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2014, Vol., No.40

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    The Study of Changes in Marriage Ritual at the Beginning of Chosun dynasty - Focused on the marriage ritual under the reign of King Sejong -

    Misook Hwang | 2014, (40) | pp.5~42 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of Chinyeongrye’s, (it is called “Jujagare” in Korea), during marriages of noblemen during the late 1400s and early 1500s (it is called “Ryumal Seoncho” in timeline of Korean history), was to establish sovereignty and royalty among Korean people. In this context, the doctrine emphasized hierarchy in human relations and self-control for the individual based on Neo-Confucianism, which became quite rigid and conservative. The clan rule significantly emphasizes the hierarchy of family structure. During the late 1400s and early 1500s, bureaucrats followed the clan rule with characteristics of society under the Joseon Dynasty. In the late 1400s, the noblemen had noticed the importance of marriage rituals, as they raised political status because in the in society during that time. In addition, they tended to consider the meaning of marriage as a way of extending their social power strongly insisted on the very strict enforcement a marriage system, like “Jujagare” based on the “chinyeongrye” so that they maintained the social hierarchy and had political power. In fact, the noblemen who aimed at extending their political power had been interfered with their political efforts by marriages ritual. Thus, marriage ritual should be necessarily reformed by bureaucrat’s nobleman. Then, they used to Confucian ethics and philosophy to change the marriage ritual. Basically, the of emphasized personal and governmental morality. Comparison with Chinese system, the male-chauvinistic rule as ‘Gagye Gyeseung of Jeokjangja’, which the line of for males in the family is determined by birth order was not simply applied in Joseon Dynasty, due to the difference in the root of the history. By the time at the beginning of Joseon Dynasty, the marriage ritual was settled by politicians who were the founders of the dynasty. By contrast, the power was owned to make decisions the rule by scholars at “Jiphyeonjeon” during the reign of King Sejong. In particular, King Sejong actively supported “Jujagare” for the family and strongly pressured to apply “Great Ming Code” for the marriage to establish the rule. As a political issue and a major reason of the founding of the dynasty, an official argument for the reform was changed during the reign of King Sejong who accentuated the ideological principles of the ritual, which were influenced by Chinese “Gorye”. In other words, the official arguments during the reign of King Sejong were different in the comparison with the discussion at the beginning of Jeoseon Dynasty because King Sejong fundamentally focused on legislation to the and. The study of Gorye was begun in earnest by scholars at Jiphyeonjeon. Consequently, the scholars had explored “Jujagare” to get deeper insights. As a result, a marriage ritual was changed from “Seoryubugahonsok” to “Jujagare” based on the “Chinyeongrye” by some royal families. Indeed, other reforms were consequently enforced: punishment for “Jongja” who ruined the ancestral shrine and discarded ancestral tablet, penalty for head of householder, system of “Seungjung”, and funeral rites for step-mother, and so on. According to the reforms of marriage ritual, the politicians during the reign of King Sejong found new various social systems to establish public older in the society. Through understanding the reforms of marriage ritual, this reflected with a truing point at changing the marriage ritual from blood minded ritual to orthodox theory. Bureaucrats importantly considered the reforms of marriage ritual. It was involved to the reformation which was forced the people to keep the capital of a kingdom as a major political factor. “Jujagare” works as an essential base for maintaining social order for the citizens during Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, although the noblemen confined themselves, they tried to strictly adhere to the reformed marriage law.
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    Corporate Governance and Business Practices in the Northeast Region of China Focusing on Fengtian Spin Factory in the 1920s

