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2010, Vol., No.32

  • 1.

    Formation of Myuncheoneupchi and Myuncheon's Local Gentry during the Choson Dynasty

    Kyungsoo Kim | 2010, (32) | pp.5~47 | number of Cited : 0
    Myuncheon, which is located in Dangjin, Chungnam, was the important place for the politics, economy and defence of the local area, the pathway to go to the capital city, and the key place for the land transportation to connect the area with the outside world until the reorganization of administrative districts in 1914. For the native clans, the organization of the clans showed little change, which reveals that the clans took the leadership in the area and on the other hand few new family clans and powerful clans moved into the area. The successful applicants of the licentiate examination(Samasi) centered on the specific family clans and the family clans with particular genealogy; the area consisted of the native clans, such as the Myuncheon Bok family, the Myuncheon Park family, Shinpyeong Lee family, and the family clans that produced successful applicants of the Samasi and became powerful, such as the Jeonju Lee family, Duksu Lee family, Yangcheon Choi family. Both native and growing clans formed the local gentry through the mutual control and compromise. The successful applicants of the Samasi started to emerge in Myuncheon at the late period of the Choson Dynasty, which demonstrates that it was not until at the late period of the Choson Dynasty that the family clans which moved into the area since the middle period of the Choson Dynasty settled in the area. During the opening of ports to foreign trade and the Japanese colonial period of Korea, there were some family clans, such as the Andong Kwon family, the Neungsung Gu family, the Buan Kim family and the Hampyeong Jeong family who did not produce the successful applicants of the Samasi but gained some influence in this area; on the contrary, the Yangcheon Heo which had the successful applicants of the national examination(Kwageo) lost influence. It shows that after the colonial period, the former family clans gained power after moving into the area while the latter moved out of the area or declined.
  • 2.

    The Contents and Characteristics of the Land Survey Registers in the Japanese Colonial Period

    WonKyu Choe | 2010, (32) | pp.49~104 | number of Cited : 8
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the land registers of Changwon-Gun by the Japanese Imperialism in the land survey period. The registers had made in 10 kinds of books by the processes of the preparation, survey, and enforcement. The index map for the taxable lands, the original drawings, and the certified copies of land registers are mainly analyzed in this article. The main thesis of this paper is about that how the way the Japanese colonial government had grasped lands changed and what was it like, and so on. Here are some conclusions from these analyses. First, the Japanese colonial government had qualified legal status to the conventional ownerships. In result, the great landlord like Murai had the most benefit. Second, Non-taxable lands were entered in the registers newly. Consequently farmers were deprived of their reclamation rights and the poor Korean payers were burdened with a tax heavier than before. Third, the absolute area measures and a method of drawing lines were introduced to indicate the real conditions of lands in the drawing sheets. By this new way, larger lands brought much more profits. Forth, the Japanese Imperialism funded to some landed capitalists and reinforce its power by using the real-estate registration system. Some of Korean landowners took some advantage by using it. Eventually this land management system was succeeded to the Republic of Korea as it was.
  • 3.

    The Status of Chung-Ang Kindergarten on Modern Care-Educational History during the Japanese Colonization

    Kim, Hyung-Mog kim | 2010, (32) | pp.105~148 | number of Cited : 3
    Chung-Ang kindergarten, a representative of the time was founded by Park Huido and Yu Yangho in 1916. It has been regarded as a leading model of the pre-school education, along with Ehwa kindergarten. Attached school for kindergarten teacher contributed to a better and high-quality education. At the beginning of its open, it was not successful for lack of understanding of the pre-school education. And the zeal for children's education and the difficulty of entering school were another reasons to hinder its development. In other words, it was only regarded as a ‘prep school’ for elementary school. It didn't grow smoothly due to the nature of the colonial time. And it was temporarily closed because of some conflict of the management rights. (but) various activities of its supporters association by people from all walks of life set up its long term plan for its forward progress. Especially, events such as opera(歌劇) and dance routine and recreation(律動遊戱) increased people's attention to the kindergarten education. Some activities such as making Children's day became the foundation for the founding movement of kindergarten nationwide in 1920s. Chung-Ang kindergarten was one of the leaders of the wave. the department of kindergarten teachers developed into Chung-Ang children's care school and it vitalized children's education by professional teachers with progressive educational theories. The reason for focused Chung-Ang kindergarten is here.
  • 4.

