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2012, Vol., No.35

  • 1.

    A Study on the Flexible Selling Disputes in the Qing period - Focus on the Supplement Payment and Redemption Case in the Qianlong Reign

    허혜윤 | 2012, (35) | pp.5~29 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Flexible selling was a kind of real estate(especially land) dealing form which different from pawning and ultimate selling in traditional Chinese society. It was different from pawning for it transferred the real estate’s ownership; it was different from ultimate selling for it reservesed real estate’s redemption right by the sacrifice of lower price to ultimate selling. Flexible selling had two kinds of follow―up procedures: supplemental payment and redemption. The supplement payment was a complete liquidation of trade relation by the seller compensating the buyer on the base of full price, and the redemption was a form by which the seller paid the buyer in original price to redeem the subject matter. Among them, the discount tended to cause more dispute which made flexible selling became one of attractive phenomena in Ming and Qing dynasty. Facing frequent flexible selling disputes, Ming and Qing government tried to put flexible selling into a dual pattern of pawing and ultimate selling through promulgating stable laws, and meanwhile eliminating the root of flexible selling disputes through counsel and punishment by judge and announcement. But as a kind of spontaneous, non-government and informal system, the rising of flexible selling had deep social root. In middle and later Ming dynasty, politics was out of control, the widening gap between poor and rich, and land price’s frequent fluctuation all lead to the uncertainty of discount’s reference price; and justice officials’ sentence means which was based on the value idea around Confucian teachings made flexible selling to change from “illegal status” to “common status”, which played an important role in the formation and development of flexible selling. But from another point of view, justice officials’ solution for flexible selling disputes was a result from the idea of fairness and justice in Chinese traditional cultural thinking, and justice officials’ human principle they followed in litigation added rich content to the meaning of human social fairness value.
  • 2.

    The State Administration of the NGOs in Contemporary China

    Ahn Chi-Young | 2012, (35) | pp.31~64 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    After the reform, the planned economy was replaced with the market economy in China and a lot of various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) including the association(社團), the private non-enterprise units and the foundations were constructed. Therefore, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and government has formed the administration system for the NGOs through the institutionalization and legislation. In the early reform years, the NGOs' administration system maintained the pre-reform socialist ways. However, after 1988, there have been the gradual institutionalization and legislation of the NGOs' administration system together with the formation of the NGOs' unific registration management system under control of the State Council and the Ministry of Civil Affairs. It might be seen as the retreat of the party and the strengthening of the State Council and the Ministry of Civil Affairs. But it was just the reassignment of the responsibility between the CCP and the State Council and not the change of the party being in charge of the society. The State Council and the Ministry of Civil Affairs are in charge of the administrative management of the NGO, but the principle and policy for the NGO administration is been determined by the CCP and the leadership of the CCP has unchanged. The CCP recognize the inevitableness of the NGO's growth and realize it as the bridge between the party and the mass. But at the same time the CCP suspect them as the soil of the anti-China and anti-communist party which may conspire with the hostile force of the external (west) to threaten the legitimacy of the CCP. So, the CCP and the Chinese government take strict control and restriction on the NGOs by ways of formatting the administrative control system on the one hand, and constructing party branches in the NGOs on the other hand. But according to the 2009 official statistics, the CCP branches have been constructed just a half in the local NGOs. More severe, the party and state have no means to manage the presumably more than 3million grass root NGOs. This shows the adaptation and limit of the party-state to the changing Chinese society.
  • 3.

