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2014, Vol., No.39

  • 1.

    The epidemic outbreak under the reign of King Jungjong(中宗) and its responses

    Kyung-Rok Lee | 2014, (39) | pp.5~40 | number of Cited : 6
    This article explores the development of the epidemic at the Pyongan Province(平安道) and its responses in 1524~1525 under the reign of King Jungjong(中宗). In two years around 23,000 people died, and the figure is equivalent to more than 0.5% of the Joseon(朝鮮) population. It was the most severe epidemic case during the early Joseon Dynasty. Depending on the size of the area and the damage, epidemic development can be divided into 3 steps. The step 1 was the epidemic outbreak at the 6 districts of the West Pyongan Province from January to August of 1524. In Step 2, the epidemic was spread to the 34 districts of the Pyongan Province from September of 1524 to January of 1525. And in Step 3, the epidemic was becoming severe, the damage was covered throughout the 42 districts from February to October of 1525. When the epidemic occurred, the Joseon government was taking the legal actions such as dispatching the doctors, distributing the medicines, reliefing the poor, burying the dead, and the memorial service for the ghosts. As the epidemic was getting worse, Ganibyeogonbang(簡易辟瘟方) was published on January of 1525. By reading the Ganibyeogonbang, the patients took an interest in individual hygiene. It seems to be a step in the theory of Nourishing Life(養生論) of 16th century. And the medical response had become inefficacy in Step 2, identifying the cause of the epidemic and seeking solutions in terms of politics emerged. That was the relationship theory between Heaven and Human(天人相應論). However based on that theory, the king and his servants were required to each other's personal reflection according to their own interests. Both sides were demanding the individual's reflection is noted. Ganibyeogonbang and the relationship theory between Heaven and Human were common to care about the individuals. This was a sign of the growing interest in the individuals in pre-modern society.
  • 2.

    The Educational Meaning Transition of Illustrations on 『IL-EO DOK-BON』 for Elementary Japanese language textbook published by Department of Education in the Colonial Age

    Sung, Yun-A | Kim, Eun-Kyung | 2014, (39) | pp.41~76 | number of Cited : 0
    『IL-EO DOK-BON』was Japanese language textbook the were written by the Japanese. However the illustrations of the book were also imply the political intentions of Japanese colonial government and describe the other side of the colonial educations. The illustrations were used for a visual tool, giving an indirect experience to Korean children who changing for Japanese needs. Such an educational methods made those children eager to for modernize and yearn for Japan without resistance to forced education. The effect was further good in senior. The illustrations of 『IL-EO DOK-BON』are classified by definition of ideological, practical and identificational education for Korean children. Educational meaning transition as follows; ①Confucian virtues in Chosun (for example; filial duty, brotherly/ sisterly love, and comradeship, gender roles) were also important to Japanese subjects for colonial rule. ② There are many illustrations that empathized the public morality and order in the basic modern country. ③ 『IL-EO DOK-BON』had an intention to create an obedient people in colony through the appearance of children that being diligent, working hard and keeping promise. ④ The illustrations of 『IL-EO DOK-BON』, as a second language textbook, contains the moral principle of ruler in order to present the appearance of an ideal Japanese to Korean children in colony. ⑤ It was shown the appearance of modernized Japan and that of primitive Chosun so that the children disparage their nation by themselves and can yearn for Japan. Colonial Government and Department of Education had done the educational goal with the technical education for increasing the labor than human based higher education. That was practical education what they had been said. But, in the inside of that, the education had intended to create the obedient and increasing labor in their colony. And they had an intention to use Korean labor as a Japanese growth engine, and that was reflected the illustrations. It was established the basis of colonial education. The illustrated contents had been settled as a educational tool for changing Korean to faithful Japanese. This education prevent from Korean national education and had an intention to justify Japanese annexation of Chosun through the colonial education.
  • 3.

