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2013, Vol., No.38

  • 1.

    A Study of Meteorological Encyclopedic Texts and Traditional Nature Studies in Choseon Dynasty

    IL GWON KIM | 2013, (38) | pp.5~70 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    In this paper, I studied how they constructed and observed the traditional knowledge of meteorology through old the encyclopedic texts containing meteorological contents during Choseon dynasty period. The term of meteorology was introduced newly as a translation word of modern studies, so the scholars in Choseon dynasty handled it among astronomical system and viewpoint. I reviewed and analyzed many texts of Choseon encyclopedic literature, as a result, first, I abstracted the traditional meteorological text in early Chosen dynasty from Chwalyo-sinseo and Keumyang -japrok, which are agricultural texts written during the reign of King Sejong. Koguem-seolwon of 16th century, was also worthy of notice, the book contained many volumes and diverse knowledge about traditioanl meteorology. Next, the middle Choseon was a period many encyclopedic literature developed. I analyzed the way of compiling the knowledge of traditional meteorology through Jibong-yuseol, Yuwon-chongbo and Sinpyeon -hwieo. Many more encyclopedic literature are expanded during 18th century, Sanrim-gyeongje, Seongho-saseol, Nongjeong-bonsa, etc. In late Choseon dynasty was notified as a period that big volume literature of encyclopedia were compiled, Limwon-gyeongjeji(Wiseonji), Oju- yeonmun-jangjeon-sango, Songnam-japji and Jeungbo-munheonbigo, etc. I argued these texts were the important base data for stduying traditional meteorological knowledge and its appearance.
  • 2.

    A Study on Hong Jungsam's Factional Cognition and Anti-Factional Theory in the 17th century

    Jong Soo Han | 2013, (38) | pp.71~95 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Hong, Jung-sam is HyangyakTongbyeon Anti-Factional Theory presented by the change of the times in ranging from the process and contents from Han China to Song China with respect to bungdang that occurred in China Dynasties. China showed that stemmed from the target punishment bungdang as the target of changing the perception of bungdang, and came to the Song Dynasty and Chu-shi (朱子) Gu Yangsu (欧阳修) suffered from due process of transition to a positive perception . In particular, the number of Song Beom Sun-In and Ho Jong-Yu to which the limestone is presented as Hong Jung-Sam bungdang bungdang to break and impartial human resources employed in the study. Han China and Tang China faction respectively occurred in China for closed end ‘河北之贼’ difficult and easier to defeat it. In the middle of the 16th century, ancestral lines are established for the East and West since the 17th century bungdang King Sukjong of four faction, factional color(黨色) for breaks, depending on the adjustment of the closed end of the course local community bungdang society far serious situation. Whereas such adjustment occurring in the shipbuilding Hong Jung-sam(洪重三) bungdang to eliminate the closed end, choosing dangsaek, Sage(君子) the appointment of the measures' wave bungdang Ron proposed. This is of specific jeolmok Bundangjageumgojeolmok enforced through implementation study. This Confinement(禁锢律) primarily through the implementation of the ball was calm for people who want appointment(择用), Bungdang(朋黨) as well as the Hwa(祸,) discipline and customs and conformation(敎化) local community society is ultimately successful in implementing hyangyak It was intended to. Officials, as well as adjust the local community Hong Jung-sam via social experience that is not to say biased bungdang appointment of the 17th century, who was willing to break the political reality in assessment reform figures will not be worthy of it.
  • 3.

    The foundation of new city infrastructureof Hwaseong and its citadel by Chae Jegong underthe pseudonym of Beonam

    Kim, Jun Hyuk | 2013, (38) | pp.97~123 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Chae Jegong, otherwise known as Beonam, was one of the most important figures to understand the politics of King Jeongjo during the late Lee Dynasty. As the leader of Namin Party, he was the key politician toward Tangpyeong policy of King Jeongjo and the outstanding advocate of the practical science who succeeded realistic school of Lee Ik, known as Seongho. In addition, he can be considered one of the traditional Confucianist politic leaders in the his era reaching the pinacle of Lee Dynasty culture. His King gave him an important position and treated him particularily as father. If it were not for him, it could have been impossible to turn out contemporary practical scientists of Namin party including Lee Gihwan, Jeong Yakyong known as Dasan and bring forth the political stability. In 1789 (13th Year of sovereign King Jeongjo), he was designated as mayor of Hwaseong from the 1793, year of construction of a new city of Suwon (17th Year) , and appointed in 1794 as governor of whole Hwaseong region to supervise the whole construction of the area. And he was in charge of the zoning board to back up the plan for the city's architecture and construction and its economic policies. Whenever there had been different opinions against his King, he managed to compromise in order to produce an harmonized opinion for the construction of the citadel and especially in finance matter for procurement, he was very eager to seek economical way of saving expenses, which was viewed as professional in urban zoning board rather than a man of noble family. Realizing that Hwaseong was the centerpiece of the King Jeongjo policy, he exerted his utmost efforts to build the infrastructure of the city and construction of the citadel. Upon reasonable judgement, he led the opinions in harmony with the noble family and sometimes had harsh arguments with them, but his political aim was at supporting policies of reformation by his King. Owing to his efforts and management system he made, the city's structure has remained intact in spite of the Korean War, which came to be nominated as World Cultural Heritage that is loved by global people. Thus, his appropriate revaluation is much needed in memory of achievement of his historical infrastructure in the city and its citadel.
  • 4.

