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2015, Vol., No.42

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    The Extollment of the SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince through his writing by King Jeonjo

    Kim, Jun Hyuk | 2015, (42) | pp.45~77 | number of Cited : 4
    The 22th King, Jeongjo, of the Choseon Dynasty, has various nicknames such as the monarch for the people, for reformation or of literary, but he also called ‘monarch of filial piety’. King Jeongjo showed the extraorinary affection toward King Yeongjo, the grandfather, SADOSEJA, the late Crown Prince and Hyegyeonggung Hong, the mother, as a sovereign monarch and filial son. One of his high virtues extolled by the contemporary or today people is his filial piety toward SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince. Suffering from the grief of losing his father at the age of 11, he was crowned despite of emotional distress and conspiracy against his throne from the opposite political group. The eight-word remark, 'No throne for the son of the traitor' (‘逆賊之子 不爲君王’) was circulated in the country to baffle his throne by opposition party, Noron. Opposition party, Noron had driven the national consensus against his legitimacy saying how the son of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince who was executed as traitor could be a king. King Jeongjo was concentrating on his legitimacy as monarch after managing to secure his throne with the help of the guard forces made up of his guests of honor around the Crown Prince Palace Sigangwon (東宮 侍講院) while being a Crown Prince. The project was to extol the Crown Prince of the Apostles. However, December in 1775 (Yeongjo 51), just before sovereign by proxy, the respect of his father, SADOSEJA, was banned the Crown Prince upon the strict order by King Yeongjo, which was a huge hinderance to him. In the long run, the extollment of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince was the only way to establish his legitimacy, which was barriered fundamentally by Yeongjo. Accordingly, he needed to establish a new 'Yimoeuiri(壬午義理) ' for his legitimacy established, but in reality, he had to pursue the long-term 壬午義理 toward the completion of the respect of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince. So he virtue is basically gyeongmogung Palace construction and the respect of the SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince and transfer of the tomb of the Crown Prince to Suwon Provincial Office and at the same time changed its name into Hyunreungwon 顯隆園, and through various type of extollment he wanted to get the attention from officials, royal families and grass roots to discuss the possibility of the respect of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince, which meant highly political movement through ‘Sajungjigong(私中之公)’ to mobilize his personal piety into the public piety toward his father. So he wrote King's writing by himself to upheave SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince, directly or indirectly for 'Yimoeuiri(壬午義理) ', and published books for extollment of SADOSEJA. National projects and King's political action were associated with the Crown Prince, in order to focus him on the monarchs of three kings inherited the lineage(King Hyojong, King Hyeonjong, and King Sukjong), who could be the lords with the power of the state administration. In relating to tomb transfer, he prepared the writing as the biography of SADOSEJA, 『Hyungreungwonji (顯隆園志)』who was depicted to better himself as ‘Swordsman (武)人’ monarch not as psychopathic enough to kill Yeongjo like traitor. In particular, extollment of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince was made naturally through letting the people know his humility and reasonable policy making for his future subjects. Let alone this, King Jeongjo utilized Buddhism to promote extollment of SADOSEJA that the grass roots believed in. Comparable to the Confucian "Hyokyung 孝經", the publication of the "Bumoeun Chongqing" was entrusted to Temple Yongjusa, which was the original temple visited by him. In the preface of "Muyedobotongji", published in 1790, King Jeongjo highlighted that the Crown Prince established the Korean martial art. King Jeongjo translated this book into "Eonmun" (Korean letters for grass roots), to recruit people who wanted to stay in the military camp. These military men were accepted to set up the Jangyoungyong Ouside Camp, which was his own supporting base along with extollment of SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince. In the end, King Jeongjo was to eventually transcended his piety toward SADOSEJA, the Crown Prince into a national project to change the culture of Choseon society, and promote the new reform under political stability.
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    Historic Status of Gwansan Jo Cheolho and the Joseon Boys Army

    Kim, Hyung-Mog kim | 2015, (42) | pp.79~112 | number of Cited : 2
    National liberation movement had a chance to develop in many areas since the March 1st Movement. The idea of 'children' started to be widely used and designation of the Children's Day have an important meaning in history of boys movement. These attempts responding to change of time caused changes in perceptions of the traditional value of children. Jo Cheolho organized the Joseon Boys Army to answer the Boy Scout Movement of the world. The army started from 8 members in Oct. 5, 1922 and kept expanding until disbanding in 1937. It had 80 Hodaes(虎隊), the branches, and about 10,000 members when it was disbanded. Jo Cheolho entered into the Military Academy of Korean Empire to be a bulwark for the country. Although the academy was closed down in 1909, he was not discouraged and went to Japan. He was commissioned as a Japanese second lieutenant after graduating a secondary school and the Japanese Military Academy. After he was discharged from the service, he devoted himself into the national education as a gym teacher in Osan School, Jeongju and Jungang Secondary School. Based on the realization that sound body and strong spirit were the foundation for growing independent activists, he made the Joseon Boys Army, one of the systematic boys' training and cultivating institutes. Joseon Boys Army helped to the nationwide expansion of the Juvenile Movement through solidarity with various social organizations. It positively participated in parades, street propaganda and maintenance of order on the Childeren's Day. Especially, it tried to make mutual solidarity with other social areas through lecture tours and motion picture contest. Its members realized themselves as social beings by a boot camp and voluntary service. They were not discouraged and did their best on their duty even though they lived in the dark colonial time. This is the reason why the Boys and Young Men Movement including the Army should be focused.
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    Traces of ‘Entangled Powers’ in Jeju 4·3 Peace Park