    A Case Study about Chaebol and State Power's repression to Korea-Chinese:The A-Seo-Won(雅敍園)'s lawsuit

    이용재 | 2012, (35) | pp.65~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A-Seo-Won(雅敍園) which has a glorious 64-year history, was a top-class Chinese restaurant in Korea. It was a symbol of Chinese restaurant which is managed by Korea-Chinese. But A-Seo-Won disappeared in Korean-Chinese society because of unexpected legal suit with Lotte Chaebol (*Chaebol: South Korean conglomerates) in 1970. This is called the A-Seo-Won lawsuit. This case is related to various circumstances in Korea, which are the link between Chaebol and State Power, intolerant stereotype of Korean against Korean-Chinese, the tyranny of social majorities against social minorities, the conflict between Korean and Korean-Chinese, so it is possible to have an insight into various aspects of Korean society through the A-Seo-Won law suit. This is why this paper focus on the A-Seo-Won law-suit, and this paper intends to introduce and sheds new light on the A-Seo-Won law-suit. This paper is composed of five parts: 1) The history of A-Seo-Won, 2) The background and cause of the A-Seo-Won's Lawsuit, 3) Process of the A-Seo-Won's Lawsuit, 4) The cause of tragic and ill-fated destiny of A-Seo-Won, 5) Korean and Korean-Chinese's opposite responses to the A-Seo-Won affair. Through this paper, I put forth a multilateral effort to investigate the A-Seo-Won lawsuit from various viewpoint. On the surface, the A-Seo-Won lawsuit seems to gain justification through court process, but in fact, it is considered as a case that Korean-Chinese fell a victim to Chaebol and Korean State Power. The ill-fate of A-Seo-Won stands for hardship and tough life of Korean-Chinese. And through this, we can find significant meaning and value of the A-Seo-Won lawsuit.
  • 4.

    Building a Foundation for the Tradition of Humanistic Chinese Study -The publication and significance of Collection of Chinese Newspaper Articles and Selections in China’s Land Laws and Policy Documents

    Kim Ji Hwan | 2012, (35) | pp.109~155 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Research Center for Chinese Practices of University of Incheon conducts overall researches on the structures and principles that have driven Chinese people and society at the core and has a need to systematically generate and accumulate basic research data through field study and literature materials collection for such researches. Responding to the need, the Research Center for Chinese Practices of University of Incheon published Collection of Chinese Newspaper Articles and Selections in China’s Land Laws and Policy Documents. In China, agriculture is the very foundation of national economy, which explains why the Chinese regimes have made a very important policy issue out of the control and distribution of land ownership and usufruct. The land laws and ordinances well reflect the government's purport for enacting land acts as well as relations between land ownership and land usufruct, which is why publishing selections of China's land laws and policy documents is such a critical project to examine the changes and continuity of Chinese society. Selections in China’s Land Laws and Policy Documents holds huge significance in that it systematically covers land laws and ordinances over a long period of time from traditional times to the present. The fruit of the hard work by the researchers of the Research Center for Chinese Practices, it boasts a high level of size and completeness that is hard to match home and abroad.
  • 5.

    Development and Transition of Chinese Family Practices : Significance and Compilation of Chinese Family Source Book

    Kyungsuk Park | Yoowho Song | Seunghee Son | 2012, (35) | pp.157~200 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to introduce the compilation process and significance of three books of Chinese family source book that the HK(Humanity Korea) Research Center for Chinese Practices, Humanities Research Institute of University of Incheon compiled. First source book is a collection of laws related to family in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, and second is a collection of family laws in the People's Republic of China. The rest of source books is to collect the race-related data set focusing on the Chinese Genealogies material. To recap the significance of the compilation of kit are as follows:First, these source books have provided baseline data to enable the empirical studies about Chinese families and tribes for a variety of issues. Family-related laws and regulations were collected, as well as several broken down by category was presented. Second, from the establishment of the People's Republic of China to today by covering laws and regulations related to the family, the family laws of the People's Republic of China period shows the outline of the major changes or trends. On this topic in academia are expected to spark interest. As well as, by providing the text of legislation to undertake practical research would be helpful. Third, "Ethnic Source Book" co-edited with Shanxi University that put together a race classification for the data have significant implications. This is unprecedented in China and abroad. In addition, this source book is helping to improve the level of understanding on the Chinese society and history through the excavation of new genealogy materials. Finally, the real value of these source books is to provide original text in the form of a searchable text. As e-book publishing, these source books are free keyword search, as well as the original text is provided in the digital archive(http://hka.incheon.ac.kr/) of the HK Research Center for Chinese Practices, Humanities Research Institute of University of Incheon.
  • 6.