    Jang Yong Young guards’ military drills and martial arts training according to Hwaseong fortress’s defense system during King Jeongjo’s reign

    Choi hyeong guk | 2013, (38) | pp.125~157 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    King Jeongjo moved his father Sadoseja(Prince Sado)’s tomb to mt.Hwasan in Suwon and built Hwaseong fortress and stabilized new city’s economy by development of agriculture with the farm cultivated by stationary troops and economical reformation with a Shinhae-Tonggong(辛亥通共,1791) prohibiting monopolistic market. Establishing and expanding of Jang Yong Young guards was become a military background to support reformative politics. To sum up the characteristics of Jang Yong Young’s military and martial art history, Firstly, not only centralized army troops in capital city but also titular local troops were standardized to control. Secondly, to predominate over tactics of cavalrymen, battle formation only for cavalry and mounted martial arts for actual battle were reinforced. Thirdly, to strengthen defensive power of Hwaseong fortress, military resources at surrounding areas were combined and become a form of strongpoint defense. Fourthly, to protect the fortress, large-caliber guns and weapons for close fight were set to increase possibility for stable win from battle. Lastly, defensive power was secured with people and various military drills. Establishment of defense system for Hwaseong fortress and Jang Yong Young guards during King Jeongjo’s reign could not be simply referred as expanding of King Jeongjo’s royal bodyguards. However it was more likely military reformative characteristics with standardized strategy system for entire Joseon army and establishment of martial arts. Many cultural prosperity aspects during King Jeongjo’s reign were possible because of stabilized military system.
  • 5.

    A Historical approach on Multiculturalcharacter in Itaewon space

    Park, Kyoung-ha | 2013, (38) | pp.159~186 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate the multicultural character of Itaewon space in procees of development of Korean History. As the starting point of Treaty of Gangwhado, this Article classified into the period of premodern, modern and present ages, and after 2007 that the population of foreign residents in Korea reacheded a million in. In the premodern era, Itaewon was located at the foot of Namsan in Seoul, and was the first government office which headed for Yeongnam-ro(嶺南路) from Seoul. Since the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592, the Imjin War, because Japanese subject by nationalization and people of mixed blood resided in Itaewon , this was called Itaewon(異泰院). In the Hyojong era, as there is many pear trees, this is changed Itaewon(梨泰院), a current name. In the period of modernㆍcontemporary, Itaewon strongly has revealed military character as a post of foreign army. The army of Ch'ing that attempted to suppress the Im-O Military Revolt (in 1882) was stationed at Itaewon from 1882 to 1884, in the period of Japanese colonial rule, it was a post of the headquarters of Japanese army. Since Korea gained independence, the U.S military bases in Korea have been built in this area. After the Korean War, with posts of U.S army as the center, as business district of Itaewon was formed so it was reborn an amusement center of U.S.A and then clubs sprang up everywhere. Since 1960s, embassies from all over the world moved into Itaewon, therfore till 1970s exclusive residence complex was maded. Entering 1970s, shopping district for foreigners was formed, and at the time of 88 Seoul olympic the numbers of shops in Itaewon amounted to 1,800 so Itaewon as the center of shopping was received attention. In the late 1990’s, as the numbers of tourists and immigrant workers of the Japanese, Chinese, Southeast Asian, African, and Middle Eastern regions increased , Itaewon as the Special Tourist Zone of people all around the world has changed from a street of the U.S forcescentric into a place of 'fusion' that things traditional, modernistic, global and korean are mixed in. And in today's Korea that rapidly has entered a multicultural society, as diversity racesㆍreligionsㆍcultures are mixed in Itaewon, a certain of space of the capital city Seoul, Itaewon has transformed into a multicultural zone which ensures and maintaines each cultural territory just one piece.
  • 6.

