economical and many other situation of era within themselves.
  • 4.

    Mexico Diaz Government and Railroads

    안창모 | 2009, (30) | pp.109~132 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines the railroad policy of the Diaz Government in Mexico and the process of the Diaz government power consolidation. For Diaz and his supporters, the railroads constituted the key to the nation's future. Diaz argued that construction of railroads in Mexico would serve three main purposes. First, railroads would allow the nation to develop its rich natural resources, Secondly the railroads would stimulate Mexico's internal commerce, industry. Finally railroads would "cement Mexican Unity" by allowing the control governments to consolidate its political and economic power over the nation. The construction of an extensive railroad network expanded to almost 21,000 by 1910. All but six of the state capitals and five of the principal seaports were connected by rail with the national capital. But since the railroads favored those with capital and power, they exacerbated the economic inequalities in Mexican society. Under Diaz, foreigners were assured of definite and generous returns ; they also the enjoyed tax exemptions and were given protection in the courts.
  • 5.

    Indian dam building and its meaning at the time of its independence -The Construction of 'New Temples of Resurgent India'-

    김우민 | 2009, (30) | pp.133~181 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to retrace the historical background of the Indian dam building at the time of its independence. For that purpose, the author tries to identify the main scientists and engineers who wanted to transplant the American dam model (TVA) into India and expound the domestic & international situation which made possible the construction of Indian dams. Inwardly, the American-style dam construction in India was encouraged by the Indian scientists and technologists who were attracted by the scientific logic and technological prowess of the western world. Internationally, the good news of 'big dam construction' was propagated by the U. S. politicians, businessmen and technicians in the context of Cold War politics. Colonial government, which wanted to change its political control by an economic one, also played a role in proposing the big construction projects. It was in this intricate situation that dam building began as a big project of Indian nation-building. In the latter part, the author shows the actual process of Indian dam building-Damodar, Hirakud, Bhakra-Nangal-and, through this, wants to show that the original projects were distorted on the terrain of Indian politics and society. Finally, the author wants to stress the intricacy of the Third World development programs tried as nation-building projects.
  • 6.

    The meaning of Dangsung in Wonhyo's buddhism

    Jin Sung Kyu | 2009, (30) | pp.183~204 | number of Cited : 0
    This treatise tried to observe deduction of locate of Dangsung(唐城) that stayed for study abroad in Tang and influences of Dangsung to Wonhyo buddhism in the center. The togam(土龕) and the road in tomb where Wonhyo(元曉) passed a night with Uisang(義湘) were the area where has an ancient tomb is clear. And it is assumed that this ancient tomb existed in some place in the whole area of Dangsung. The historical material existed that said the place of Wonhyo's spiritual awakening was Jiksan(樴山). But it is not clear that this jiksan and jiksan(稷山) where placed north of Cheonan(天安) is to a same place. Clarifying that place by documentary records is impossible. But, we can set our heart on archeology excavation. Dangsung has great significance in Buddhist history. If Wonhyo had a study abroad with Uisang without spiritual awakening in Dangsung, there is a possibility which could not complete the Wonhyo buddhism which the philosophy system has the way about one. Wonhyo abandoned studying abroad. And in fifties, he wrote Daeseunggishinronso(大乘起信論疏). It was a famous book which the cardinal point of Wonhyo's philosophy. By this writing, he completed the historical task that unify various Buddhist philosophy. And in the same breath, he could accelerate popularization of Buddhism. It was considered that a motive of writing Daeseunggishinronso was Wonhyo's spiritual awakening. This writer could not help reconstructing historical meaning by historical imagination, because historical material kept silence. Aftet all, in Wonhyo buddhism, the meaning of one night in Dangsung was an important turning point of the buddhist history of Korea is clear.
  • 7.

    The Dissolution and change of Bookgando Ganminhoe

    박걸순 | 2009, (30) | pp.205~250 | number of Cited : 14
    The dissolution of Ganminhoe(墾民會) of China on March 1914 failed the self-government trial of the Korean in Bookgando(北間島). Nevertheless, the Korean never stopped trying to organize following organization. They wanted to make self-government real and solve the problems like education and unemployment. After the dissolution of Ganminhoe the Korean tried to make Korean organization until 1919 when they made Daehan-Gookminhoe(大韓國民會) and this reflects their will. We used to understand that the reason of the dissolution of Ganminhoe were the confrontation and conflict between Ganminhoe, Nongmuhoe(農務會) and Gonggyohoe(孔敎會), but we can see the fundamental reason was the interest between China and Japan. The final source was the submission of China by the pressure of the imperialist Japan. After the dissolution of Ganminhoe, the Korean tried to succeed it. They made the following new organization or reorganized and united the affiliated organization of Ganminhoe. First of all, Maningye(萬人契) started its operation. Second, Jang-up-hoe(獎業會) stood up for the prohibition of any political behavior and for the unemployment and education. Jang-up-hoe tried to unite Ganminhoe and Nongmuhoe and expand its territory. They couldn't get the formal authorization, however, because of the pressure of the imperialist Japan. Dongjehoe(同濟會) was the following organization integrating the affiliated organization on April 1914. Imperialist Japan regarded Dongjehoe as the same organization of Ganminhoe and put pressure on China to dissolve it at last. On December 1917, 149 people with Jung An-lip(鄭安立) petitioned China government for the establishment of Organization for Dongsung Korean Livelihood (東省韓族生計會). This organization included various national activities not only from Ganminhoe on included but Nongmuhoe. China regarded this organization as Korean Independent Organization and Japan also thought it as the secret organization for Independence. In short, the formation and dissolution of the succeeding organization after the dissolution of Ganminhoe shows us the will of self-government and the restoration of the national power, but it also reflects the process of the fail of the trial by China and Japan like the change of the preceding organizations of North-Gando Ganminhoe.
  • 8.

