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2013, Vol., No.37

  • 1.

    The meaning of invading Paeryo and installation relationship with Later-Yan by King Gwanggaeto of Goguryo

    Shin Jung Hoon | 2013, (37) | pp.5~39 | number of Cited : 3
    In 395 A.D., King Gwanggaeto of Goguryo conquered Paeryo in the area of Siramuren river. In that time, Later-Yan gone into war with Northern Wei. Northern Wei invaded territory of Later-Yan in march of 395 A.D. Northern Wei defeated utterly Later-Yan in Chamhabpa of Eastern Mongolia. In 385 A.D., Goguryo had a war with Later-Yan for taking Yodong.. After the war between Goguryo and Later-Yan, both countries became potential enemies for each other. Later-Yan had a battle with Northern Wei In 395 A.D. At that time, King Gwanggaeto conquered Paeryo without check of Later-Yan. Goguryo obtained flocks of sheep, horses and cattle. These material resources were used attack on Baekje. After conquest of Paeryo, King Gwanggaeto of Goguryo made a round of Yodong for hunting. In that time, Yodong was territory of Later-Yan. Later-Yan raise an large scale army against Northern Wei. In the face of these situations, the Goguryo forces could understand topograpies and planimetric feat1ures of Yodong area. Meanwhile, this theses takes note of relationship between Goguryo and Later-Yan. Goguryo employed a foreign policy in which it maintained the installation relationship with Later-Yan in 396 A.D.. At this time, Later-Yan was consistently attacked by Northern Wei. In this situation, if Goguryo had invaded in Later-Yan, Later-Yan had to raise the tomahawk with Goguryo and Northern Wei. On this reason, Later-Yan used installation relationship as a safety device. On one hand, Goguryo accepted installation relationship. Why did accept Goguryo installation relationship from Later-Yan? Because Goguryo was admitted the dominium in the region of Pyeongju, Yodong and Daebang by Later-Yan. Also, It had relevance to a relation with Baekje. Goguryo captured 58 castles and 700 country of Baekje in 396 A.D. In this situation, Goguryo could concentrated on attacking Baekje without unawaring of Later-Yan.
  • 2.

    Significance of National Integration of the Two Jinju Fortress Battles during Imjin War

    Park, Hee-Bong | Kyoungseok Jang | 2013, (37) | pp.41~96 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper analyzes and reinterprets the background, process, and result of the two-round of Jinju Fortress Battle in 1592 and 1593 respectively during Imjin War between Korea and Japan. It is newly found that more than 150,000 Japanese army were killed from April, 1592 to June, 1593. Although Japanese army was victorious in early battles for two months from the beginning of the war in 1592, Korean army and civilian militia had started counterattack on the Japanese after the early attack. Especially, the two-round of Jinju Fortress Battle inflicted great losses on the Japanese army. The two pyrrhic battels had changed the tide of war. Due to severe damage from the two battles, Japanese army did not achieved the goal of the invasion, and finally was forced to retreat. The results of the two battles are impossible without Korean people’s integration. Then, this paper discuss how Korean people overcome various conflicts, such as regional conflict, class conflict, and ideological conflict, during the war.
  • 3.

    The policies and awareness on martial arts of Crowned prince Sado

    Kim, Jun Hyuk | 2013, (37) | pp.97~126 | number of Cited : 4
    The Crowned prince Sado is a character of misfortune who is father of the Chosen dynasty’s 22nd king Jung-jo and second son of the 21st king Young-jo. The assessment of him from later on was as unfortunate as the crowned king who died in a rice container as a sacrificial victim of party strife. Because of that, his contribution to the improvement of martial arts in the late Chosen dynasty and also the roll for the reformation of a military policy was overlooked. There was not even an attempt to study various assessments of his life. The Crowned king Sado was a substitute ruler who ruled the nation for 13 years as a prince who has the right of succession. He’s 13 years of govern wasn’t short compared to other Chosen dynasty king’s the period of reign. And yet, there was no fair assessment due to the prejudice he was subjected to. Ever since he was young, the Crowned prince Sado had aa military spirit and based on this he tried to succeed and actualize king Hyo- jong’s reinforcement of national defense policy to overcome the humiliation of the Im-jin war and also the Byung-ja war. He actively participated in training for martial arts like archery and swordsmanship, and reinforced the theory of martial arts by writing books and developing battle formation. He also tried to increase his strength by reinforcing national defense and taking a lead on publishing ‘Mu-ye-sin-bo’ in 1759, which helped give a boost to military nobility. However, because he was killed in an Imo Incident, his military mind and north-conquering theory wasn’t assessed fairly. Although the fact that the Crowned prince tried to inherit King Hyo-jong’s throne isn’t clear on records, it seems like he tried to gain political cause on King Hyo-jong who is his blood relation instead of his father King Young-jo who tried to run politics based on Tang-pyung, but has thoughts mainly on No-ron. In terms of that, publishing a military book and inheriting King Hyo-jong’s throne is a political action. Thus the Crowned prince Sado meant to solidify his political power and had intended to start a reformation of system after he took over military power and become a king. The Crowned prince Sado’s military reinforcement policy remained throughout his son King Jeong-jo’s reign and contributed to Chosen’s defense and the martial arts by the publish of ‘Mu-ye-do-bo-tong-gi’ and the foundation of the king’s private military camp ‘Jang-yong- young’ in 1791(15thyearofJung-jo).
  • 4.