    The System of the Seal Paper & Merit Book of the Officials of the Song Dynasty

    丁建军 | 冯红 | 2013, (38) | pp.187~206 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The government of the Song Dynasty issued the Seal Paper to all levels of officials in order to record how they fulfilled their duties in power, their merits and defects, rewards and punishment, etc. The system of the Seal Paper & Merit Book, carried out widely for a long time, had become an essential system supervising the officials in the Song Dynasty. To the government, the Seal Paper & Merit Book of the officials was not only one of the important information channels with which the government would know the achievements of all levels of officials and the administrative situation of each area or branch, but also the important copies and archives with which the government assessed an official’s efforts, rewarded or punished, appointed or dismissed. To an official, it related to one’s promotion or demotion. Therefore, both the government and officials attached importance to the Seal Paper& Merit Book. The text mainly tells the types and issue of the Seal Paper of the officials of Song Dynasty, the contents of the Seal Paper& Merit Book, and its standardization, and what’s more, analyses the problem during the executive process of the system of the Seal Paper & Merit Book of the officials of the Song Dynasty.
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  • 8.

    Atlantic relationship and European Integration - Focusing on the origin of EURATOM, 1954-1957 -

    Yoo-Joung Kim | 2013, (38) | pp.237~269 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    21th Century, the environment of security is very diversity in a depth and rang of it’s change. In the difference of the period of Cold War when the international security was concentrated in the sectors of military issue, nowadays, attention is being paid to non-military security, namely : economic security, technology(commerce) security, environment security, energy security and human security... With theses changes of concept in the field of security, the national strategic alliance is emphasize and developed. Especially, one of the new and important issues to be considered concerns energy security. With regards to the importance of energy security, this work is to examine minutely the background and process of EURATOM, created in 1957, through of the view in the Atlantic relation. EURATOM is a good reference to see the both of sides in the development of national economic industry and also regional security. That is to say, EURATOM was could be found and developed by communication between Europe and America, in a moment when Europe was in the serious security crisis, after the fail of EDC(European Defense Community). It is no doubt that EURATOM has three driving forces for it’s development ; Pacifism, Pragmatism and Atlantism. Under such circumstances, EURATOM could be created and developed. In other words, EURATOM was the result of that the european necessity of the economic growth and security met the american necessity for control and prevent the development of nuclear weapon. This work seems to give the significant implications and suggestions for the establishment of peace in Asia, specially, in this time when the Korean Peninsula is being under the security crisis due to the provocations of nuclear weapon.
  • 9.

    British Heritage Industry and the Understanding of History: Heritage Film in the 1980s

    Wooryong Park | 2013, (38) | pp.271~304 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The radical economic and social reconstructions of Britain in the 1980s required Thatcher government to find novel ways of managing the conflict between old and new, tradition and modernity. They identify the key concepts in this process as "heritage," with its connotations of continuity with the past and the preservation of values and traditions, and "enterprise," with its connotations of change and innovation. The terms are vitally interconnected. What has come to be called 'the heritage industry' is itself a major component of economic redevelopment, an 'enterprise,' both in terms of large scale civic programmes and the proliferation of private commercial activity around 'the past' in one commodified form or another. Whatever the true figures for production and employment, the country is gripped by the perception that it is in decline. The heritage industry is an attempt to dispel this climate of decline by exploiting the economic potential of British culture. During the 1980s, the word 'heritage' has become the principal label for a variety of often very different evocations, projections and embodiments of national and local 'pastness' and pride. It has become the keyword in organizing, and frequently in institutionalizing, that intensified concern with historical reference which characterizes the decade at many levels of its political, cultural and economic formation and which has given rise to an astonishing growth in historical tourism. The heritage industry has thus developed as a vital part of contemporary tourism and related service industries such as the leisure industry, which of course embraces cinema. While the obligation to succeed internationally requires to some degree an effacing of the specifically national, certain films have used the national itself-or at least, one version of the national past-as their prime selling point. Images of Britain and Britishness(usually, in fact, Englishness) became commodities for consumption in the international image market. The heritage cycle is only one strand in the British cinema in the 1980s. This paper will analyze heritage films about the way they represent the national past, and about how this representation works for contemporary spectators. I criticise the heritage films not simply because so many of those products are fantasies of a world that never was. Not simply because at a deeper level it involves the preservation, reassertion, of social values that the democratic progress of the twentieth century seemed to be doing away with, but because, far from ameliorating the climate of decline, it is actually worsening it. Nostalgia can have an integrative effect by helping us to adjust to change. At best, the heritage film only draws a screen between ourselves and our true past. In addition, hypnotised by images of the past, we risk losing all capacity for creative change.
  • 10.