    Cultural Continuity and Transformation of Josenjok(Korean-Chinese) Families by examining Raising Children Practices

    리화 | 2014, (39) | pp.77~109 | number of Cited : 8
    In this thesis, I aim to reexamine cultural continuity and transformation of Josenjok(Korean-Chinese) families by examining the transnational children rearing/care phenomena followed by mass international migrations. The research methods are long term in-depth interviews of inhabitants in B village of Jilin(省) Yanji city Chaoyangchuanzhen(鎭) from January 2004 to April 2013. In addition, in March 2013, I conducted the survey over 144 students at one of the high schools in Yanbian and analyzed the results of the survey to show broader range of transnational child care practices. In conclusion, on one hand, the child care practices are carried by close cooperation between parents (mainly by mother) who are leaving their children behind and other family members or relatives who live close with the children. The existing ideology about family and kinship is still in effect within these child care cooperations. However, on the other hand, the traditional family ideology has remarkably been reconstructed by continuous adjusting and negotiating, not has remained intact. These changes show us that the cultural continuity and transformation of Josenjok(Korean-Chinese) families coexist in their child care. Thus, the transnational practices of Josenjok(Korean-Chinese) families should be understood and analyzed as a dynamic process which makes full use of various networks on the basis of traditional ideology while adjusting to new environment.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Applicability of the Imagery Map for Fengshui Study

    kim,hanrea | 김택진 | Kiduk Kim | 2014, (39) | pp.111~143 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempted to investigate the applicability of the Internet imagery map for Fengshui study by using it based on WEB 2.0. World-class IT firms are providing the imagery map of the whole world on the Internet. And they enable users to make use of knowledge information for relevant study beyond the simple imagery map by implementing Mashup in this imagery map in a diverse way. Accordingly, this study aimed to contribute to making a more objectified Fengshui study by applying this imagery map service to the Fengshui study. This study presented a method of analyzing the imagery map using Google Maps and Google Earth provided by Google, the world-class IT firm, and a possibility of analyzing Fengshui by using Naver Map and Daum Map, and Map of Onnara, the real estate portal site, and on-Map of the National Geographic Information Institute, the government agency. And it attempted to consider the possibility of their useful application in explaining the theory of divination based on topography using the imagery map by explaining their advantages and disadvantages and sharing them with each other.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Buddhist Exchange Between Goryeo Uicheon and Song Sushi in September 1085

    저경하 | 2014, (39) | pp.145~184 | number of Cited : 1
    Research related to the Buddhist exchange of Goryeo Uicheon and Song Sushi in September 1085 does not offer definitive opinions. Buddhist literature provides false information, and most scholars are indifferent or have mistaken viewpoints about it. But according to Uicheon's “Sacrifice Prayer at Song's PuZhaoWang Temple for the Goryeo King(大宋普炤王寺本國王生晨齋疏)," he remained at Sizhou until September 10, 1085. Upon careful analysis of the paths of Uicheon and Sushi in 1085, we can conclude with certainty that their meeting point was Chuzhou, not any other place. Through analysis of Song's Yizhan and Dipu systems, the long tradition of "Shilla town" in Chuzhou, and Sushi's letter to Yanggongkang, this conclusion has become more reliable. The meeting of Uicheon and Sushi after September 10, 1085 is based on the objective conditions of the Buddhist exchange between them. But at the same time, there are several significant internal factors at work here. First, Sushi almost went to Goryeo as part of an envoy in April 1085. Although the plan was canceled, we can find that Sushi had a very positive attitude toward Goryeo. Second, Sushi had a great many admirers among the Goryeo scholars, Uicheon being one of them. Third, just as Sushi was finishing his long exile, he returned to the political center. Fourth, at the same time that Sushi was the most famous Jushi (Buddhist layman), part of his Buddhist philosophy was similar to that of Uicheon's. It is very possible that the Buddhist exchange between Uicheon and Sushi was comprised of the following elements: collecting Buddhist scriptures, meeting many representative Song Buddhist monks, and discussing Silla Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, and especially Sangha Buddhism.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Art Historical Tradition of the Zhe School : Focused on DaiJin(戴進)’s Painting

