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2017, Vol., No.46

  • 1.

    A Study on Bibliographic Research of Buddhist Historical Materials

    park,yong-jin | 2017, (46) | pp.5~50 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper examines various problems in Buddhist research by reviewing bibliographical research from Korea, China, and Japan. It suggests controversies and differences among perspectives of future directions of Buddhist research while summarizing commonalities. Titles and publishing periods were examined, which are the basis for establishing and developing the problems that arose during the research of individual bibliographies. Bibliographic items were divided into six parts: the cover, the beginning of the book, the body of the book, the plate type, the end of the book, and the publication data. This allowed for sequential research where possible from the cover to the end of each book. In addition, investigations and estimations of unknown titles and publishing periods were studied. Publication periods were estimated and suggested methodologies provided based on color and paper type, the preface and postscript, omissions, and the carvings.
  • 2.

    Discrimination Against the Gaeseong Region and the Identity of its People During the Joseon Dynasty

    Yang Jeong Pil | 2017, (46) | pp.51~85 | number of Cited : 6
    This article examined the identity of people in the Gaeseong region, which is primarily associated with city merchants, and investigated alternative identities unassociated with the city’s trade. A secondary identity of Gaeseong was determined based on political and social discriminations by the Joseon dynasty. Fifteenth century Gaeseong witnessed political injustice in that it was not ineligible for civil service examinations, which opened the door to government posts and allowed private business practices. This state ban was lifted after the sixteenth century, but unequal political treatment continued. People of Gaeseong origin who passed civil service exams were given limited opportunities and only appointed to regional or low-level central office posts. They were also degraded as belonging to the low-status mercantile class. The majority of Gaeseong people were traders and businessmen and looked down upon in the rigid class-oriented Joseon society. Accordingly, they were subjected to political and social abuse. However, Gaeseong citizens endeavored to make improve their opportunities; for example, some yangbans abandoned the state exams, and even though others were entitled to government posts, they indirectly complained about the unfairness of their position and their lack of promotion. Still others made strong bonds with colleagues facing similar situations. Realistically, it was difficult for Gaeseong citizens to act directly against social obstructions since protesting meant defying Joseon itself. Instead, they turned to spiritual consolation by bringing back the proud history of their ancestors. Specifically, the people of Gaeseong re-established the Old Story of Doomoondong, which is a story of martyrs who stood against the founding of the Joseon dynasty. This story gave the people an identity, as descendants of the honorable Koryo men of the late Joseon period. This was their philosophical solution to overcoming the harsh reality in which they found themselves. The Old Story of Doomoondong spread orally during the early Joseon period; it was only after the Hideyoshi Invasion that it was finally recorded and subsequently authorized for inclusion in local geography books. It was officially recognized when king Yeongjo visited Gaeseong in 1740, which enabled local inhabitants to publicly recite the story, which enhanced their pride in their identity. Thus, people of Gaeseong were able to internally share common feelings to combat political and social discrimination, and such movements eventually made a significant impact on their identity.
  • 3.

    Comparative Review of Accommodation in Lee Su-kwang’s and Lee Ik’s Discussions of Matteo Ricci's On Friendship

    Yongpil Noh | 2017, (46) | pp.87~134 | number of Cited : 0
    During King Gwanghae's sixth year of rule (i.e., 1614), Lee Su-kwang compiled the encyclopedia Jibonguseol, in which he mentioned On Friendship by Li Madou or Matteo Ricci. During the seventeenth century, he included content of On Friendship. He acquired Chinese books directly from writers of the Qing Dynasty during visits to China and placed emphasis on friendship as a western custom, describing the content of Xuertan (續耳譚) as "very queer." Based on analysis of the accommodating aspects of On Friendship during the latter part of the Chosǒn Dynasty, Lee Su-kwang's perspective was that these were a “simple-minded understanding.” Lee Ik mentioned in detail the content of On Friendship in a letter sent to one of his students in King Youngjo's thirtieth year (i.e., 1754), stating his view that accommodation in On Friendship would not continue into the eighteenth Centuryd. He never visited China and was learned of the content of On Friendship by reading the book. Nevertheless, he not only perceive friendship as a topic of study but appraised the work as a "sharp and penetrating discourse," stating that "what it says is substantial, real and worth musing." Thus, accommodating aspects of On Friendship during the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty constituted “in-depth understanding.” Lee Su-kwang's and Lee Ik's perspectives of On Friendship strongly contrast and describe different characteristics.
  • 4.