    The character of Goesan region culture and enlightenment movement in 1920s

    Kim, Hyung-Mog kim | 2009, (30) | pp.251~285 | number of Cited : 0
    Goesan Young Man's Association was organized during the 1920's. This group was managed of educational activities for level intellectual level. Goesan region was formed many youth organizations. However, these groups did not last long. Goesan region, which is a limitation of movement. Goesan Young Man's Association has operating labor night school, Bosung institute giving, woman's night school after the March 1st Movement. It was for these students to study. Bosung institute was representative of Goesan region In 1920's. Students were aware of the colonial reality in Bosung institute giving. and this organization stir up National consciousness and racial consciousness. every kind exercise believed to facilitate attachment between member. and this acted as an incentive to local people. culture and enlightenment movement build up facilitate attachment and comprehensive faculty between local resident.complications of surrounding the movement-line reared up between early 1926's to lately 1927's. Movement led social stratum was landowner, journalist, instructor, pastor and man of substance. For that reason, this class take a negative attitude to tenancy dispute movement.
  • 9.

    Jang Do-bin's Cognition of Goguryeo period

    InHo Park | 2009, (30) | pp.287~327 | number of Cited : 5
    This article aimed to examine Jang Do-bin's Cognition of Goguryeo period. Jang Do-bin had followed the periodization which divided into Sanggo, Joonggo, Geungo, Geunsei and Choegeun and he had cognized Goguryeo period as Joonggo. In the early stage of the historiography of the Korean history, he described with focus on Kings and persons and he didn't escape category of the traditional historiography of dynasty-centered which was developed into the Ring stage, the Growth stage, Climax stage and Down fall stage of Goguryeo. The sentence has a limit of the historiography on traditional ages by indignation and exaggerated expression. Jang Do-bin dealed with Goguryeo period giving a full explanation relatively among total periods. Choi Nam-Sun who was a culturist among another culturists took small pages of Goguryeo period and its contents were shown as a meager in substance. In the case of Hwang Ui-don's Cognition of Goguryeo period, he took to concentrate upon modern times and his description of Goguryeo were left relatively poor pages. Jang Do-bin understood the growth and expansion of Goguryeo owing to peoples' characters of Goguryeo, peoples' solidarity, pursuing the policy of militarism, diligent and simple lifestyle, educational spirit of pursing to be both a good warrior and a good scholar and the way of strict ruling. On the other hand, he cognized that the downfall of Goguryeo was brought by aggression of some external powers, peoples' change into extravagance in living and despotism by militarism and respect of warrior only. After liberation from Japanese Imperialism in 1945, he showed an changing attitude that emphasized internal forces than external forces relating to downfall of Goguryeo. Jang Do-bin regarded the history of Goguryeo period as the most important period in the Korean history and then he understood the developing of Sanggo history as Goguryeo -centered in DongBuk Asia international order of the 4th-7th century. He described that Great persons of King Kwanggaeto, Euljimundeok and Gaesomun had acted to defence Goguryeo against external several invations and they had served to preserve a nation. Sin Chae-ho who had cognition of Goguryeo-centered, understood Korean history as a struggle history against invasion of external powers. But Jang Do-bin emphasized that the overcoming abilities than the struggle attitudes of Goguryeo against external invasion. For example, he described to emphasis King Pyeongwon' and King Yeongyang' overcoming abilities against external invasion. Furthermore, he suggested that the growth and expansion of Goguryeo dynasty owed to increase of peoples, expansion of territory, maintenance of military power and system and some excellent cultural contents and system. Jang Do-bin thought in sake of the preeminence of the culture with the cause why Goguryeo was able to build the most powerful nation during the early days, and he thought that culture development and national development made ends meet together. In the viewpoint of culturism, Jang Do-bin described that the culture of Goguryeo had some excellent substance than the culture of Silla dynasty. and Silla dynasty imported the essence of the culture of Goguryeo dynasty. The emphasis for such Goguryeo culture came to show the drawing and the photograph of the real spot survey writing the history textbook titled Pyeongyangji. As a result, He develop the historiography in Korean history from documents-centered description to utilizing the drawing and the photograph.
  • 10.