    홍순용 , Yook Young Soo | 2015, (42) | pp.113~157 | number of Cited : 3
    Jeju 4·3 Peace Park is the conclusion place for the resolution project of the Jeju 4·3 Incident with a governmental initiative since Kim Dae Jung regime. And it is the combined outcome of ‘making of 4·3 memory’ together with central and local governments, representatives of military and police, 4·3 families of the deceased, 4·3 movement groups, and so on. This means that competing traces among various powers that participated in the development and operation of 4·3 Peace Park remained in the space. Hence, 4·3 Peace Park exhibits the memories of 4·3 to demonstrate the ‘history of 4·3 resolution’ together driven since the government of the people. The scenery of the external space in 4·3 Peace Park reflects the changes of 4·3 arguments upon the regime and the traces of powers back and forth according to their changes. In addition, the permanent exhibition hall within 4·3 Peace Park is the place to be materialized by the issues related to 4·3. 4·3 movement groups that participated in the foundation of permanent exhibition hall tried to fill in the place of the silence in which Fact-finding report on the Jeju 4·3 Incident could not expose. However, this had been divided by two trials. One was the trial to criticize the fact that positivism historical view of one journalist to collect the facts on 4·3 Incident for more than 20 years and to follow the truth was missing, and the other was the trial of structuralism historical view to criticize the fact that the governmental fact finding excluded another leading part, armed group from the incident. The fierce history writing war between these two historical views resulted in the form of ‘entangled’ at the permanent exhibition hall in Peace Park. In this article, the space of Jeju 4·3 Peace Park was analyzed in view of ‘past liquidation on 4·3 Incident and peaceful history making’ rather than finding the truth of Jeju 4·3 Incident.
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    The art historical meaning of Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism of Wu Tao-Tzu(吳道子)

    Kim, Yeonjoo | 2015, (42) | pp.159~188 | number of Cited : 0
    Wu Tao-Tzu(吳道子 the activity about 700-750 year) was praised as the saint of painting, is the person who built the model of Chinese styled Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism by the creative art processing method in the glory days of Buddhist paintings in Tang era. He drew the new art pattern with the personality and creative power of his own only. He also was “the painter doing the great creativity and the creative activity” in the time that the religious painting reached its peak in the 8thcentury. But, the actual his work had been concentrated in The Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism, has nothing to do with the court nearly based on the record of students and painters related to him. The artistic value of Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism of Wu Tao-Tzu may be checked largely in three aspects. First, Wu Tao-Tzu created the ‘Wuzhuang(吳裝)’, ‘Wujiayang(吳家樣)’ being the model of Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism in Tang era. Gwag Yag Hu(郭若虛) said “the touch is magnificent and strong. the color is brief and light.” In terms of His stylistic characteristic, it was expressed as ‘powerful(雄) and strong(勁)’ and ‘simple(簡) and light(淡)’. Especially, though he used lines of sketch not using color, the lines were expressed characteristics and mood of figurations to reveal by simple form. It has been named as ‘Wudaidangfeng(吳帶當風)’ that appeared as the style with the strong expressivity as the Wuzhuang(吳裝) reflected the powerful force in the wrinkle of clothes. Second, Wu Tao-Tzu had the unrestricted expressive power that the artistic creative power stood out. Zhang Yan-Yuan(張彦遠) said that Wu Tao-Tzu only materialized the all rules of Xie He(謝赫)’s Six principles(六法) and admired their effects were natural. Wu Tao-Tzu was not bound by the edifying and religious subject, the formality and the meaning, and revealed his artistic creative power of the inspiration in his own world. Third, the artistry of Wu Tao-Tzu was to acquire the popularity by the combination of shape and soul. Wu Tao-Tzu engaged himself in the work with the level of skill of non-intentional intention that was unconcious action or purpose of painting. His Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism has been painted numerously, has been proved his popularity in his time. Wu Tao-Tzu had the ‘bravura’ well equipped with unrestricted technical virtuosity expressing purpose-built people of Taoism and Buddhism. His style has been inherited as one mode following the era as it conforms with the public demand. Wu Tao-Tzu who had been respected as the saint of painting in the Tang age, depreciated as a just painter. According to change of the major list of painting from figure painting to the landscape painting in Song Dynasty, the spirit of literary paintings has been emphasized. His works have been leaded to fall as works of painter because implementation to the metaphorical and connotative sense of beauty had been more emphasized than images of explanation and strong messages by the edifying purpose. The art world of Wu Tao-Tzu has been interpreted differently according to the change of artistic spirit in time. Nonetheless, Wu Tao-Tzu seems to be clear that he has been still located at the highest peak of Figure Painting of the Taoism and Buddhism in the aspects of possessing his powerful imagination and acquiring the popularity.
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    Education of the Taiwan Natives during the Japanese Colonial Period - Focusing on Kyoyooksodohwachup(敎育所圖畵帖)