    Agricultural Policy of the Korean Empire

    Young Hak LEE | 2017, (46) | pp.135~176 | number of Cited : 1
    After King Gojong returned to Kyungwoon Palace from the Russian Legation in February 1897, he established the Korean Empire and laid down many reform policies in the following October. Politically, to strengthen his imperial power, he weakened rival groups, such as the Independence Club and traditional yangban officials to establish his own force. After 1899, agriculture policy in the Korean Empire was developed and enforced by Naejangwon, which collected agricultural taxes, rather than by official government organizations, such as the Department of Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry. As agricultural productivity advanced, redistribution of wealth was needed to rebuild rural communities and improve farmers’ lives. The Korean Empire sought to develop agriculture by establishing farming companies led by the government or the private sector. Agriculture companies were divided into two categories depending on its functions. One category was the companies which tried to improve farming tools or repair facilities, and farming technique education. The other was the companies that focused on cultivating devastated land to farm. In nineteenth century East Asia, silk was a major trade item, and intellectuals of Chosun went to Japan to study and learn Japanese advanced sericulture skills. They returned to Korea in 1899 to found the Korean Empire Artificial Sericulture Limited Partnership, which performed sericulture and ancestral rites and taught sericulture skills by establishing artificial sericulture training centers. With support from the Korea government, they established a sericulture education department at the Department of Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry, and trained students greatly enhanced sericulture business by establishing schools and companies throughout.
  • 5.

    The Manchurian Incident and Colonization of Korea: Military Movements and the Governor General of Colonized Korea

    Youngsuk Gim | 2017, (46) | pp.177~223 | number of Cited : 3
    Research of the Manchurian Incident assumes that the army of Kwanto, which is inferior to the military, allowed for the expansion of the war carried out by a government that could not help but acknowledge its actions . The Japanese government succeeded in organizing the Kwanto army, from Kantosyu into Jinzhou in the west and Qichihar in the north. During this process, the Chosun army carried out military operations with the Kwanto army and played an active role throughout the Manchurian Incident. Meanwhile, Chosun Army and Governor General of Colonized Korea are played an important role as a leading character in Manchurian Incident. They discussed what kind of regime should be established in Manchuria and how to use the Manchuria Incident in Chosun government.
  • 6.

    Characteristics of Students at Kyungsung Public Agricultural School during the Japanese Colonial Period: the School Register of Graduates of 1945

    Myeong Sook Kim | 2017, (46) | pp.225~261 | number of Cited : 2
    This case study examines the characteristics of Kyungsung Public Agricultural School students during Japanese colonial rule by analyzing the school register of the students who graduated in 1945. Kyungsung Public Agricultural School offered public co-education between Korea and Japan and was established in 1918 to foster agricultural expertise based on theory and practical skills in Gyeonggi-do. It aimed to cultivate Korean elite agricultural talents who inherited the advanced agricultural technology of Japan and who contributed to colonial agricultural policy. Among faculty, 70% of the teachers, including the principal, were Japanese, while 80-85% of the students were Korean. Korean students were treated differently than Japanese students by a number of Japanese teachers who were protected by colonial rule. National conflicts were always inherent; however, the school’s Korean students were far superior to Japanese students in academic performance and practical achievement, and they monopolized many prizes, such as a honor awards, attendance prizes, and practical training prizes, as well as being class leaders. Kyungsung Public Agricultural School sought to be the leading agricultural school in the East by providing excellent curricula, teachers, and school facilities, which became the envy of students whose goals were to become elite agriculture experts. The parents of students at Kyungsung Public Agricultural School consisted of 58% farmers and 31.3% workers in modern capitalist occupations, such as public and private enterprises. In the case of farmers, worked small and medium-sized farms and were directly engaged in agricultural management rather than being large-scale landowners. Even the modern bourgeois class of 31.3 % hoped to foster their sons elite agricultural experts through modern agricultural education. In 1941, 88.3% of the students who enrolled faced fierce competition, and by 1945, 82.3% of them were employed. These students were considered the best agricultural elites, belonging to many district agricultural associations(郡農會), and leading agriculture production for war. The students of 1941 were did not graduate and were part of a five-year course, from which they were unable to complete their studies on war the end of Japanese imperialism. They were forcibly dispatched to official organizations to play a partial role in colonial-farm policy.
  • 7.