    Reexamination of Balhae’s Revivalism

    나영남 | 2012, (35) | pp.201~242 | number of Cited : 2
    Balhae was conquered by Khitan in the year of 926 and was called Dongran afterwards. A group of Balhae people did not surrender to Khitan’s rule and fought for their independence, which led to the establishments of Post Balhae(後渤海), Jeonganguk(定安國), Allyaguk(兀惹國). However, the only proof that validates establishment of post Balhae is an article describing an ambassador of Balhae paying a tribute to China. Therefore, previous researchers’ conclusion about post Balhae such as founders and important dates are doubtful. If China’s historians lacked in knowledge and equated Dongran and Balhae, then post Balhae is nothing more than creative imagination of the researchers. Post Balhae is not a historical truth but an argumentative creation made up with repeated premises and inferences. But, Jeonganguk, founded by Balhae people, is the true successor state of Balhae. Therefore, post Balhae should be considered as a generic name for small countries that existed in Balhae lands after the fall of Balhae.
  • 7.

    Imprinting and Distribution of Yuan Tripitaka of the Late Goryeo

    park,yong-jin | 2012, (35) | pp.243~277 | number of Cited : 5
    This paper investigated the distribution cases of Yuan Tripitaka (the complete collection of Buddhist Sutras, Laws and Treatises) that Koreans imprinted by attaching votive document imprint in the Yuan Dynasty at the Buddhism exchange period of Goryeo and Yuan and examined the historical background and meaning especially through the analysis of a preface and postscript and votive document. YuanTripitakaislargelydividedintoJeoksajang, Boryeongjang and Gwanjang. Imprinting and distribution of Yuan Tripitaka by Koreans dates back to the early 14th century. Jeoksajang is Tripitaka imprinted by dedication of Kim Rok and Pu ning si version is the one that King Chungseon imprinted 50 sets of Tripitaka and offered to the main temples of Yuan in the 1st year of Yuan Injong (1312) and imprinting of Mrs. Cha, the wife of Seongsangun, Jeongyosaseung Lee Yunseung, Park gyeongryang who was the financial aide of King Chungseon and the figures associated with the Yuan imperial Family estimated as Yuan Tripitaka in 1340s receives attention and there were the various cases like Empress Gi imprinted 2 sets of Tripitaka and offered Wondo and Singwang Temple of Goryeo etc. The imprinting subjects of Yuan Tripitaka were various from kings to senior officials such as powerful families etc., Buddhist monks and were the class which could secure the distribution network of Tripitaka purchase through economic power that could imprint Tripitaka. Starting with wishing for longevity of the Emperor and Empress of Yuan, the purposes of imprinting had the nature of praying the good fortune of this life such as the kings and royal family of Goryeo, peace of the family, wishing etc. The recognition of the time for the distribution of Yuan Tripitaka was to value much of Yuan Tripitaka imprinted in Yeohang area of Yuan called <Yeohangmukbonsesobo: Tripitaka printed in Yeohang is considered precious in the world>, to borrow Igok‘s expression. In the intervening period of Yuan, Tripitaka virtue faith imprinting the entire Yuan Tripitaka and making an offering to a temple was developed.
  • 8.