    Kim Heesin | 2014, (40) | pp.133~177 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study was conducted as a part of research on modern history of business, having in mind the diversity of company structures appearing in the development of business in China and focusing on how the practical operation and openness of new systems demanding changes were reflected and structured in individual regions and companies. Particularly as a case study of individual businesses for understanding the development of modern companies in the northeast region, this study took note of the corporate governance of Fengtian Spin Factory(奉天紡紗廠), a government‐private limited partnership company in the 1920s. From analyzing the corporate governance of Fengtian Spin Factory were found a number of remarkable characteristics as follows. As investors’ rights and obligations were defined basically according to regulations on ‘limited company’ in <Companies Ordinance(公司條例)>, the corporate governance of the spin factory showed patterns distinguished from those of traditional partnership companies(合股). First, because capital was raised only through the issue of stocks and the investors were liable only for the amount of their investment, funds could be raised extensively and the scope of capital raising was extended to the entire province. Second, shareholders traded in their real name rather than anonymously and this secured the transparency of ownership, and anybody, as long as not a foreigner, was allowed to trade stock certificates freely without the spin factory’s prior approval. In traditional partnership companies, it was an extensive practice for investors to invest anonymously, and the assignment practice was also different from that of partnership companies that insisted on all shareholders’ approval and internal transactions. Third, shareholders participated actively in the management of the spin factory. The shareholders’ major means of decision-making on the general directions of the company and its management was the exercise of their voting rights through the general meeting of shareholders or the board of directors. This was why conflicts over the exercise of shareholders’ rights were expressed in the process of electing the general manager who would direct the organization of the board of directors representing the shareholders or the tasks of the spin factory. Fourth, with regard to the spin factory’s settlement of accounts, accounting used the new book keeping method based on the solar calendar, and different from partnership companies that settled the accounts once in every 2‐3 years, the spin factory did every year. Moreover, there was no pay adjustment for traditional 'guanli(官利)' in profit sharing. Considering the fact that the speculativeness of capitals underlying guanli practices hindered the internal accumulation of business capital, we can say that the spin factory had basically favorable conditions for the internal accumulation of liquid funds. These characteristics suggest the possibility that the existing gap of corporate governance or practices among regions or companies could be filled through the government’s legislative systems, and there was always potential for consequent homogenization. Still there is the question of whether regional economy was ready to accept the appearance and settlement of corporations limited or not. Fengtian Spin Factory was structured to attract capitals extensively, but private subscribers were rare yet. Despite the role of the chamber of commerce representing local powers, the capital raised from private investors was less than half of the spin factory’s initial capital, and finally the Official Bank of the Northeast(東三省官銀號), enterprise run by the government, participated as a private investor to maintain balance between the government and private capitals. Moreover, although the free trade of stock certificates among Chinese without the spin factory’s prior approval was guaranteed, the implementation of this trade demanded a market system like an exchange. That is, the actual settlement of the corporate governance of corporations limited had to be closely connected to the development of the regional economy of northeast China. On the other hand, although it was a modern‐style ‘limited company’, the corporate governance of Fengtian Spin Factory maintained the traces of traditional partnership business practices. As mentioned above, <constitution> of the spin factory did not have pay adjustment for guanli, but the profit distribution ratio was as high as 65‐76%, suggesting that the guanli practice did not disappear but was altered so that pay was included in dividend for shareholders(紅利). In addition, part of profits to be attributed to the shareholders was distributed to the management and employees and this can be understood as an extension of the practice that profits were shared with managers and employees as labor investors of traditional partnership organizations. In this way, Fengtian Spin Factory maintained both traditional and modernity. As long as stakeholders’ interests were accomplished and business competitiveness could be enhanced while traditions and modern practices are interconnected properly, traditions in the modern times were what to be overcome and, at the same time, what to be sustainable.
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    Oder-Neisse border issues with German history textbooks

    PARK, JAE-YOUNG | 2014, (40) | pp.179~207 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is work how Germany and Poland have solved the question of cooperation for mutual understanding and co-existence between two countries as part of today's European integration, in spite of almost one thousand years lasting historical inconvenient experience, national antagonism and crimes of Nazi Germany in the Second World War. The difference of the territorial problems and historical awareness between German and Poland was able to overcome through the narrative of history textbooks and history education that was based on political efforts and academic discussions for mutual understanding. These acts have been provided a momentum for a new historical understanding, namely the new vision of history by communication and co-interpretation in spite of conflict and dispute, in both countries. Today, the two countries do not pose any more problems around the border. Rather, in regions of Germania-Slavica that germanic and slavic culture is fused,their own local culture are developing by both cultures. In addition, the integration of germanic and slavic culture is going to become a part of European culture. The area is considered as a prime example that was resolved territorial and historical disputes relating to this era of nationalism through a peaceful and scholarly dialogue.
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    A Study on the Backgrounds and Operation of Foreign Capital Firm Foundation in the Northeastern Region of China - With a focus on the Manchurian Cotton Mills Corporation in the 1920s

    Kim Ji Hwan | 2014, (40) | pp.251~287 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The northeastern region of China was a traditionally very important export market for the Japanese cotton textile industry. As the Chinese cotton textile industry made huge development during the First World War and rapidly supplied cotton goods to the region, however, they started to restrict the Japanese cotton goods in the region. Furthermore, the Chinese government raised the customs duty right after the WWI and contributed to the fast loss of competitive edge in pricing of Japanese cotton goods exported to the northeastern region of China. Under the background, the Japanese cotton textile industry finally made direct capital investments into the region, set up cotton textile companies, and started to produce cotton goods in the region. That change gave birth to the first cotton textile company founded by the Japanese capital in the region, Manchurian Cotton Mills Corporation. Manchurian Cotton Mills Corporation received active supports and sponsorship from the Japanese government from the foundation to management. The Japanese government made capital investments into the corporation by purchasing stocks through its state policy company, South Manchurian Railway Corporation, offered a part of its railroad zone as a site for the corporation at a low cost, and supplied the coal produced by the Fushun Colliery Company to the corporation. In addition, it extensively carried out a project of increasing the production of and making improvements to raw cotton in the northeastern region of China for the convenience of raw material procurement. Having access to the active supports of the Japanese government, the Manchurian Cotton Mills Corporation was able to go through the foundation and management stages within a short period of time. In the increasingly worsening China-Japan relations right after the end of WWI, however, the corporation could no longer maintain its smooth management on the back of supports from the Japanese government. Both the Chinese government and people had hostility against Japan and developed an anti-Japanese movement. The worsening China-Japan relations emerged as a new obstacle to the management of the Manchurian Cotton Mills Corporation enjoying the supports of the Japanese government.
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    Japanese Chinatown: A Case Study on Nanking-machi of Kobe