    Discussion of US·USSR military retreat in the UN General Assembly after transfer of the Korean issues to the UN

    YOO, JIA | 2017, (46) | pp.263~291 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The United States (US) suggested division of the 38th parallel north after the Potsdam Declaration because it worried about the vacancy of power in the Korean peninsula after Japan's surrender. A significant possibility existed that the Soviet Union (USSR) would occupy some part of this region; thus, this temporary method was suggested to solve colonial territory issues stemming from the defeat of Japan. The fundamental policy of US military occupation in the Korean peninsula commonly focused on fast transfer of territorial trusteeship and retreat of US military forces. However, the Cold War atmosphere in East Asia was fixated after the second meeting of the US–USSR Joint Commission failed on July 2, 1947. As a result, the US transferred the handling of all Korean issue to the United Nations (UN) to solve external conflict with the USSR and internal disputes between US military command and the Department of States. The UN's 186th plenary meeting, held on December 11, 1948, was the beginning of discussions about Korean issues and US military retreat. On December 12, the 195th (III) general assembly resolution was established, which ordered the creation of the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) to replace the UN's temporary commission in Korea and to inherit all formal projects related to Korea. The missions of the UNTCOK were 1) to watch and confer on the national assembly system based on the free will of the Korean people, 2) to watch actual retreat processes occupants, 3) and to confirm their retreat. On July 27, 1949, the UNTCOK received a second mission to process reports from the Third Codex Committee at their 48th meeting. The UNTCOK confirmed that US military expected a full retreat of forces by June 29, 1949 except for less than 50 air force personnel and 500 Military Advisory Group to the Republic of Korea (KMAG) staff members, who only6 temporally left from the Kimpo Airport to rearrange public administration. Meanwhile, the 28th command order came from the US Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) on November 13, 1945, which was designed to ensure the national security of Korea and declared the official establishment of Korean Security Forces and the Office of the Director of National Defense of the Military Government of Korea. The office included army, navy, and military affairs departments, and it held exclusive operational control of police. The US military retreated to benefit Korea, believing that economic support and building cooperation in Far-East Asian was a more cost effective option. In this way, the US planned to give up responsibility for Korean political, ideological, and diplomatic issues, with the exception of except military issues. This Cold War perspective would allow the US to retain military control if a Korean War broke out.
  • 8.