    The Movement for Authorizing the Private Secondary School and Colonial Modern Education Field in Korea during the 1920s and 1930s

    장규식 | 박현옥 | 2010, (32) | pp.149~199 | number of Cited : 20
    Colonial modern education field in Korea was interwoven by diversified education agents concerning education policy such as Goverment-General of Korea, school managers, students, and so on. Along with the Second Chosun Gyoyukryong (Ordinance on Education of Korea, 1922), which formulated a hierarchical education system in the direction of common school (Botong Hakgyo: elementary school) - higher common school (Godeung Botong Hakgyo: middle and high school) - college - university, the secondary school education system consisted of two sides, institutionalized middle school (Godeung Botong Hakgyo) versus non-institutionalized school (Gakjong Hakgyo). Here the status of private secondary school was aligned within the policy. The norm to determine the authorized status chiefly depended upon whether it adapted to colonial education system. Reorganizing the education system similar to that of Japan through the Second Chosun Gyoyukryong (1922), Goverment-General of Korea made a strategy that divided schools into two groups in terms of institutional and non-institutional education. The strategy was to discriminate non-institutionalized schools by inflicting some loss to them, while they offered various opportunities like advanced academic course and jobs to the institutionalized schools. As a reaction to this ‘divide and rule’ strategy while it gave gradually rise to excessive valuing of academic background, there had appeared a movement promoting authorization of the private non-institutionalized school. The movement for authorizing the private secondary school stemmed from an allied strike of students developed into two directions; one was an attempt to rise to formal higher common school and the other was to authorize the degree school offered. Whereas the secular private school wished the former, the mission schools, especially managed by the presbyterian denomination, led to the latter. If the mission schools were authorized to be higher common school, they could not offer bible study in their education program. In this sense, the presbyterian schools preferred the status of the designated school (Jijung Hakgyo) which could offer degree at the same time maintaining an independent status to have Christian education program. It is necessary, thus, to understand such the difference in authorizing movement not on the basis of bipolar opposition between colonial education and national education, but among three, colonial education, national education, and Christian education. Authorizing the private school within the dominion of colonial education system, however, does not imply carrying the Japanese occupation fully on the educational field of colonial Korea. It was because the managers of private schools also tried to make room for national or Christian education, despites limits. Therefore, we can conclude that the modern education field of colonial Korea was the place where ‘assimilation’ and ‘differentiation’ were pursued together.
  • 5.

    Communication and Healing on Anti-Christianity in Early 20th Century China - With Reference to Catholic Priest Vincent Lebbe -

    Choi, Byung-Wook | 2010, (32) | pp.201~236 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Since 19th century, the reasons why there was anti-Christian movement in China were that Catholic church in China was subordinate to the French church, not under direct control of the Vatican, and also Catholic missionaries imperialistic attitude. Although there was possible discord in the Chinese society keeping Confucian idea, which led to anti-Christian movement, it is not deniable that imperialistic attitude of missionaries was apparently responsible for it. Accordingly, this kind of internal reflection must take precedence to overcome blind chauvinism, anti-Christianity and even anti-religion sentiment of China. The internal reflection began to appear in the Catholic church after a hugh national and social sacrifice by the Boxer Rebellion in the early 20th century, but before this incident, there was a handful Catholics who intended to cure anti-Christianity sentiment and social harmful effect. In particular, absolute majority Catholic missionaries in China didn't think about it. But, some western missionaries criticized Catholic's imperialistic attitude: Vincent Lebbe in Nazarus orders from Belgium was typical. Lebbe criticized imperialistic attitude of Catholic church in China trying to reform the Church in China. He requested the Vatican to appoint Chinese bishop for independency of Chinese church, and also to establish Catholic university in China for higher education. He not only asked for change of Catholic church in China, but also endeavored to harmonize himself with the Chinese and the society. He showed a social improvement of China as well as matters of Catholic church through newspapers and magazines. He volunteered to Chinese troop during the anti-Japanese war to cure the injured soldiers. He attempted to communicate with China ceaselessly not only as a religious person, but also as a Chinese. He communicated with Chinese people not as Vincent Lebbe but as Lei Ming Yuan(雷鳴遠) playing an important role in curing anti-Christianity in China.
  • 6.