    Kim, Yeon-joo | Park Myung Sun | 2014, (39) | pp.185~215 | number of Cited : 0
    The Zhe School (浙派) was a school of painters in the Ming dynasty and DaiJin(戴進, 1388-1462)was considered as a founder. The ‘Zhe’ means DaiJin's home province–Zhejiang(浙江) in which his hometown was Qiantang(錢塘, modern Hangzhou), the Southern Song capital. DaiJin had learned and compiled the virtues of traditional painting styles and masters from the Northern and the Southern Song till Yuan Dynasties regionally and chronologically, and then he created his own style and passed down it to his successors. First, in an aspect of his composition, his landscape paintings had resembled the Ma-Xia (Ma Yuan 馬遠, Xia Gui 夏珪) academic painting style of the Southern Song, with which it emphasized on a oblique line, but were felt not subtle sensitivities like the Southern Song’s court artworks but were expressed with sensations of grandeur like artworks of the Li-Kuo School (Li Cheng 李成 and Guo Xi 郭熙) in the Northern Song as adapted in the Yuan dynasty. Second, in the usage of brush and Chinese ink, his paintings marked the sensation of speed and rough by "axe-cut" texture strokes according to Southern Song court landscapes, and then he created his own unique paintings with diverse brushstrokes and the usage of the free and strong black-and-white color contrast ink as well as moist ink. Third, in the part of style he followed the literati painting and expressed its stage which has been stressed since Song and Yuan Dynasties even though DaiJin was considered as a professional artist. His surviving paintings has been showed his various and broad studies about his heritage historically and regionally. He had combined lyricism and vivid energy in his works. DaiJin came to have an enormous influence at his life time. However, over 100 years after DaiJin’s death, ‘Zhe School’ as a part of Northern School was used by refering in opposition to the Wu School which was a kind of Southern School and led by the literary artist, ShenZhou(沈周, 1427-1509). Moreover, the later critics and criticism had left disparaging remarks that DaiJin and Zhe School were professional school and were not worthy studying because of a lunatic attitude and sly learning, and then DaiJin has been forgotten steadily even though his enormous influence on painting.
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    Adam Smith's Moral Thought : Focusing on The Theory of Moral Sentiments

    Wooryong Park | 2014, (39) | pp.287~320 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    It is frequently believed that the great eighteenth-century Scottish moral philosopher Adam Smith was an Extreme dogmatic defender of laissez-faire capitalism. It is also frequently held that Smith was totally in favour of the system of capitalism. Both of these common, popular interpretation of Smith are actually erroneous. He was not a dogmatic propenent of laissez-faire capitalism. In the US(as well as in several other areas of the world) the 1980s saw attempts to promote a regressive, ideologically reactionary form of capitalism. The US wittnessed attempts to redistribute income from the poorer to the economically more advantaged members of society, rhetoric in favour of a dogmatic laissez-faire form of capitalism, as well as increases in government defence spending and the government deficit. Often, many of these policies were advocated in the name of Adam Smith's vision. In fact, these economic programmes fragrantly misused Smith's authoruty. Smith was not for deficit spending, increases in military spending, income redistribution schemes in favour of the rich, or dogmatic laissez-faire forms of capitalism. Moreover, Smith himself was not an equivocal supporter of the system of capitalism. This paper wil be an attempt to testify that these arguments are proper. Focusing on The Theory of Moral Sentiments, the only other book Smith published in his lifetime first book(1759). A careful exposition of the book will show that Smith actually had severe misgivings about the moral desirability of the system of capitalism. This book is based on a single and familiar principle, that of sympathy. This book stresses interpersonal empathy, as well as the development of an impartial spectator within the moral adult, as the foundation of Adam Smith's attempt to develop a science of morals.
  • 10.