    The Character and Meaning of excavated China`s Blue and White Porcelain in Korean Peninsula

    Lee Jong-min | 2012, (35) | pp.279~321 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the character, time and place of products of excavated China's blue and white porcelain in Korea peninsula and to know what surroundings made those porcelain consumpt in Korea. For that aim, first of all, we want to grasp the character, time and place of products of excavated China's blue and white porcelain in Korea peninsula, especially in kiln sites, tomb sites, temple sites, consumption sites in Hansung-bu. As a result of it, we can see that China's blue and white porcelain are chiefly excavated in the capital region and the time of those porcelain of Ming dynasty is grasped from middle years of 15th century to 16th century and of Qing dynasty is grasped after 18th century. And we can see also that main place of those porcelain is Jingdezhen nongovermantal kiln, but some porcelain of Qing dynasty was produced in Fujian Xing coast kilns. Jingdezhen was a famous and prosperous porcelain producing place from the last years of Yuan dynasty to the last years of Qing dynasty. But, after Ming dynasty, the porcelain of Fujian Xing kilns is also exported to world. The reason of continual incoming of Jingdezhen porcelain to Korean peninsula is preference on China's highest class porcelain. The demand of China's blue and white porcelain was increased greatly in the late years of Joseon dynasty. In the same time, lower class porcelain of Fujian area satisfied the demand of common people by the active trade of Fujian merchants. Till now, the place of products of China's blue and white porcelain in Korea peninsula has been known Jingdezhen. But if we focus to the archeological materials, can find some porcelain of Fujian area. Therefore, we can conclude that blue and white porcelain of Fujian area was consupted in Korean peninsula as a periodical surroundings of the late years of Jeseon dynasty.
  • 9.

    Inserting Advertisement in『Empire Newspaper』 by General Readers of Daehan Empire and A Social Aspect

    JANG YOUNG-SOOK | 2012, (35) | pp.323~359 | number of Cited : 7
    This study examines the figure of general citizens utilizing newspaper as active readers through representative advertisements that they inserted in『Empire Newspaper』 and the figure of 『Empire Newspaper』 reflected on them and further a hidden aspect of social change in Daehan Empire era. The advertisements inserted in『Empire Newspaper』 were used to be just one or two but it increased drastically occupying all 4 advertisement pages, and in the latter half of 1900, the amounts of news article and advertisement were reversed. In the increase of advertisement, it is noticeable that there were advertisements by general readers not related to making commercial profits. They were using newspaper advertisement to actively protect their rights and interests and to communicate with each other. The most representative advertisements inserted by general readers were forewarning of fraud cases with land, notifying various lost articles to prevent 2nd damage, and rewarding advertisement for someone who granted a favor to them. This study could see the items below while examining general citizens who became active readers by utilizing advertisement and its inside facts. First of all, general readers preferred『Empire Newspaper』 than other newspapers as a medium to protect their rights and interests and to communicate with each other. Also, it was a time in which people put emphasis on individual rights and interests rather than unconditionally conforming to the ethics of community life and tried to protect their property rights actively even through advertisement. Also, we can see that the society of Daehan Empire was quite unstable through the advertisements of forewarning the land fraud cases and of notifying lost articles. It is a feature of Daehan Empire since the newspaper publication that ordinary readers appeared as advertisers rather than business owners who wanted to maximize commercial profit and interest. They took the role of active readers who use newspaper to deliver their gratitude fast and effectively. It was possible because they recognized and believed that newspaper was a medium representing their intention with fast and wide influence in the society of Daehan Empire where communication tools such as telegraph and telephone were not popular.
  • 10.

    戰國 楚의 封爵制 고찰

    Min hoo-ki | 2012, (35) | pp.361~394 | number of Cited : 3
    西周以王畿與封國分割了天下, 然後以公․侯․伯․子․男的五等爵與卿․大夫․士的內爵秩序管轄了王畿與中原列國. 然而南方楚的情況與周中心的中原列國不一樣.『史記』記載了楚是周的成王下賜了子男之爵位的國, 但是, 楚從熊渠以來宣布了“我蠻夷也, 不與中國之號諡.”以後, 乃立其長者康爲句亶王, 中子紅爲鄂王, 少子執疪爲越章王. 這樣的情況示唆了楚不是周的爵制秩序下的一個國家, 就是完全獨立的一個國家. 所以從春秋時期以來楚斷行了稱王, 與此同時施行了諸侯封建, 但是從來從春秋時期到戰國時期楚實行了什麽樣的爵制就是不分明. 爲了解決了這個問題, 筆者關注了楚漢之際的漢的爵制, 尋找了‘執圭(執珪)’, ‘執帛’, ‘五大夫’, ‘上閒爵’, ‘列大夫’, ‘國大夫’, ‘七大夫’等的爵名, 提示了這些就是戰國楚的爵名的可能性.
  • 11.