    A Study of Restorative & New Establishments of Seowon-Sawoo(private academies) in Honam Province after Liberation

    Yoon Seon-Ja | 2009, (30) | pp.329~369 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    After liberation, 79 Seowon-Sawoo were established restoratively and 52 ones were established newly at Jeonbuk Province till 2004. At most areas, the number & rate of restorative establishments are higher before liberation. As for newly establishments, the number of ones is few after liberation than before at Gunsan·Namwon·Muju·Iksan. It's because Gunsan was center of modernization after the opening of the port & center of plundering during Japanese Rule, and Namwon & Iksan had many restorative establishments. After liberation, 106 Seowon-Sawoo were established restoratively with 114 new establishments at Gwangju-Jeonnam Province. Among 23 cities·districts of Gwangju-Jeonnam, the number & rate of restorative establishments after liberation are lower than before at only 6 areas, and it's because the number of restorative establishments was considerably higher before liberation, and the number of new establishments was higher after liberation at these areas. As for new establishments, only Jindo has one place less after liberation than before. As the result of comparing Gwangju-Jeonnam with Jeonbuk, Gwangju-Jeonnam have higher restorative establishments of about 34% and new establishments of 119% than Jeonbuk. This is regarded it has much to do with the population change & regional development of Gwangju-Jeonnam and Jeonbuk after liberation. Not only at Jeonbuk but at Gwangju-Jeonnam, restorative establishments were done in 1946 and new establishments in 1945. The reason that new establishments were done previously than the restorative is thought that preparation & procedures of the restorative were more complex than the new. If inspected the situation of the restorative & the newre done previous at Gwangju-Jeonnam and Jeonbuk after liberation in the chronological order, it has decreased rapidly since 1990s, and the reason of it is change of values & decrease of Confucian population. After liberation, among Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively·newly, the persons enshrined most are the particular surnames, or ancestors of a family. Because they were government officials, loyalists & outstanding scholars, they were enshrined by their descendants. The person enshrined most at Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively·newly is Lee Soonshin. There are 5 Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively which enshrined Lee Soonshin at Gwangju-Jeonnam, 3 Seowon-Sawoo establiched newly, and 3 Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively at Jeonbuk with one Seowon-Sawoo establiched newly. The construction of Seowon-Sawoo which enshrines Lee Soonshin is related to deification of Lee Soonshin from political power since 1960s. And, the supports from the government caused a boom of restorative & new establishment of Seowon-Sawoo to enshrine persons related to Imjin war(the Japanese Invasion of 1592), Manchu Invation·Jeongyu Invation. It's because they were all persons of defending fatherland. In addition, at Honam, many Seowon-Sawoo were established restoratively & newly for the reason of enshrining persons of defending fatherland. In the mean time, among Seowon-Sawoo established newly at Gwangju-Jeonnam and Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively & newly at Jeonbuk, there are ones to enshrine loyal troops in late Yi Dynasty & independence activists. They are 3 Seowon-Sawoo established restoratively at Jeonbuk, 13 Seowon-Sawoo established newly at Gwangju-Jeonnam, and 7 Seowon-Sawoo established newly at Jeonbuk. However, it was reduced rapidly or stopped after 1980s because they were buried at the National Cemetery or their descendants were in poor surroundings.
  • 11.

    Education Revolution and Educational Thought of Hú Yuàn in the Early stage of Song Dynasty

    김영관 | 2009, (30) | pp.371~416 | number of Cited : 2
    There were two persons in the background of the formation of Song Dynasy Academics. The one was a politics-reformist, Fàn Zhòng Yān(范仲淹) who was based on a confucian thought like RénYì(仁義) and XiàoTìZhōngXìn(孝悌忠信) in RenZong(仁宗) period. The other one was an educational-practitioner, HúYuàn(胡瑗). FànZhòngYān rebelled against a conservative faction, taking a leading role in the reformation of all affairs of state, setting forth practical science and the fidelity to one's principle. In addition to that, he also set a ground-base in educational environment which could cultivate many able men, training many government officials, establishing many schools in each region, inviting many competent teachers. HúYuàn as an educational-practitioner & reformer became the first person of Song Dynasty Academic development. He was a roll-model first, cultivating himself morally or religiously and produced around 1,700 disciples through putting MíngTǐDàYòng(明體達用) into practice. The main point of HúYuàn thought was Heaven & Man and they were combined into one thing. We can see the thought of HúYuàn referring to 『ZhōuYìKǒuYì (周易口義)』, which was arranged by his disciples. Though Heaven & Earth, the cosmic dual forces and all creatures didn't make human beings directly, the Emperor in high position changed human beings by instructing them with benevolence and righteousness on behalf of a natural law and all creatures. We should enlighten them and change them into coming to a 'Good-Will' tendency, 'ShànXìng(善性)'. The disciples who had received a professional educational training showed excellent capacities in many areas, and had lots of influence on communities and the academic system in the Chinese confucianism etc. Two persons, FànZhòngYān and HúYuàn got together and bloomed the flowers of Academics in Song Dynasty, leading academic traditions of early Song Dynasty and producing many talented people who could lead the society.