    An Isolated Historian, A Unpublished Poet, and/or A Resistant Citizen: In-Sok Kim and Military Dictatorship of the 5th Republic in Korea

    Young-Soo Yook | 박하늘 | 2013, (38) | pp.305~338 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The article endeavors to reconsider the complex relationship between historian and his era and to examine the nature and legacy of intellectuals’ engagement by focusing the case of In-Sok Kim (1945-1998). Kim entered into History Department of Korea University in 1963 and achieved the Ph. D degree in 1979. He started his teaching career at Hyoseoung Women’s University in Daegu until 1985. During 1980-1983 he researched abroad in Max Plank Institute of Göttingen thanks to the support of Konrad Adenauer Foundation. He moved to Chung-Ang University at Seoul in 1985 and taught there almost 10 years until 1995. In 1998, three years after the involuntary retirement, In-Sok Kim passed away probably due to Cirrhosis. Kim’s scholarly life overlapped with military dictatorship of the Fifth Republic of Korea and also with a transitional era from that regime to civilian government. Kim was a historian who specialized in modern German historicism and an unique example of intellectual who intermingled his scholarship with art and heavy drink. In the first half of the article, authors analyze Kim’s written works concerning modern German historiography. The second half of the article tries to disclose an inner world of Kim known as ‘the last romanticist of the century’ by conducting interviews with his acquaintances and interpreting his unpublished poems. Kim’s works primarily deal with German historicism of Friedrich Meinecke. Kim appraised Meinecke as “a successor, supporter, developer of German modern historiography since Ranke” and “a bridge between traditional modern historiography and the socio-economic history and cultural history.” He also points out that Meinecke reappraised Burckhardt’s cultural history in positive ways. According to Kim’s opinion, Meinecke was not interested in changing the world as a conservative and had played an important role in supporting Prussian militarism. Kim insists that German historians of both Weimar Republic and Nazi era had collaborated with the totalitarian regime of Hitler. Also, Kim was the first scholar who introduced Koselleck’s concept history to Korea in 1988. By keeping trace of western concept of ‘citizen’, Kim might be trying to anticipate the process from obedient ‘subject’ into rebellious ‘citizen’ for Koreans, who experienced the changes from authoritarian polity to democratic reform after 1987. On the other hand, authors conducted a kind of oral history by interviewing his two ex-colleagues in order to get a closer portrait of Kim’s personal life. Based on several episodes testified by interviewees, authors notice that Kim has expressed his resistant spirit as a form of absurdity both in scholarship and everyday life. Journalism documented Kim’s hunger strikes against the murder of an innocent college student by police in 1991. In 1995 Kim protested again against the civilian government’s decision to forgive the military personnels who were responsible for the “Gwang-Ju Incident” occurred in 1980. Both interviewees agree that Kim was not simply an ordinary historian but also an eccentric artist. He left behind him over one hundred pieces of poem and a few paintings. These creative works illustrate well his resistant spirit and romantic sensibility to nature and alcohol. In conclusion, In-Sok Kim’s story raises a number of intriguing questions that are worth meditating. First, there seems to exist a respectful consistence between the scholarly achievements and the personal life of Kim. Second, his frequent escape to heavy drinking and isolated way of demonstration against authoritarian government played a decisive role in expelling him from the college. Thus, the limit or the failure of Kim’s unique model of engagement teaches us the importance of solidarity between intellectuals and people and the indispensability of intellectual stoicism. Third, this case study focused on In-Sok Kim encourages us to reappraise the complex and dialectic relationship between historians and their ages. Unlike Kim, who lived and in a sense enjoyed the atmosphere of the ‘belle-époque’ which tolerated the unbalance mixture of scholarship and alcoholism, most historians nowadays have degenerated into salaried men, who struggle to produce articles as many as possible and at same time to teach and discipline students well. It is indeed a critical moment for us to reshuffle and rearrange the entangled ties between historians and their times.
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  • 12.

    The Historical Significance of Taiwan’s Political Development in the 1950s &1960s: An Investigation under the Cold War Framework

    薛化元 | 2013, (38) | pp.367~397 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The Cold War was the most important outer factor, which impacted on the political development of Taiwan during the 1950s and 1960s. This study firstly aims to examine, in light of the U.S. strategic thinking of Containment policy stemming from Trumanism, how the Republic of China government, supported by the U.S, diplomatic policy, while proclaiming democracy and freedom, actually established a party‐state system and thereby carried out an authoritarian dictatorship. Secondly, this study tries to reevaluate the current interpretations of Taiwan’s political development from 1950s to 1960s. According to the popular argument, the KMT government in Taiwan was noted by its strong military rule in the 1950s, which became lessened in the 1960s. However, since the late 1950s, there were signs showing that the KMT government became more oppressive politically and socially. For example, in the level of Taiwanese provincial administration, three military generals were successively appointed to be the Chairperson of provincial administration, violating the original way of none military personnel appointment. By the same token, the ad hoc Provincial Assembly under the “abnormal” system, without any institutional reforms, was “normalized” to be the formal Provincial Assembly. In general, the KMT government became more powerful in the 1960s. The media check and the development and organization of anti‐government powers were all weakened and in decline. As a result, Taiwan’s political development became regressive.