    A Study on Deification of Guan Yu and Aspect of ‘Guan Yu play’ in Qing dynasty

    You Jinhee | 2012, (35) | pp.395~424 | number of Cited : 2
    At the end of the Eastern Han to the Three Kingdoms period, Guan Yu was a general who had been active during the war with his sworn brothers, Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. Guan Yu had never expressed religious teachings in his lifetime. But becoming known as a loyal and righteous person through『Romance of the Three Kingdoms』 and other novels, he became an object of worship to the chinese government and people and finally was considered as a god continuously like Buddha, Confucius. In this paper, I considered the deification process by government and the performance aspect of Guan Gong drama in the Qing Dynasty when the most positively deification of Guan Yu was proceeded. Through this process, we can learn that the special treatment for Guan Yu by Qing Dynasty began from the early Qing Dynasty and the deification beyond respect of Guan Yu was proceeded with other political intentions though they was fascinated by Guan Yu's character through『Romance of the Three Kingdoms』. In Qing emperors' position, Guan Yu was a incarnation of loyalty and righteousness protecting Qing government. And they hoped that the people following Guan Yu give their fealty to the government. Thus, proactively lead by the Qing government deifying Guan Yu resulted in building Temple Of Guan Yu all over the country. It's easy to imagine that shrine visitors and merchants naturally loved and were inspired by Guan Yu play which was about the hero(Guan Yu) of these plays because stages were set up in Temple Of Guan Yu and Commercial center used for Guan Yu play. In this nation wide religeous environment of universal worship of Guan Yu, among royalties and people in line with their yearn for nations peace in unstable political climate in late Qing Dynasty brings forth mythical stories about Guan Yu that he protects the country and watches over them. In such social environment provides historical background in wide spreading of Guan Yu play.
  • 12.

    The formation of Taiwanese teacher training system And its changes in Japanese colonial period

    김은경 | 2012, (35) | pp.425~457 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this study is to research the actual state of Taiwanese teacher training system through analyzing the formation and changes of education course in Japanese colonial period. The Taiwanese teacher training system which started in 1898 was officially aimed to cultivate component public school teachers, but in the concrete principal object was nurturing assistant teachers who could manage business affair all about education. Therefore there was a considerable difference between the teacher training system for Japanese and Taiwanese such as the entrance qualification, training period and in terms of education quality. However, these differences were gradually improved in consequence of a number of education revisions in 1922, 1923 and 1943. Through this process Taiwanese teacher training system were developed on the almost same level of position and status as Japans. In this way, Taiwanese teacher training education has established equal conditions as Japans system and yet Taiwanese teacher were still treated discriminately. One of the biggest causes of situation was that Taiwanese were intentionally excluded from the approach possibility of teacher training system by Japan. After all, teacher training system in Japanese colonial period was not a in the true sense of the word education, it was no more than temporary cost cutting measures to solve the economic problems and teacher recruitment strategy of the Japanese government general of Taiwan. Nevertheless the fact that teacher training system in Taiwan which built by Japan has made the foundation of current primary teaching system is undeniable.
  • 13.