    The Basic structure of <Seon’weon Bogam(璿源寶鑑)>, and how and why it was published

    Hwang In-hyuk | Kiduk Kim | 2013, (37) | pp.127~155 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In the Joseon dynasty period, the genealogical records of the royal family(王室族譜) did not contain a “Mountain List(San-do, 山圖).” ‘Neungjeon-do’(陵殿圖, Pictures of Royal tombs and shrines) and ‘San’reung-do’(山陵圖, Pictures of Royal Mausoleums) illustrations were created and stored separately from the genealogical records. They were fashioned as ‘Royal Occasion records’ in order to provide information regarding the royal mausoleums, and related issues such as commemorative rituals, repairs and preservation. But the <Seon’weon Bogam(璿源寶鑑)> examined here, which was also a genealogical record for the royal family, had an internal design and contents that were entirely different from those of other royal family genealogical records. It had a ‘Mountain List’ with every Joseon royal mausoleum described in it at the front of the book, and it also placed the genealogical records section in the aft section of the book. The design was distinctively different from other previous royal family genealogical records. As there are currently not much information concerning the Joseon dynasty royal mausoleums, the ‘Mountain List’ in <Seon’weon Bogam> is an invaluable source of information which lets us know the internal structure and meaning of the Joseon dynasty royal mausoleums. Examined in this article is the <Seon’weon Bogam> published during the Japanese occupation period, in order to examine and analyze the nature and contents of the “Mountain list” in it.
  • 5.

    The Intention about cultural heritage education concerned on national unification - Centering around digital traditional culture contents -

    PARK, JAE-YOUNG | 2013, (37) | pp.157~190 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, web-service construction and necessity of its practical use for 'N generation(middle and high school students)' and common people have been considered into four groups as following:First, North and South Korea shared the ethnic homogeneity of cultural heritage can contribute to the recovery and reunification as one of the cultural content. Second, what is the Status and Problems in the country's cultural heritage digital contents development and service? Third, what is Heritage Status and challenges of digital contents of North Korea? Fourth, what is Heritage Status and challenges of digital contents of North Korea? Fifth, Cultural heritage digital content that is currently available, how should be taken advantage of a unified education. Cultural heritage education for future national unity meet the requirement and change of the unity-oriented and post-cold war era for the restoration of homogeneity, and should move into the direction of accommodating not exclusive and non-ethnic nationalism but a variety of ethnic and cultural view point. In addition, the continued development of digital cultural heritage content and building organic network between government agencies, private research organizations and civil society organizations that provides information in cyberspace should have to be implemented and focused to apply efficient use of cultural heritage education to prepare the Unification with the active promotion against general public.
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    The Sale of Chinese Eastern Railway and Sino-Japan-Soviet Diplomatic Relations

    Kim Ji Hwan | 2013, (37) | pp.279~311 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In 1935, the Soviet Union sold and transferred Chinese Eastern Railway to Manchukuo nominally and to Japan substantially. The sale of Chinese Eastern Railway had very important significance in a change of the power dynamics in China, the Soviet Union, Japan, and Manchukuo. The sale of Chinese Eastern Railway was finally possible by which the non-economic privilege of being possessed by railway was disappeared through Sino-Soviet Agreement. Through Karakhan Manifesto, the Soviet Union gave up all the non-economic privileges. In the wake of this, the Chinese Eastern Railway was largely curtailed its character as a purely transportation and commerce organization. From Japan's position, this was judged to come to have very important significance with surrounding the approval issue of Manchukuo if the Soviet Union, which is the party directly involved with facing the border with Manchukuo, meets with the selling negotiation of Chinese Eastern Railway with Manchukuo, in a situation that powers such as League of Nations didn't approve Manchukuo legally. Based on this judgment, Japan came to nominate Manchukuo as the counterpart of negotiation with the Soviet Union. Even the Soviet Union came to judge that it can ultimately remove the origin of a dispute between Japan and the Soviet Union, which is caused by railway, given coming to sell the Chinese Eastern Railway, which had been a key problem between Japan and the Soviet Union, to Manchukuo. In this way, Japan and the Soviet Union can be considered to have pointed to easing tension in the Manchurian region and avoiding political and military collision by having leverage as a sale of Chinese Eastern Railway.
  • 9.