    Recognition o Toyotomi Hideyosi during the Edo Period

    KIM MOON JA | 2017, (46) | pp.293~326 | number of Cited : 2
    This research examines how recognition of Hideyosi during the Edo Period changed based on contemporary literature from Confucian scholars, classical scholars, statesmen, and Taikôki for the general public. For 200 years of the Edo Period, recognition of Hideyosi was not uniform. In the seventeenth century, during the early Edo Period, neo-Confucian intellectuals who protected the Shogunate regime, in an atmosphere of anti-Hideyosi, critically understood Hideyosi’s invasion of Korea as an unjustifiable war. In recognition of Hideyosi, the invasion of Joseon was identified as the arrogant and atrocious behavior of a shameful man who was ungrateful of Nobunaga. Thus, during this period, criticism of Hideyosi was expected from pro-Shogunate scholars. In the mid-Edo Period, pro-Shogunate scholars continued to denigrate Hideyosi’s achievements, saying that the invasion to Joseon was useless. Most underestimated him as a treacherous man toward Nobunaga from Confucian logic. That is, literature by these scholars does not blindly praise the invasion to Joseon and describes Hideyosi’s limits and mistakes without any omissions or rewrites. However, unlike early scholars, who criticized the complete victory of conquering three Han countries by the Empress Zingu and the invasion of Joseon by Hideyosi, Hideyosi’s invasion was first highly regarded as national defence. Empress Zingu’s military successes and Hideyosi’s invasion were both praised as achievements that showed the divine glory of Japan. Resistance to criticism of Empress Zingu was common among Confucian scholars, who brought foreign theories, such as Buddhism. Statesmen and scholars influenced by classical studies during the late Edo Period intended to protect the country by overseas expansion, targeting Joseon for its proximity to Japan and for conquest as emancipation. In this respect, Hideyosi’s invasion was viewed in a positive light. Additionally, Taikôki literature gained public popularity at this time, and Hideyosi was embellished as the smartest and most perfect man, who made his fortune as a commoner in a strict social hierarchy, rather than focusing on his achievements or expansion-related military prestige. This change was closely related to the Tokugawa shogunate’s power and emancipation, as well as Japan’s defence, and the image of Hideyosi’s as a hero and pioneer of overseas invasion was formed from the mid to late Edo Period, rather than the modern era, in which his image continues to change.
  • 9.

    Two ‘China’ image narrated by two historical textbooks about the late Qing Dynasty: Ben Chao Shi Jiang Yi by Wāng Róng Bǎo and Guo Xue Jiang lun Cong Shu by LiúShīPéi

    Au Chi Kin | 2017, (46) | pp.327~359 | number of Cited : 0
    After the establishment of the Huaxia culture by the Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties, the Qin dynasty became unified. Since the Han dynasty honored Confucianism, it was also consolidated with the Huaxia culture, in which Han Confucianism became an orthodox view during the Song Dynasty. Most intellectual elites thought of non-Han people as different, only including them within Chinese culture when these people adopted Huaxia culture or Confucianism. These people, formally considered ‘barbarians,’ are now became Chinese. During the Revolution of 1911 (1903–1911), the Han advocated for their distinction from Manchurians based on blood ties and culture. Even Manchurian is discerned by using of Western civil rights, freedom and democracy. A "national image" by the establishment of a pluralistic nationality in the Manchu official language appears in the official nationwide edition, namely Ben Chao Shi Jiang Yi (The Handouts of This Dynasty History), which constructing a national image of a unified country in the development of the modern nation state formed by a pluralistic ethnic group in China. In contrast, a folk textbook, Guo Xue Jiang lun Cong Shu (Chinese History Textbook), which advocating revolutionary theory and rejection of Manchurian, narrated a "nation-state image" dominated by a single Han ethics. Therefore, this article explores how history textbooks constructed national and ethnic perspectives of China by comparing Ben Chao Shi Jiang Yi by Wāng Róng Bǎo and Guo Xue Jiang lun Cong Shu by LiúShīPéi.
  • 10.

    The adaptation of Christians to society in the late first century and the early second century