    ‘満洲国’ 警察と地域社会 ― 経済警察の活動とその矛盾を中心に ―

    Tanaka Ryuichi | 2010, (32) | pp.237~271 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    본 논문의 목적은 경제경찰의 활동과 그 모순을 중심으로 일제의 만주국 통치가 지역사회에 미친 영향을 검토하는 것이다. 내용을 요약하면 다음과 같다. (1) 중일전쟁 이후 만주국에서의 전시 통제경제 수립 과정에서 경제경찰이 우선 주요도시를 중심으로 설치되었다. 1941년 이후 만주국의 주요도시에서는 시행정과 경찰행정의 일체화가 실시되어, 시장이 경찰행정을 지휘 감독하게 되었다. 그와 동시에 농촌부를 포함한 만주지역에서 경제경찰이 배치되었다. (2) 만주국에서의 물가통제, 배급통제, 농산물 집하통제에서 <경제사범>이 발생하고 경제경찰의 단속활동이 시작되었다. 그러나 경제경찰관 자신이 불법행위에 가담하고 있는 경우가 적지 않았다. 그 때문에 만주국협화회에서는 항상 경찰관의 처우 개선을 요구했지만 만주국정부에서는 물가 급등이나, 예산부족으로 구체적인 처우개선을 할 여유가 없어 경찰관의 소양개선 등의 정신주의적인 해결에 머무르고 있었다. (3) 만주국에서 경제경찰이 제일 활발하게 활동한 지역은 안동이며, 그 주된 대상은 안동과 신의주 간의 밀무역이었다. 이 밀무역의 주된 담당자는 한인이었고, 다양한 수법으로 전개된 한인들의 밀무역은 일제에게는 항상 골치 아픈 과제였다. (4) 이상과 같이 만주국의 전시 통제경제가 유명무실화된 원인은 경찰관을 포함한 관민 모두가 만주국에 대한 <애국심>이 없었기 때문이었다.
  • 7.

    The Public Speech as a Political Dialogue in the Middle Roman Republic

    Kim Kyung Hyun | 2010, (32) | pp.273~306 | number of Cited : 2
    영국 옥스퍼드 대학의 석좌교수인 Fergus Millar가 공화정 후기 콘티오(contio)의 정치적 중요성에 대해 역설한 이래, 콘티오는 로마 공화정의 민주정적 요소를 대변하는 제도적 장치로 인식되어 왔다. 그러나 최근 런던 대학의 Mouritsen교수는 콘티오에 참석했던 자들이 누구인지를 집중적으로 검토함으로써, 콘티오의 정치적 역할이 지나치게 강조되었다고 주장하고 있다. 그의 주장처럼 콘티오에 참석한 자들이 항상 로마 인민을 대표하는 것이 아니며, 또 정치가들에 의해 동원되거나 조종될 수 있었다. 그러나 그의 주장을 콘티오에 참석한 자들에게 모두 적용시킬 수는 없다. 콘티오에 어떤 자들이 참석하였는가를 정확하게 규명하기는 매우 어렵기 때문이다. 로마의 시민은 중요한 입법안을 통과시키고 정무관을 선출하는 그리고 중요한 사법적 판단을 내리기 위해 민회에서 자신의 참정권을 사용한다. 그러나 로마의 민회는 투표를 하는 코미티아(comitia)와 투표를 하기 전에 개최되는 일종의 공청회, 즉 콘티오로 구성되어 있다. 따라서 이런 로마 특유의 제도적 장치를 간과하는 것보다는 그것을 이해하려고 노력하는 것이 더욱 합리적인 접근태도일 것이다. 콘티오는 보통 정보를 얻고 연설을 듣거나 자신의 견해를 표현하기 위해 공청회장을 찾는 로마 시민들의 모습을 연상시킨다. 그러나 콘티오란 단어가 원래 집회뿐만 아니라 그곳에서 행해졌던 연설을 의미하는 것처럼, 그것은 군중 앞에서 연설을 하고 있는 정치적 지도자들의 모습을 연상시키기도 한다. 물론 로마에서 정치적 연설은 엘리트계층에게만 허용된 것이지만, 정치적 연설이란 연설가의 일방적인 퍼포먼스가 아닌, 연설가와 대중 간의 소통을 원활하게 하는 정치적 대화이다. 따라서 공화정의 정치적 상황을 올바르게 이해하기 위해서는 콘티오와 그곳에서 이루어지고 있는 정치적 대화를 좀 더 심도 있게 검토해야 할 것이다. 물론 이런 접근 방법은 결코 새로운 것이 아니다. 그러나 이 방법은 주로 공화정 후기에만 국한되어 적용되어 왔다. 그래서 필자는 그에 대한 논의를 공화정 중기까지 확대 적용하려 했다. 그러기 위해 필자는 먼저 로마 웅변술의 기원과 발달과정에 대해 검토함으로써, 공화정 중기에 웅변술은 상당히 일반화되어 있었으며, 심지어 웅변술에 대한 이론이 정착되어 있었음을 확인할 수 있었다. 또 필자는 공화정의 정치적 구조와 문화를 검토함으로써, 웅변술이 로마의 정치에서 중요한 부분을 차지할 수밖에 없었던 구조적 상황을 이해하게 되었다. 그리고 마지막으로 비록 일부이긴 하지만 공화정 중기에 실제로 행해졌던 연설들을 검토해봄으로써, 연설이 정치적 무대에서 연설가와 대중 간의 의사소통의 수단으로 자주 이용되고 있었음을 검증해볼 수 있었다. 따라서 로마 공화정 중기의 콘티오도 정치적 지도자들과 기술적으로 주권자인 대중 들 사이의 소통 네트워크에서 중요한 요소를 차지하고 있었음에 틀림없다. 정치적 지도자들이 선거, 입법, 사법적 평결을 위해 대중을 설득해야만 했다는 사실은 공화정 중기 로마의 정체에서 민주정적 요소를 간과해 왔던 기존의 편견을 수정하는 데 도움이 될 것이다.
  • 8.