    Wilhelm II's Colonial Policy of German Empire and East Asia

    이영관 | 2014, (39) | pp.321~354 | number of Cited : 1
    Germany was unified at the peak of the colonial competition among European Powers. During this time, colonial competition faced a new era because of the Industrial Revolution. Colony was no longer the resource of the profits with trade securing gold and silver to home. It was a part of total economic system from the source of cheap raw materials for the industry to the market for the manufactured goods. At the same time, because of the rise of nationalism, colony became the symbol of national pride. Otto von Bismarck maintained the policy to secure the security of newly created German Empire in Europe. Achieving this prime goal, he wanted to reduced the possible conflict among European nations from colonial competition. At the same time, Bismarck tried to dodge the political chaos between the liberals and conservatives over the colonial issue internally. Therefore, he used colonial issue as a political and diplomatic leverage to achieve his goals. Unfortunately, Bismarck failed to create a system to secure German Empire internally and externally. Since he was an exceptional politician, he could use this leverage effectively and efficiently. That is, German colonial policy as well as other major policies was controlled by Bismarck himself rather than a system. When Wilhelm II became a Kaiser, personally operated Bismarck system could not work. As a man of his own world view, Wilhelm II was a dangerous man at the dangerous time. Wilhelm II discarded Bismarck's policy of gradual and careful colonial expansion. He proclaimed the beginning of 'Der neue Kurs' to escape from the Bismarck's past. He adopted Weltpolitik as a tool of der neue Kurs. Weltpolitik was a policy to promote tension among the Powers to shift the balance of power. Doing so, he believed that Germany could secure the benefits. The first place to apply the Weltpolitik was in Korea. During the Sino-Japanese War, Berlin tried to shift the balance of power in Asia. Berlin secured the first colony in Asia in Chiaochao Bay in Shantung through the Triple Intervention. This short-term success became the poison for the future of German Empire. Wilhelm II continued this policy during the Russo-Japanese War and failed. Still, he did not give up and applied same policy in Africa that resulted the World War I.
  • 11.

    A Short History and Outlook of Critical Biography of Modern Figures in Korea

    kim In sik | 2014, (39) | pp.355~391 | number of Cited : 2
    In general, a critical biography is defined as "a biography accompanied with and critical presentation of an individual’s life." A critical biography is not simply a biography that describes the figure in a chronological order but presents an overall evaluation of an individual within the context of his/her times. In this sense, a critical biography is a process that illuminates a period’s history through historical figures. A critical biography should not glorify a figure as an object of worship or judge one in black and white, but it must comprehensively treat the person’s achievements as well as failures, frustrations, sufferings, and blemishes. The first critical biography of a modern Korean figure was “The Sun of the Korean People” (1956), clearly stated as such with a subtitle of “A Critical Biography of Dr. Syngman Rhee,” and this book, containing many negative precedents, began a series of similar critical biographies. As seen in its title, it was the first precedent of a critical biography that has become a confession of faith by praising and proselytizing a person. In the 1970s, writers with expertise and experience began to produce biographies of modern and contemporary figures, but their work remained as stories of historical heroes. From the late 1980s, writings with an aspect of a true critical biography began to appear, and in the 1990s, formats for a critical biography became standardized. These works, based on extensive research of primary sources, presented the basis of their criticism in detailed notes and bibliographies, and they opened the possibility of critical biography to reconstruct a period’s history through studies of lives of individuals. In the 2010s, the model for a critical biography has matured on the strength of the qualitative and quantitative developments in the research in modern Korean history. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that journalistic critical biographies are still in fashion and even show signs of growth. For critical biographies to be faithful to its original mission, it is essential that writers develop expertise based on historical methodology. This expertise refers to the ability to collect and interpret primary sources related to the person of interest that may lie scattered at home and abroad. At the same time, the writer should possess interpretive abilities to reconstruct the times while reflecting concerns and actions of the persons who were diametrically opposed to the person of interest.