    Gi moon Jung | 2017, (46) | pp.361~389 | number of Cited : 0
    Jesus and Paul believed that the Kingdom of God would come in their generation and taught this to their followers. However, as the promise of Jesus was not realized by the end of the first century, the necessity to change the mode of life of Christians became apparent. Thus, Christian leaders developed the Deutero-Pauline epistles, other epistles of the New Testament, and the works of the Apostolic Fathers. The adaptation of Christians to Roman society in the late first and early second centuries is discussed in this paper. First, a hierarchy was developed within the community of believers. In the time of Jesus and Paul, all believers were considered equal, but problems arose in the absence of leaders because Christians were not able to respond actively to persecution. It was necessary to establish an order of priests to overcome adversity, promoted by the Deutero-Pauline epistles, other epistles of the New Testament, and the Apostolic Fathers, such as Ignatius of Antioch. Second, radical elements who supported past views were removed to improve Roman perspectives of Christianity as an anti-social religion and related persecution. Thus, Christian leaders adapted Christian attitudes toward slavery and women, suggesting that slavery was just and that women must submit to men's direction. These internal reforms were insufficient to ensure church survival, and it was necessary to change Christian attitudes toward external society. While Jesus and Paul opposed violent defiance, they regarded authorities as opponents of the Kingdom of God, so many followers regarded Rome as evil. Instead, Christians were encouraged to become loyal to the state and to obey Roman rulers.
  • 11.

    All Souls' Day and Cluny's Funeral

    LEE JEONG MIN | 2017, (46) | pp.391~417 | number of Cited : 2
    Death transformed medieval Christian society, which considered the afterlife to be the ultimate destination. Men buried in monastery cemeteries had obtained the privilege of salvation of their souls, meeting an ideal death through deathbed confession and peaceful funerals. For those seeking eternal rest, the necessity for spiritual relief and fear of the afterlife created cults based around holy relics, which expanded throughout the 980 through the Abbey of Cluny, located in the eastern French region of Saône-et-Loire. The fifth abbot of Cluny, Odilon, was a passionate traditionalist in relation to funerals and entombment and celebrated the day following All Saints’ Day as All Souls’ Day. Because of ritualization of funerals that emphasizes the soul's salvation, interment in a monastery cemetery was a goal that fostered countless donations to Cluny. In this article the role of Cluny and its historical meaning is described, outlining how it led to communication between the deceased and the living and how it created a religious function for dead monks entombed in eleventh century monastery cemeteries. It was said that Cluny sought to be a ‘little Roma', by reinforcing the papacy and establishing an ecclesiastical hierarchy by ritualizing funerals and interments.
  • 12.

    A Critical Discourse on Bhabha’s Deconstructive Readings of Fanon

    Kim Hyun Sik | 2017, (46) | pp.419~457 | number of Cited : 1
    Frantz Fanon and Homi Bhabha. At first sight, there seems no connections between them. This is because there are no resemblances between the man who lived the colonial age as an active actor and the man who lives the post-colonial world as a deconstrucitve writer. Nevertheless, there is the distinctive link between them: a sharp recognition of discriminatory situation and the strong will to change it. So Bhabha summoned Fanon not to explicate the historical context of Fanon’s revolutionary ideas but to appropriate him in solving the racial problems in the post-colonial age. This was because, according to Bhabha, “Fanon’s phenomenological performance of what it means to be not only a nigger but a member of the marginalized, the displaced, the diasporic.” Nevertheless, does this reincarnated Fanon have any value? Is ‘the post-modern Fanon’ invented by Bhabha trustful? This article has just one purpose: refuting Bhabha’s interpretation. For this, Bhabha’s works on Fanon such as “Remembering Fanon” will be thoroughly examined, and thereby, his various problems will be confuted concretely.
  • 13.

    Decolonization and ‘New French People’ –Algerian Immigrants and Modification of Nationality Law

    Dahn Park | 2017, (46) | pp.459~487 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the following three issues. First - Answer to questions: why the Algerian immigrants came to France in a large scale before and after the Algerian War of Independence and why they tried to get the French nationality despite Algeria’s independence. Second - with regard to the process of acquiring French nationality, we examined the necessity of the French nationality law’s amendment and willingness of the Algerian immigrants to acquire France nationality. Third - with reference to the nationality of second generation of Algerian immigrants in France, we reviewed the policy of the French authorities concerning the identity of immigrants. As the result of this research, while trying to resolve the issues raised above, we found out that the French nationality problems of 1973 and 1993 were closely related. These problems were not just simple labor force issues but also the French identity issue.
  • 14.