    YI, Jung-hee | 2014, (40) | pp.289~330 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considers a Japanese Chinatown in Kobe, and in a particular area called Nanking-machi. Based on an extensive literary review, the first section of this paper clarifies the history of Chinese living in Kobe over the past 140 years. Next, I analyze how this area was formed not only by foreign residents but a mix of nationals and foreigners. Chinese traders and food related businesses prospered much on Nanking-machi leading up to the 1920s. The war between Japan and China then caused a decrease in population and thus a decline in the economy. In 1945 this area was almost completely destroyed during an air raid. Later in the 1980s, Nanking-machi began to prevail again by the Nanking Promotion Association and Kobe city. This association held a Vernal Equinox Day Festival in 1987 to great success and caused Japan to fully recognize Nanking-machi as a strong economic area. Moving towards the present I recount the progress of Nanking-machi through the observations of a study group, a museum and Chinese school.
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    Extra-Regional Chambers of Commerce and Local Governance in Contemporary China

    장호준 | 2014, (40) | pp.331~362 | number of Cited : 1
    Extra-regional chamber of commerce(ERCC), or yidi shanghui, is a voluntary civil organization consisting of one locality’s firms that have established operations in another province or city. Representing the socioeconomic interests of the firms from same hometown, numerous ERCCs have emerged as local interest group in the business regions since the turn of the century. The proliferation of this new form of civil organization has been propelled by the convergence of the interests between ERCCs and local governments. This article deals with the ways ERCC operates in the local context. It examines the characteristics of ERCC, a distinct form of civil organization in contemporary China. In particular, it looks into the strategies ERCC and its member firms employ when they try to take root in the local society which is strange to them. Based on the findings, the article also discusses the sociopolitical implications that the participation of ERCCs in the local governance conveys. The growing involvement of ERCCs in the local governance is both an outcome and a cause of the ongoing changes in the mode of social management by the Chinese Party-state. In regards to Chinese state-society relationship, the case of ERCC does not fit well either to civil society model or to corporatism model which tends to circumscribe the analytical purview. The proliferation of the theoretically unruly form of civil organizations calls for paying particular attention to the dynamics between diverse layers of state apparatuses and varying forms of grassroots organizations in the local settings.
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    The Characteristics and National Strategy of Highways Construction in Northeast China : focused on socio-economical networks of city(municipal)-province(local)-national level

    Kim, Songjuk | 2014, (40) | pp.363~397 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to analyze the characteristics and national strategy of highway construction in Northeast China. Based on 2003 China's Northeast Project, and 2005 National Highway Network Plan, Northeast China(Liaoning·Jilin·Heilongjian provinces & Inner Mongolian Antonomous Region) has been extended 21 highways planning to complete til 2020. As a result of spatial analysis of ‘point-line-facet network’, it has been carried out the following features of national strategy. First, at city(municipal) level the role of 20 intersectional cities has been magnified. Second, all intersectional cities except Shuangliao(small sized city) are categorized as medium-sized cities, which allow the designated areas to be developed into future metropolitan for the balanced national development. Third, capital city of the 3 Northeast Provinces of China (named Shenyang, Changchun, Harbin), has been played a pivot role in transportation throughout history, which conforms the geographical features of the local areas. Fourth, the infrastructure development of Northeast area of China in the intersectional cities has been made a strategic pair with Shenyang special economic zone, Tumen River Area Development Plan & Changchun-Jilin-Tumen, Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihaer Industrial zone etc. Futhermore at province(local) level highway construction has been focused in Jilin province and Inner Mongolian Antonomous Region, which aims to disperse and balance the previously concentrated economic activities in Liaoning province. Also, the intersectional cities are exposed not only to the infrastructure plan, but also to the local balance development plan. Moreover, the highway construction has reinforced the relation between the central and the local, prompting the economic efficiency and development in national resource industry in Northeast Area. At national level, the 9 highways are expected to perform as a core of traffic route in Northeast Asia and Eurasia, along with the three bordering states, North Korea, Russia, and Mongolia. As the seven bordering cities of Northeast China have been under national development strategies(GTI: Greater Tumen Initiative Hunchun special economic zone), they has been acting as a economic port for international trading, which will facilitated the national resource transportation from the bordering states. Last but not least, 5 highways has been constructed in bordering area with North Korea although it possesses the shortest dimension of margins, which aims to promote socio-political stability of Ethnic minority groups like Yenbian Chaoxianzhu Antonomous Region, and extend its influence on Korean peninsula. As a result, the infrastructure construction in Northeast area has been implicating not only the physical transportation plan, but also grand national strategy of central government based on geographical reckoning of internal and external factors. Hence it will secure the future developmental motivation, facilitate the stability between industry and agriculture, and lay out new international order of Northeast Asia and Eurasia.