    Slave Agent and Roman Sea Trade in the Early Roman Empire

    Young-Gil Cha | 2010, (32) | pp.307~335 | number of Cited : 2
    The Aims of this paper is to examine the role of the slave agent and Roman sea trade in the early Roman Empire. What I shall here suggest is that all some elements point to the importance of agent business activities conducted on a wide side scale by slaves, activities in which the peculium functions as a kind of apophora system in Roman sea trade. One of the most significant features of this system from the economic point of view was that it enabled a master to engage in sea trade business yet he could do so vicariously. In classical Roman law it is noteworthy how the early jurists had been most reluctant to admit that an agent could serve as a means of producing direct contractual relations between a principal and a third party. For by creating a series of relationships, based on the slave agent, between onself and one's various client freedmen and slaves, an hierachically controlled network of cooperation could be forged, and, unlike the oikos in its usual form, this organisation could be oriented exclusively to business purposes. A further feature suggested above was that the slave agent system allowed the master to operate his business to some degree with ‘limited liability’. Moreover here the business function of this system pointed out which made it so important. ‘How was a rich Roman to reconcile his desire to invest his money in commerce with his dislike himself to engage in sea trade?’ The institution of the peculim and actio de peculio exactly met the need. It was an slave agency with limited liability, since the master would not be liable beyond the peculium, even if he knew of the trade. It also follows that any agreement for the master to share with his slave or to promise an early manumission would have given the slave every incentive to work diligently and to pursue commercial success with ardour.
  • 9.

    A Cultural Sociological Approach to the Late Medieval Anti-Semitism

    Pilleun Lee-Park | 2010, (32) | pp.337~370 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I have analyzed how forming the anti-Semitic affects in the late medieval Europe. My research explores the cultural effect of developing and extending the anti-Semitism, in medieval Christendom’s visual arts, its drama, and its homiletics there appears a systematic vilification of the Jew who had persecution. The patristic and medieval church created its own reality of the Jew, a subjective perception that had served maintaining its own privilege. In the growing number of heretical Christian sects, the church became an excluded and forming its own persecuting society. At the certain time, a local clergy had accused the Jews for being blood libels or ritual murders, or the Holy Host destroyer. This narrative justified their persecuting or massacre toward the Jews who were the symbols of evils. This story also constituted the dualistic paradigm such as the good/the evils, sacred/secular. Jews had relatively lived a stable life during the 9th and 10th centuries under the protection of the Frankish empire. However, in late 13th century ,since the anti-Semitic mood started to spread rapidly for a while, it caused violence and a large scale massacre. Finally by the sixteen century, the Jewish responded this violence by transforming these narratives. These narratives had same dualistic structures, such as good/evil, sacred/profane, and Christian or Muslim/Jews etc. In this research, I have concluded that the cultural elements influenced the anti-Semitic with its own political, economical, and religious elements. In confronting the chaotic social situation, the people construct the narratives which influence the people’s perception and emotional domain.