    History Education and Citizenship Education : A Review

    Cho,Han-Ook | 2017, (46) | pp.489~510 | number of Cited : 1
    The main purpose of this paper is to review current arguments for history education for/as citizenship education amongst scholars of history education in U.K. and U.S.A. Citizenship education was initiated in these countries as an alternative subject of traditional civics aiming at preventing pupils and younger generation from absorbing in political and social apathy in neoliberal hegemony from the beginning of this century. It influenced immediately scholars of history education who believed in presentism of historical studies. They produced plenty of articles which emphasized the role of history education as pedagogy for pupils’ practical and critical attitude towards the present political and social problems through historical inquiry of the past human experiences. In both sides of citizenship education scholars and history education ones, pupils’ ability of recognizing and interpreting the historical background and context of the present political and social problems are valued vital for them to critically think of current pathological situation and to actively participate in deliberating and direct acting for solution.
  • 15.

    Residing and reclamation: Relocation of the capital Eight Banners to the northeast during the Qing Dynasty

    허혜윤 | 2017, (46) | pp.511~537 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    During the early Qianlong reign, the livelihoods of the Eight Banners began to decline. To solve this problem, the Qing government used costly measures between the Kangxi and Qianlong reigns, with little effect. During the height of the Qianlong reign, men of insight proposed that the people within the capital of the Eight Banners should be transplanted to the northeast, which was implemented during the final period of the Qing dynasty. Although the Qing government provided generous supported during the initial stage of resettlement, life of the capital Eight Banners became increasingly impoverished because the land did not respond well to Eight Banner subsistence techniques. As a result, the Qing government heavily invested in the implementations of various measures to maintain the livelihoods of the Bannerman who had relocated. These policies and government plans eventually failed but many Bannerman did leave their homes and adapted to relocation on their own terms. Although emigration policies were not successful, descendants of the Eight Banners thrived in the northeast, and the region was subsequently promoted as an area where merging of nationalities on a frontier was historically successful to incorporate borderlands into the larger nation. Thus, settlement eventually led to the rapid development of the relocated areas and promoted national integration.
  • 16.

    The Establishment of the Great King Temple and its Meanings in Anhui Province during the Qing Periods