    KIM EUN KYUNG | 2015, (42) | pp.243~279 | number of Cited : 1
    Kyoyooksodohwachup(敎育所圖畵帖) is the first elementary drawing textbook for the children of the Taiwan natives in the special ruling district during the Japanese colonial period. The purpose of this study is to clarify the goal and meaning of the education for Taiwan natives implemented by Japan through analyzing Kyoyooksodohwachup. Due to the Taiwan- indigenous-affair-unification policy issued in 1931, Kyoyooksodohwachup, on the basis of developing children's ability to express freely and fostering their sense of beauty, aimed at cultivating national character as a Japanese. Topics of each unit were mainly selected from the surrounding sceneries or the real life to enhance objective cognition and description ability. However, those topics visualizing convenience of transportation through developing mountain areas, modernization through technical development, and order and norm observance through civilization implied the purpose of enhancing Japanese colonization. Especially, the national flag of Japan was intentionally placed in every scenes that interest the children in order to improve their positive cognition towards the nation. This proves that topics in each unit of Kyoyooksodohwachup attributed not only to improving the cognition of objects and expression skill, but also to breaking down the bad customs of the natives, inspiring patriotism and training them as a Japanese through the symbolism of visual images.
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    A Study of Asia as a Historical Concept

    Koh Won | 2015, (42) | pp.281~306 | number of Cited : 1
    'Asia' is the term that we often use in everyday life. But Asia has not the single identity because of a varied ethnic groups, languages and religions. The geographical boundary of Asia is not clear either. Why do Asia not has a specific identity? And yet how do we use generally the term Asia? We have to examine the history of concept of Asia so as to comprehend these problems. The term Asia was made by Europe. There have not been a that term in Asia before Europeans came to this area. Asia was not originally a area represented by one term. But Asians accepted the term Asia as actual state after modern times, and this term produced and diffused the Asian identity in Asia. This article examine the history of concept of Asia made by Europeans first and by Asians second, and verify that the identity of Asia was made in certain historical condition. The purpose is not to deny or to deconstruct the actual reality of Asia, but to create a base of possibility for reconstitute the new identity of Asia.
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    The Redirection of Cultural Criticism in nineteenth-century Britain: John Ruskin's Art Criticism and Thought of Social Reform

    Wooryong Park | 2015, (42) | pp.307~351 | number of Cited : 1
    Perhaps the strongest theme in nineteenth-century English literature was criticism of industrial society and the utilitarian and laissez-faire philosophies that went with it. From the Romantic poets at the beginning of the century to the aesthetes of the end, literary artists expressed a revulsion from industrial society, its urban blight, its entrepreneurial class and entrepreneurial values. The underlying themes in the tradition were that the new society left little space for art and imagination, that it fragmented both the cohesiveness of the national community and the human integrity of its members. Ramond Williams has demonstrated that the imaginative reaction to industrial society and thought in England generated a concept of 'culture' itself. The tradition of 'cultural criticism' originated from this tradition of regarding culture as going against the grain of industrial life and thought. In this tradition artist, or serious writer, or 'genius' was seen as a special kind of person, and often as one who opposed central features of the new society. Their task was to save society from the social sins, the political catastrophes and the moral degradation that industrial life and values carried in their wake. Art, according to Victorian thought, was to be used to redeem society. However, in late-Victorian life some leading literary people were repelled by the continuing expansion of bourgeois mores and styles, and were bewildered by the fracturing of their old audience and by the rise of a new one with which they had no contact and little sympathy. Literary writers also experienced a loss of confidence because of the rise of natural science and the decline of religion. They lost their assurance that they could reach all the politically-effective members of society. For these reasons, they sensed that literature was no longer as central to English culture as it once had been. And the idea of debasement of taste was their rationalization of the predicament. The sense of the debasement of taste and all that it presented was the context which reshaped and redirected the tradition of cultural criticism. The pivotal figure in the redirection of the tradition was John Ruskin, himself an eminently Victorian prophet. In Ruskin's work of which the best was produced between 1843(the first volume of Modern Painters) and 1875(the early parts of Fors Clavigera), there is an ideal of the wholeness of human beings and the coherence of society which reached back to both Shelley and Coleridge. He added to the tradition of cultural criticism the notion that art is the product of the whole ethos of society : great art is the product of morally sound society, bad art is the result of a morally corrupt society. Ruskin thought the hideous ugliness of industrial England reflected the moral ugliness of its makers. And capitalist industrialism delights itself in the defilement and degradation of all the best gifts of its God by its deformed values. Among the worst of its features was the erosion of the full humanity of its workers: by the principle of the division of labour, and by the subordination of men to machines, capitalist industry turned men into machines, capitalist industry turned men into machines. In his broad declaration, "There is no wealth but life," as in his unceasing stress upon the need of good work for all men, Ruskin has laid down as the foundation-stone of social theory the organic relation between work and life, between production and consumption. J. A. Hobson was deeply smitten by Ruskin's vision of the organic nature of economic society. Hobson, William Morris, and the later tradition of English guild socialism learned from Ruskin that the logical step from aesthetic criticism of English society was more or less extensive social rearrangement.
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    The Historical Thought Of Norman Brown