    Church’s reaction to the absent of Mass after black death: focused on the 14th and 15th centuries in England

    Pilleun Lee-Park | 2013, (37) | pp.313~336 | number of Cited : 1
    The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the church's reaction to the emergent situation after the Black Death. The raped decrease of laborers caused a consequent rise in wages after the Balck Death. The church's leadership faced unexpected difficulties: 1) The laborers did not attend Mass in order to increase work time; 2) half of the clergy (including the beneficed and the unbeneficed clergy) died in England; as a result, there were often no priests to perform divine services, especially the rite of extreme unction; 3) unqaulified and illiterate clergy were not able to preside the church's rite and tried to negotiate their stipendiary. The church reacted to those unexpected situation by trying to solve this problem. Firstly, the church condemned laborers who did not attend Mass through their sermons and symbols. In the symbols, the meaning of the laborers was identified with the Jesus' suffering on the cross. Secondly, the church allowed for laity and women to preside the rite and had extra rites for ordaining more priests. However, the unqualified stipendiary priests were not able to fulfill their roles and asked for increased wages.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Banner Land Trading and Disputes in Qing Manchuria

    허혜윤 | 2013, (37) | pp.337~358 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Banner Land System, as the economic foundation of the Eight Banner System in Qing Dynasty, began to collapse after the middle period of Qing. Flexible selling was a kind of real estate(especially land) dealing form which different from pawning and ultimate selling in traditional Chinese society. After the Banner occupied China, administration of Han chinese and the Banners was separately done. Facing frequent flexible selling disputes with Banner Land, Qing government tried to put flexible selling into a dual pattern of pawing and ultimate selling through promulgating stable laws, and meanwhile eliminating the root of flexible selling disputes through counsel and punishment by judge and announcement. But as a kind of spontaneous, non-government and informal system, the rising of flexible selling had deep social root. In middle and later Qing dynasty, politics was out of control, the widening gap between poor and rich, and land price’s frequent fluctuation all lead to the uncertainty of discount’s reference price; and justice officials’ sentence means which was based on the value idea around Confucian teachings made flexible selling to change from “illegal status” to “common status”, which played an important role in the formation and development of flexible selling. Farmland and allowances were bestowed by the Qing government on the Banners. But by the end of the 18th Century, almost all of the dispensed land had already been sold out. Dependent on meager allowance for a living, the Banners faced livelihood diffculties as a consequence. Whereas it is evident that Manchuria's Banners had found a means to exchange land across caste boundaries, to regulate claims to property that were not reconized by the state, and in the process to conceal illegal acquisitions of land form it, the fact that such developments remained wholly within the sphere of customary practice.
  • 11.

    The Chinese Political Controversy in the Early Reform Years and the Stages of the Socialist Development Theory

    Ahn Chi-Young | 2013, (37) | pp.359~391 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    There has been a lot of political controversies about the reform agenda in Chinese early reform years. This article focus on the controversy over the stages of the socialist development theory which is one of the most important but little known. This article investigate the two backgrounds of the controversy. One is the controversies over the stages of the socialism after the establishment of the PRC especially with the formulation of the general line for the transition to socialism in 1953. The other is the theory controversies around the early reform year over the reform agenda. This article investigate the processes of the controversy over the stages of the socialist development theory. The controversy was started by the article "On the Problem of the Social Development Stages after the Proletariat Revolution," which was co-written by Su Shaozi and Feng Ranrui. After the publication of the article Hu Qiaomu-the chinese theorist-Czar and Deng liqun-the conservative ideologue criticised that the article refused that the PRC was the socialist state. But the criticism was prevented by the CCP Central Committee Propaganda Department, because it concluded that Su Shaozi and Feng Ranrui did not assert that the PRC was not socialist country. But until the deepening of the reform in 1984 and the settlement of the theory of the primary stage of the socialism, Hu Qiaomu repeated his critics intermittently. Although there had repeated the anti-Liberalization Campaign, Hu Qiamu's critics on the stages of the socialist development theory did not diffused. That reflected the characteristics of the Chinese reform. On the aspect that the political changes did not correspond to the economic changes, the Chinese reform was the economic reform without the political reform. But it means what was the need for economic reform was accepted notwithstanding not corresponding to the political reform. The stages of the socialist development theory was needed for the economic reform although it had some contradiction to the socialist theory.
  • 12.

    Mainland Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong: Change and Continuity

    Chang, Jung-a | 2013, (37) | pp.393~426 | number of Cited : 3
    In Hong Kong as a migration society, the relationship between Hong Kongers and mainlanders as well as the attitude toward the mainland China have shown a complex pattern gradually since 1997 handover. However, throughout a series of the recent incidents, antipathy against the mainland migrants has increased and expressed collectively. This paper studied the policy change toward the mainland migrants in Hong Kong and analyzed the problem of separated families and the controversies over the mainland migrants. First, this study reviewed how the demographic policy in Hongkong government has changed with regard to the mainland migrants. It was found that although the mainland migrants have greatly contributed to the solution of aging population and low birth rate in Hongkong, the policy of Hong Kong government still aims to exclude the mainland migrants. Further, it was discussed that although the population of the mainland migrants in Hong Kong have in trend of more high education and lower ages gradually since the last 10 years, education and monthly salary level are still lower compared to the other native Hong Kongers. The problem of separated families between China and Hong Kong has improved in terms of government regulations but tragic situations still occur due to the policies. In particular, as mainlanders visit Hong Kong freely and frequently and gave a birth to children to have them the Hong Kong Identity Card, a new problem has arisen. This paper pointed out that these situations are related to the policies in Hong Kong government and discussed how and why this negative stigma on the mainland immigrants as well as the mainlanders by the Hong Kongers continues to be reproduced.