    Kim, Du-Hyun | 2017, (46) | pp.539~587 | number of Cited : 3
    This article explores the establishment of the Great King Temple (金龍四大王廟) in Anhui Province as a means of preventing flood disasters. The temple was first established in commercial towns (市鎭) in major river basins or in the polder (圩田) areas on ​both sides of the Yangtze River. The Great King was worshiped among residents along the Yangtze River, the Huaihe River, and the canal, all of which are geomorphic features of Anhui Province, where frequent flooding occurs in shallow water systems that threatens the safety of passengers using these waterways as well as freight traffic. Such flooding not only damages people and property but also damages and changes the riverbeds themselves, which is a natural process. Inhabitants of the main water system worshiped the Great King as a spirit of protection of life and property during frequent floods. Originally a god of the Yellow River, the Great King was awarded a seal by the state, resulting in the recognition of the Great King as a god of water transportation. Rooted in Anhui Province, where the characteristics of both the earlier and later versions of the god overlapped, the Great King was primarily worshiped by itinerant traders and local officials and gentry. The adoption of Great King worship among merchants facilitated his characteristics as a water and business god (行業神). Religious rites of the Great King related to spring and autumn were adopted by the state, which accepted and propagated the religion, resulting in such worship taking root in the private sector in relation to waterway security and flood safety. Most Great King Temples were built in rural towns (鄕鎭), where merchants, gentry, and villagers all participated, making it possible to estimate the degree of acceptance and expectations of this civilian faith among followers. In particular, the process of spreading the religion to the Anhui Province, although limited to certain regions, was facilitated by itinerant traders (客商), who helped establish worship of the Great King nationwide. In Anhui Province, 58 temples were established in 30 subprefectures and districts after the Shunzhi (順治) periods. The Temple of Digangzhen (荻港鎭) in Fanchang (繁昌) County and in the Wuwei (無爲) subprefecture were not built by local people but by Huizhou (徽州) and Zhejiang (浙江) merchants, respectively. Both of these areas were commercial cities relying on water transportation, and there was a psychological expectation to secure a safe distribution channel for visitors. Although it cannot be confirmed due to the lack of concrete data, it seems that worship of the Great King as a god of water transportation and maritime business was a function of guild halls in the Wuhe (五河) District. In the Quanjiao (全椒) District in the Chuzhou (滁州) subprefecture, the Great King was introduced by foreigners; the area originally was a reception site for the temple of Angong (晏公廟), indicating not only the frequent passage of merchants and ships but also the significance of the area for transportation of national taxes. In the fourteenth year of the Kangxi (康熙) emperor, the Temple of Great King was built under the leadership of the district magistrate. Later, boatmen (船戶) re-established worship in the seventh year of the Dongzhi (同治) emperor. Although the benefits expected from worship of the Great King differed, a common benefit was stability. As the religion of the Great King spread throughout the main transportation route of ​​Anhui Province, his identify as a guardian of water transportation become more prominent than his identity as a river god (河神). Frequent natural disasters also affect the form of civilian religion. There are various types of civilian temples in Anhui province, such as the Yuwang Temple (禹王廟), the Sea King Temple (龍王廟), the Liumengjiangjun Temple (劉猛將軍廟), and the Angong Temple (晏公廟). Most of these temples were established earlier time than the Temple of the Great King. In the case of the Wuhe (五河) District and the Sizhou (泗州) subprefecture, the Huaihe (淮河), Kuai (澮河), Tonghe (潼河), and Chunghe (漴河) rivers converge; thus, the temple in Wuhe District was built at a Fishmonger’s hall (魚商會館), which later functioned as a guild hall and temple. The Great King as a guardian of water transportation and business directly influenced reestablishment of his temple under the leadership of DubanWuheYanli (督辦五河鹽釐) XuLongA (許隆阿) in the fifteenth year of the Guangxu Emperor (光緖), which included the breaking of an embankment (河決) of the Zengzhou (鄭州) in Henan Province (河南省), during the thirteenth year of the Guangxi emperor. After this reestablishment, the function of the guild hall included use as a temple, Fishmonger hall (魚商會館), and salt merchant hall (鹽商會館). Salt merchants participated in the reestablishment process because of concern about reduced salt production due to flooding. Thus, the religion of the Great king was superimposed on prior worship of water protection gods, gods of business, and gods of rivers and water. In the Taihe Districe (太和縣) in the Yingzhou subprefecture (潁州府), Jing District (涇縣) in the Ningguo subprefecture (寧國府), Wuyuan District (婺源縣) in the Huizhou subprefecture (徽州府), Fengtai District (鳳臺縣) in the Fengyang subprefecture(鳳陽府), and the polder (圩田) areas of the Yangtze River, flooding was a common concern that supported worship of the Great King, who was believed to provide protection from flood damage.
  • 17.

    The Roles of the Chinese Cotton Millowner’s Association in Response to the Recession in the Cotton Textile Industry after the First World War