    Cho,Han-Ook | 2015, (42) | pp.353~369 | number of Cited : 1
    This article tries to shed some light on the life of Norman Brown, an American scholar, writer and social philosopher, and his major work Life Against Death: The Psychological Meaning of History. Originally he was a classical scholar, but in later life delved into the works of Sigmund Freud, producing Life Against Death. In it he showed the ways in which psychoanalysis could be used to elucidate the course of human history. What is more, he tried to explain that there could be a world where there would be no repression. This is why the revolution-oriented youth groups known collectively as the New Left gathered around him, despite his avoidance of the fame. Life Against Death is certainly inspired by Freud, but at some point Norman Brown goes further than Freud, to make his point. He made use of the theories of Marx, Freud, Herbert Marcuse, Max Weber, and so on, but the outcome is his own original analysis of capitalism.
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    An analysis on the describing system and contents in korean high school <World History> textbooks

    PARK, JAE-YOUNG | 2015, (42) | pp.371~403 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is an analysis on the describing system and contents of korean high School <World History> textbooks in sight of the exchange and circulation of civilizations between Eastern and Western. The researcher selected five kinds of high school <World History> textbooks as the subject of this study. This includes textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in August 2011 August 2013. Because there are differences in the described contents and configuration sections of the <World History> textbooks. In fact, one kinds of unusual worth, textbook writers have a positive narrative about trade activity of Muslim merchants and the expansion of trade networks between Eastern and Western under the Mongol domination. However, since the pioneering of new routes, describing about the integration of the global trade network led by Westerners is negative, such as aggression, plunder, destruction, exploitation, slavery, domination, plague. Current high school <World History> description of the trade routes, transportation network of exchanges connecting civilizations can be called encouraging. Information on the exchange and circulation of civilization in high school world history textbooks will be reduced, because a total of six sections are presented in high school world history curriculum of revision 2015.
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    The Sino-Soviet Relation and the Korean War

    Ahn Chi-Young | 2015, (42) | pp.481~512 | number of Cited : 4
    The Korean War has broken out with the permission of Stalin and the consent of Mao Zedong. Originally, Stalin had opposed Kim Ilsung’s request for the outbreak of the war because of his fear of American intervention, and Mao Zedong had disagreed the war until the emancipation of the Taiwan. But Stalin changed his mind between Dec. 1949 and Jan. 1950, and Mao consented the war of unexpected time. The sudden change of Stalin’s attitude for Korean War and Mao’s consent was related to the new Sino-Soviet Treaty and Sino-Soviet relation. The new Sion-Soviet Treaty was signed during the Mao’s visit to Moscow. Stalin had not agreed to sign the new Sino-Soviet Treaty to replace the old Sino-Soviet Treaty sign by USSR and Republican China, because of the risk of the loss of the Soviet interests at Chinese Manchuria etc, guaranteed by the old Sino-Soviet Treaty. But Stalin was compelled to concede to sign the new treaty not only Mao’s persistent effort but also the possibility of the normalization of the Sino-American relation if not agree to sign the new treaty. Although Stalin and Mao had the same ideology, there was a deep crack between them formed by the Soviet intervention to the Chinese Revolution. U.S. government knew the conflict and tried to separate their relation. The new Sino-Soviet Treaty was signed at that background. So, the new treaty was not just the symbol of Sino-Soviet friendship but result of the mutual distrust. At that circumstance, Stalin agreed with Kim Ilsung’s war for the purpose of the elimination of the possibility for the Sino-US normalization. As Mao said, Stalin’s distrust of Mao faded away just after the Korean war.
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