    A Historical Survey of the Leadership of Julius Caesar

    Kyunghyun Kim | 2012, (35) | pp.459~489 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Along the same line of Shakespeare’s statement that Caesar will eternally remain as one of greatest leaders of the world, most of people in this world would agree to the fact that Caesar was a very successful leader. Caesar’s life story cannot be summarized by one or two books. Rather, it itself is literally, enormous history. Therefore his life story is a tempting historical challenge for historians, even to those who have long lost interest to topics related to the lives of individuals. Ironically, this in fact made studies concerning Caesar more obscure. Researchers in the rapidly growing field of leadership research are also interested in Caesar. However, if they are not based on facts, such researches may turn this historical figure into that of a fictional legend. Therefore, it can be said that examining Caesar within the frames of leadership would be a meaningful process. Most leadership studies focus on Caesar’s characteristics and behavior styles. It cannot be denied that Caesar distinguished himself in these two categories. However, as previous leadership studies point out, the trait theory and the behavior theory of leadership fails to underline the concrete link between a leader and the validity of his leadership. That is because such studies focus only on the leader, undermining the importance of the followers(members) of the leader who forms one of the axis of an organization or a society. Therefore, there is a need to shed light on the relationship of Caesar and his followers. I intended to evaluate Caesar’s leadership using the terms the transactional leadership and the formational leadership, which have been introduced since the 1980’s. Caesar was a very talented figure when it came to the subject of exhibiting the traditional transactional leadership. However, even though when it was evident that this was not enough, he failed to develop his leadership into what is known as the formational leadership. It resulted in him being murdered by his subordinates, a cruel fate for a man to face.
  • 14.

    Reflection on the unilateral ordeal around Saumur in the XIth and the XIIth centuries

    LEE JEONG MIN | 2012, (35) | pp.491~522 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    For the purpose of finding out the aspects of the unilateral ordeal, under the belief of the omnipotence of God and the divine intervention, as a kind of feudal judgement around Saumur in the XIth and the XIIth centuries. It is indispensable for us to examine the historical remarks and the narrative testimonies according to the title of the Codex vetustarum donationum niger nuncupatus, etc. It is said to the unilateral ordeal, what we called, to find the innocent or not be, to claim the right and to testify the truth through the trial by the boiling or cold water, the red hot iron, the bread and cheese, etc. To accomplish this task, in first, we examine the origin of unilateral ordeal which is rooted in the Carolingian with the legal procedure. Secondly, we see to the unilateral ordeal that takes the feudal and judicial role of cutting the Gordian knot and the religious and psychological task at the same time. Finally, according this cartulary of the Codex vetustarum donationum niger nuncupatus, we look into the unilateral ordeals which are represented around Saumur in this period. In spite of the ecclesiastical criticism for temptation of God, it shows that the unilateral ordeal is very accepted by the people, who can't assert their right or prove their innocence in public, without arms including the clergy around Saumur. Bearing the belief of the justice of God and the divine intervention, the unilateral ordeal seems to reflect not only the mentality of the Christianism but also the feudal simultaneously the judicial custom in settling the feud around Saumur in the XIth and the XIIth centuries.
  • 15.

    Intermarriages as demonstration of modern ethnical processes among Koreans of Kazakhstan in 1990s

    Natalya Yem | 2012, (35) | pp.523~550 | number of Cited : 0
    In this paper, the dynamics and structure of mixed marriages on the example of the Korean Diaspora in different territorial boundaries based on the study of population censuses from the archive of marriage registry office s of four cities in Kazakhstan have been studied. The comparative characteristics of ethnic Koreans from the mono-ethnic marriages are given in the work. Before such analogies were done in the studies of other scientists, but a logical application of historical-genetic method with the consideration of the influence of ethno-social and demographic characteristics of couples getting married substantiate the degree of novelty of this approach. Based on the study, as sources of current registration and census it was revealed varying degrees of participation in inter-ethnic marriages between men and women among Koreans as an example of the urbanized population in various cities. In addition, the work was determined by the degree of ethnic endogamy urbanized Koreans in Kazakhstan on the known scientific methods on the basis of material collected in different places of residence of the members of this ethnic community.