    Kim Ji Hwan | 2017, (46) | pp.589~623 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The Chinese Cotton Millowner’s Association (CCMA) was established in 1918 as an important partnership group for the cotton textile industry, which was China’s greatest industry. The CCMA played a crucial role in protecting the interests of the entire textile industry and leading its development. The background for the establishment of the CCMA was the epoch-making development of the Chinese cotton textile industry during the First World War, which was a golden era of Chinese industrial development. However, against this backdrop, Japan insisted that the Chinese government set lower import tariffs on cotton products to reflect the demand from the Japanese cotton textile industry. To be able to respond to this, the Chinese cotton textile industry needed to strengthen its partnership capabilities beyond associations between individual companies, to promote the interests of the industry in the process of planning and implementing national economic policies. This describes the key factors that led to the establishment of the CCMA. In addition, after the First World War, the CCMA recognized the vulnerability and limitations of the textile industry that had seen such enormous development because of the wartime boom and actively pushed ahead with measures to resolve post-war depression. These measures included improving the internal management of the CCMA and making changes in its production structure. The most important change was that the CCMA led improvements in management by diversifying and gentrifying products, to move away from a concentration on the production of moderate-to-lower-grade goods and from mutual competition. To summarize, the CCMA actively coped with the post-war depression and led the development of the industry by seeking changes in its production structure.
  • 18.

    Cross-border Trade and Marriage: Case Study of a Chinese Yunnan Minority Village

    Ahn Chi-Young | Chang, Jung-a | 2017, (46) | pp.625~655 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The current Chinese border was demarcated in the modern era. Acknowledging the gap between traditional living spaces and modern borders, this study provides an overview of cross-border trade, marriage, and state management in a minority village in Yunnan Province, China. It is based on extensive fieldwork carried out in cooperation with Chinese academy. Situated along the border between China and Laos, the village is populated by approximately 500 Dai people (傣族) in 110 families mainly, with Han Chinese and Hani minorities. As border inhabitants, the Dai people are endowed with special border-crossing cards that allow them to cross the border more freely than inland peoples. The village territory is large, and the inhabitants mainly engage in agriculture and raising livestock, such as cows and pigs. Due to the village’s proximity to Laos, they also participate in various economic exchanges with the Laotians, including cross-border trade and commercial aid. In fact, the current Chinese border bisects the territory that traditionally defines the economic network of the Dai people. While the Dai villagers rarely intermarry with inland ethnicities, marriage with Laotian Dai people is common, and such cross-border marriages differ in several respects from typical international marriages. First, the fluid border means that villagers are able to freely meet and become acquainted with one another. Second, a similar language and culture mitigate friction both before and after marriage. Third, shared customs and holidays facilitate the maintenance of relationships between married couples and extended family. Since cross-border marriages are connected to border management in both countries, they have been periodically influenced by international relations. When a cross-border Dai couple marries, the Laotian wife commonly comes to live in China. The marriage registration procedure in China is relatively simple, but instances in which a bride formally enters a Chinese household (hukuo) or becomes a Chinese nationality are few. According to Chinese policy, however, the children of Laotian mothers enter the household register under their Chinese father to avoid problems when entering school or finding jobs. Despite the fact that Laotian wives are excluded from the household register, they are treated as equals in this village, with respect to land distribution. This paper investigates how the Dai of this village in Yunnan Province use their special designation as border inhabitant to freely move back and forth across the Chinese–Laos border to engage in trade and marriage. Although concessions are made for these people, China’s border management differs from region to region. Future studies should focus on the interaction between border management and the behavior of border peoples.
  • 19.

    Recent Changes to Petitions [Xinfang] and Policy Responses in China: Focusing on the Northeast Region of Sichuan Province

    CHO, Hyungjin | 2017, (46) | pp.657~696 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In China, petitions (Xinfang) are an outlet for conflict and dissatisfaction caused by large-scale socioeconomic changes that are the result of reform and opening. Thus, Xinfang is recognized as an indicator of the instability of China's authoritarian regime. In response to the “high tide” of the early days of the Hu Jintao era, China has implemented various policy responses to Xinfang, which is included in assessments of political achievement and limits localcadres . In addition, China has tried to incorporate Xinfang in its judicial system and has transformed the People's Mediation (Renmin Tiaojie) system, which had previously been the means ofmassmobilization , into an administrative tool to absorb conflict and complaints. This research used interviews with local cadres and statistical data to show that Xinfang are effectively reduced and managed through these policy responses. Evidence was found supporting the resilience and adaptability of China's authoritarian regime.